Coating system for waste landfills
SUBSTANCE: proposed group of inventions relates to the field of waste disposal. The coating system 100 for waste landfills comprises the artificial grass which comprises a composite of one geotextile layer 104 woven or bound to one or more synthetic fibres, and an impermeable geomembrane 102 consisting of a polymeric material. The impermeable geomembrane 102 is used with artificial drainage component 106. The coating system is used in the absence of the upper supporting soil and vegetation cover. According to the second embodiment, the system 100 for waste landfills also comprises a drainage system containing artificial drainage component 106.
EFFECT: group of inventions provides limitation of formation of waste water, increased strength, reduced operating costs for harvesting grass and erosion control.
10 cl, 16 dwg
This invention relates to a coating system for waste disposal sites and other closures ecological character. In a more specific aspect this invention relates to a coating system for waste disposal sites and other closures ecological character, when this coating system provides artificial grass and impenetrable developed. In another more specific aspect this invention relates to a coating system, which includes the drainage system containing artificial drainage component.
In this application, the following terms will become clear on the basis of these definitions:
"landfill waste" refers to an earthen berms and to the places where you store waste, such as polygons, phosphogypsum dumps, from the point of view of environmental overloaded land, leaching, waste, mining and closure environmental character or dumps materials that require closing or covering system;
"artificial grass" refers to the composite of the at least one geotextile (woven or nonwoven), woven or linked to one or more synthetic fibres or strips, which has a kind of grass;
"geomembrane" - refers to the common or textured polymer material, such as polyethylene you the Oka density, polyethylene, very low density, linear low density polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, etc.,
The prior art discloses coating system for closing the various landfills and other places. However, such coatings with an open membrane usually have negative aesthetics. Additionally, the prior art typically requires numerous supports and very closely spaced ditches for resistance to wind uplift open membrane. Thus, the industry continues to seek improved coating system that is efficient, cost-effective and comply with various local, state and Federal laws for the protection of the environment, standards and basic directions of these systems.
Artificial grass is widely used in sports arenas, as well as landing the tracks and in the normal landscape design. The primary importance of playing fields with artificial turf is the ability of the field to the drainage. Examples of prior art artificial grass in the drainage are the U.S. patents No. 5876745, 6858272, 6877932 and 6946181. However, these applications generally only for surfaces playing fields, where the ground surface is essentially flat and attention is paid only opportunities to improve the state's fields.
The use of drainage in the previous the General level of technology deals, mainly with the slow infiltration of flat surfaces to prevent flooding of fields, and the use of such drainage usually cannot regulate a very large and rapid water runoff, which occurs on a very large and steep slopes of the landfill and mining dumps.
Thus, there is a need for more effective coating system for artificial grass turf and membrane Assembly that can be installed on a very steep surfaces in accordance with the requirements of tightness of closures ecological character.
In brief, the present invention provides a new and effective system for coating (i.e., closing) of different types of waste dumps, where is the trash. More specifically, the coating system of the present invention contains (1) a composite of at least one geotextile, which is woven or knitted into one or more synthetic fibres, and (2) an impenetrable developed, which consists of a polymer material. This coating system, if required, includes artificial drainage component.
Coating system of the present invention eliminates or at least reduces the discharge from waste and, in addition, or reduces, or eliminates infiltration of water into the underlying waste.
The invention of what is worn to the unification of the impermeable layer of artificial turf, which provides the appearance of natural grass in the final coating. In the coating system of the present invention is typically used in the drainage layer (which, for example, described in U.S. patent No. 5258217) for drainage systems on very steep slopes. The invention also provides other drainage systems (e.g., drainage grid of high-density polyethylene) for use over rough textured geomembranes.
The invention is illustrated in the drawings, where:
Fig.1 is a cross-section of a typical final coating system described in the current Federal Management regulations for the protection of the environment and used in coatings landfills and mining.
Fig.2 is a section of a coating system according to the present invention with the marked area.
Fig.2.1 depicts the circled area of Fig.2.
Fig.2A is a cross-section of a covering system according to the present invention with a circled area, cover with the use of alternative drainage geonets directly on top of the geomembrane as a drainage system.
Fig.2B depicts the circled area of Fig.2A closeup.
Fig.3 represents a section of a coating system according to the present invention with the marked area from brausen corner plot coating system.
Fig.3.1 depicts the circled area of Fig.3.
Fig.4 is a section of a coating system according to the present invention on a slope with the image of the drainage flow.
Fig.5 is a section of a coating system according to the present invention on a slope with the image of a critical length of drainage.
Fig.6 depicts the results of the test throughput coating system according to the present invention.
Fig.6.1 depicts the results of the test throughput Fig.6 in graphical form.
Fig.7 depicts the results of tests of boundary friction coating system according to the present invention.
Fig.8 is a table depicting the results of a critical length for high-intensity rainfall 4 inches/hour (10.16 cm/h) at different angles of slope.
Fig.9 is a cross-section of an alternative bracing system according to the present invention.
Fig.9.1 depicts a variant of the half-packaging alternative bracing system according to the present invention.
Fig.9.2 depicts a variant of full packaging alternative bracing system of Fig.9.
The present invention provides a covering or closing the system locations in which are stored various types of garbage. As noted above, these landfills can is to include earthen berms, polygons, phosphogypsum dumps, leach, waste, mining, groundwater, landfills, and so on
In the present invention the artificial grass is used in Association with impermeable developed to provide a new and effective coating system. This Association (sometimes referred to as a composite material) can be used on slopes and tops of waste disposal sites.
Coating system of the present invention is innovative and economical approach to health hazardous waste and solid waste burial grounds and other closures ecological character. These objects typically require the closure of the final coating consisting of layers of soil and geosynthetic materials. Goals coating system of this invention is to prevent the impact of waste on the environment, the prevention of increasing concentrations of landfill gas and reduce infiltration of storm water, which leads to the formation of lysimetric water at the garbage dump.
With a covering system of the present invention owners and tenants can get sufficient cost savings by creating a covering system with artificial grass, which does not require plant supports and surface soil typical of the final coating system. Artificial grass/netronic is emy layer of the present invention specifically applies to places, where the estimated longevity of the coating system is short (e.g. less than 10 years) or long (e.g. more than 10 years), when may be required in the future removal of the coating (for example, for recovery of the polygon), when the slopes of the dumps too steep to ensure placement of soil on top of the layer when the soil cover is hardly available when the landfill can be extended vertically or later just to ensure the design of a fast closing to regulate emissions and odors.
Coating system of the present invention is preferably designed with (1) lower impermeable layer, placed above the intermediate soil cover, containing developed in the form of a drainage layer (or textured developed in the form of a layer) and drainage means in the form of a geogrid or, in the alternative, the drainage layer with pins, mounted on a sheet of high density polyethylene, which acts as a drainage; (2) artificial grass, which is created from polyethylene fibers with a length of at least about 1.0 to about 2.5 inches (about to 2.54-6.35 cm), bound in one or more tissues containing or needle-punched non-woven polyethylene or woven polyethylene geotextile; and (3) a sand layer of about 0.5 to about 1.5 inches (about 1.27-3,81 cm), which is placed as backfill for Pridneprovsky material and protect the system against wind uplift. The sand will provide additional protection geotextile (geotextiles) from ultraviolet radiation.
Artificial grass was originally developed primarily for professional sporting events. The wear resistance of polyethylene filaments to UV radiation is well suited for a closing cover in projects for the protection of the environment. Waste dumps and mining dumps the sliding cover on steep slopes is a priority, especially after a significant drop of rain. The present invention is designed to resist damage when sliding through friction and drainage elements are embedded in the coating system. Permeable turf filters with different speeds, for example at approximately 180 gallons/square foot/hour (0.2 cm/sec) or faster. During rain the rain will penetrate quickly through the sand backfill and drainage directly into geocomposite drainage system below to reduce erosion and maintain the stability of the sand backfill. Backfilling also held in place by artificial grass, which delays the sand to strengthen and stabilize the artificial grass derno on the surface that it covers.
If the problems associated with prolonged survival product, prepa the point resolution of the Supervisory authority for final completion of closure (i.e., without further regulatory measures required to achieve the approved final closure), we offer artificial grass can, therefore, simply cover 2 feet (60,96 cm) of soil.
The materials of this invention tested in this scenario (200 lb/sq ft) (976,485527 kg/m2) using test throughput in the American society for testing materials. The system will function as a coating in the conventional American law on waste management Subtitle D Management for the protection of the environment, as geocomposite drain tool used for drainage above the geomembrane to improve stability, already exists, see Fig.1.
With this invention, however, firming system, typically associated with open coverings geomembranes, is not required. The turf is loaded with about 0.5 to about 1.5 inches (about 1.27-3,81 cm) sand backfill, which creates a weight of about 6 to about 12 pounds per square foot (about 29,2945658-58,5891316 kg per square meter). The filling is held in place artificial profiled polyethylene fiber, twisted at the bottom of the geotextile. This geometry delays the sand to strengthen and stabilize derno on the surface, covered with artificial grass.
The choice of the chemical composition of artificial grass/not what they have water resistant membrane is a critical element of the present invention. The polymer will prevent the sunlight, which creates heat and contains ultraviolet radiation. Polymer filament will not become brittle when exposed to low temperatures. The selected color artificial grass and structure should be aesthetically pleasing.
Component similar to real grass, preferably will consist of polyethylene fibers of about 1.0 to about 2.5 inches (about to 2.54-6.35 cm) in length, bound in black woven and/or grey non-woven geotextile. To increase the strength strictly on steep slopes additional mesh substrate may be woven to improve dimensional stability. Polyethylene filament yarn for grass preferably have a longer lifespan, at least about 40 - about 50 years.
The invention combines the use of artificial turf at the final coating of landfills to ensure a pleasant appearance and provides a drainage system which can be adjusted very rapid surface runoff. Thus, the coating system of this invention can be installed on very steep slopes, which typically occur in landfills and dumps. This invention also provides strengthening to resist substantial lifting forces due to strong wind loads.
There is many advantages coating system of the present invention, such as:
- Lack of soil cover, which will reduce construction costs, depending on the availability of soil in place.
- Reduces annual service and maintenance while providing excellent and reliable/dense aesthetics.
- Reduces operating costs after the dissolution of the coating.
- Reduces the need for expensive fortified stone channels and drainage ledges, essentially without erosion or problems of silt deposition, even during severe weather.
- Most suitable for landfills in environmentally fragile areas, where soil erosion and sedimentation are the main tasks because of soil loss is essentially reduced during the execution of the works and for the period after the closing.
- Provides steeper slopes of the dumps, because it will decrease the risk of stability problems of soil, for example, caused by earthquakes or by increasing the gas pressure.
- Reduces infiltration through the floor. Surface water is quickly drained and is not limited to water permeability coating system. As a result, hydraulic pressure on the impermeable layer and subsequent infiltration into the waste decreases. Infiltration samples HELP (Hydrology for life, environment and people) show that this type of coverage will be less infiltration of the Oia, than current coatings are permitted by Federal regulations.
- Enhanced visual inspection. As the synthetic material open covering system of the present invention can easily be covered in case of damage, which, if set, cheap and easy to repair. Most injuries on artificial coatings produced by the equipment for excavation during the disposal process. Removing a layer of soil with this coating system is no longer a problem.
- Provides a more rapid coverage and installation during the operational life of the landfill and during the winter season. Faster coating reduces odors, improves the efficiency of gas collection and favors compliance with Federal regulations air quality.
- Easier access to the landfill materials recovery in the event of a future restoration of landfill sites for future territories under piggyback or future rises debris as a result of settling debris or vertical extension. The composite material of the present invention provides access to the owners to the garbage without having to remove the existing top soil typical and traditional final coating system.
- Reduces damage by wild animals to the floor, so the AK no food or substances of organic origin. This is important in landfills located in coastal areas, or facilities located near airports.
Alternative closure (i.e., the coating system according to the present invention, intended for use for a period of less than about 40-50 years) can be used under the following conditions:
In the areas that will be filled or to be developed in the future.
- To limit the education of sewage dumps before the final closing.
- To ensure the subgrade waste to enhance strength and provide additional waste disposal in the future.
As a means of control of landfill gas or odors empowerment capture.
As a partial final coating and delay future capital associated with the soil surface.
- Reduced operational costs for cleaning grass and erosion control during the operational life of a facility.
- As part of a mutual agreement/orders issued by mutual consent of the parties to control emissions and reduce odors to surrounding communities and to reduce commissions for the delay and notifications of violations in the problems of soil erosion.
- For control of dust emissions in the atmosphere as a result of strong winds in landfills Il the dumps, specifically in areas where vegetation does not grow.
The use of this system for more than 40-50 years may include periodic replacement or UV processing component of artificial grass system.
Referring in this paper to the drawings, in which identical reference position represent the same elements, Fig.1 depicts a coating system according to the prior art with an intermediate soil cover 101.
As shown by a variant of the implementation of Fig.2, the present invention provides a coating system 100 for drainage pre-built artificial turf 103/104 over the geomembrane 102 containing the pins, so that when the coating of the lower geotextile 104 turf creates drainage with high throughput. Artificial turf will be used as the upper component of the closure of the landfill. For example, the turf may be constructed by knitting machines, which can use more than 1000 needles to create a turf width of about 15 feet (about 4,572 m). Geomembrane preferably made of polyethylene, very low density, linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE), high density polyethylene (HDPE) or polyvinyl chloride and contains a number of pins (for example, 50-mil LLDPE sold under the trade m is rcoi Super GripNet from AGRU America, Inc.). Geomembrane 102 is 22.5 feet (6,858 m) in width and is placed on the surface of a landfill for closure. Artificial grass also comes in rolls of a width 15 feet (4,572 m) and is placed directly on top of the geomembrane 102. The system is loaded with about 0.5 to about 1.5 inches (about 1.27-3,81 cm) of clean sand. Geotextile 104 artificial grass prevents the sand from penetrating into the pores/pins geomembranes 102 or drainage grid 106 of the high-density polyethylene (as shown in Fig.2A).
The final composite coating has a high throughput capacity in excess of 3.5×10-3 square meters/sec. Cm. Fig.6 the actual results of the study. (Alternatively, in other applications the throughput capacity may not be as high.) Drainage is very important, as the rain on the closing surface penetrates quickly through the sand and geotextile on the bottom impenetrable developed and sent to a number of drainage ditches or surface ledges in the ditches around the perimeter of the site and reservoirs (not shown).
This invention can be used as a coating on very steep slopes (i.e., the ratio of the horizontal-vertical 3:1) landfills and other applications ecological character with large dumps created by man. To prevent the movement of the peso is Noah backfill 105 it is necessary to ensure penetration of surface waters through the sand and layers of artificial grass in the space between the pins of the drainage layer. Geomembrane 102 in this invention can take the water for some distance (i.e., the critical length) before the drainage system is flooded and sewage will begin to demolish or to wash the sand down the slope. Fig.5 depicts the critical length of the stream in relation to the slope.
For a finishing system of the present invention, the critical length for other indicators of the intensity of rainfall can be calculated by the following equation:
q is the flow rate of the drainage layer at I=sinα;
t - duration;
α is the angle of repose of the sites with the floor, as defined in Fig.4 and 5;
R - intensity rainfall (ft/HR); and
L is an arbitrary length, measured from the top of the slope (Fig.5).
Critical drainage length of the slope is defined as:
Based on the results of research capacity (see Fig.6) LCR is calculated using the rainfall intensity R=4 inches/hour (10.16 cm/HR) (of 0.333 ft/hour) (10,14984 cm/hour) and is shown in Fig.8. With the above equation the drainage system length can be calculated depending on the calculation of the recurrence period of rain. The system then needs to be draining on a typical surface water ledges or ditches to areas of surface water basins. If the critical drainage DL is on a slope is not a sufficient distance then the sand can be placed strips in predetermined positions only requirements to ensure the strengthening and prevent the movement of sand caused by saturation of the drainage system and water penetration into the sand. Strengthening can also be used through the use of packaging 107 of artificial grass is created by packing loose sand or sand bags 108 in a shell made of artificial grass and placement parallel to the slope or slope. Based on the requirements of the complete closure of the drainage system may or may not be required, except for the bottom part, the strengthening of artificial grass to pass through the water and scattering power of the water. Cm. Fig.9.
Seepage parallel to the slope within the sand layer is calculated as follows: as shown in Fig.5, seepage parallel to the slope within the sand layer may occur when the actual length of the slope is greater LCR. In this case the parameters of the flow is greater than the length LS2 of the slope) of the line of flow parallel to the surface of the slope, and the power of J seepage acting on the volume of soil LCR×h×l, is equal to:
Provided that the boundary surface of artificial grass has an effective angle = δ' friction and without adhesion, then the following equation of equilibrium of forces:
It cheers the Addendum can be converted as:
α is the angle of repose;
γb - weight unit of soil in suspension;
γw - weight unit of water and
δ' is the effective friction angle of the boundary surface between the layer of sand is artificial grass.
Indicates that γb is approximately equal to γw and the maximum possible stable angle of repose is equal to approximately half of the δ'. In other words, the leakage reduces the maximum stable angle of repose for about half, if water does not flow parallel to the surface of the slope. From the above equation it is possible to evaluate the stability of the system. Fig.7 shows the test for measurement of friction of the present invention. The test shows the amount of internal friction of 43 degrees, so if the value is reduced by half, then the maximum slope at which the material can be accommodated in terms of precipitation, will have a slope with an angle of 21.5 degrees, which is steeper slope with respect to the horizontal-vertical 3:1.
DESCRIPTION of MATERIALS
Linear low-density polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene of high density polyethylene and very low density are the preferred materials for impermeable geomembranes and artificial drainage component of the present invention.
The drainage grid of high density polyethylene is over textured sheets of HDPE (see Fig.2A) or drainage layers, such as Super GripNet (see Fig.2). The purpose of this component is to increase the coefficient of friction of the layered system. Thus, when two feet (60,96 cm) of soil cover, in excess of environmental standards desired for the final completion of the closing, the frictional characteristics of the system are able to maintain the soil cover on steep slopes.
Weatherproof and waterproof color (such as green) thread (polyethylene with a 100% resistance to UV radiation) is used as a component of artificial grass.
Geotextile/polyethylene and polypropylene fabric.
The turf is loaded with about 0.5 to about 1.5 inches (about 1.27-3,81 cm) sand backfill. Placement of sand will be produced with the use of air pumps, traverse, etc. for submission of material for the slopes.
Through General overview, but not limitation, the present invention provides:
1. Artificial grass turf, which is combined with impermeable developed on the basis supported by the soil, to form a final or temporary cover for landfills and other human-induced dumps.
2. Impermeable geomembrane with structurally self-sustaining three-dimensional separating device (pins), which involved finally the ilem artificial grass provides drainage system without blocking the space between the pins geomembranes.
3. Drainage system, which will not allow water to penetrate through the sand and layers of artificial grass in noise zone created by the pins, thus preventing the absorption and infiltration into the sand and flushing from the surface of the coating system.
4. The drainage system in which surface water drainage will be directed down the slope to drainage ledges and down the drain troughs at a certain lateral distance, as determined by the calculation of the critical length, as described above. Surface water then flows to ditches around the perimeter of the site and surface water basins.
5. The drainage system in which an intermediate drainage may contain instead of pins, built in the space of the drainage grid of high density polyethylene, which is applied directly on top of the bottom layer in the form of rough textured geomembranes for the formation of the drainage layer.
6. Drainage system, which provides for the installation of artificial grass not only on relatively flat surfaces, but also on very steep slopes, like generated in landfills and mining dumps, without washing off sand coating system.
7. The way to ensure the drainage system for the artificial grass turf on the smothering developed for closure of the landfill used for the cation of the layered system, which does not require the use of heavy equipment for excavation. The method comprises the steps:
a. preparation of intermediate ground-supported floor on flat areas and areas of slope;
b. placing an impermeable membrane over the intermediate soil cover used in landfills and dumps;
c. the placement of the drainage system on top of the geomembrane; this step can be avoided if you use a layer with pins for the drainage layer;
d. nastilanie turf Assembly on top of a separating device for drainage without performing any additional training placement drainage; and
e. placing about 0.5 to about 1.5 inches (about 1.27-3,81 cm) sand layer to inflate and distribution of sand within the grass.
8. The layer of concrete backfill material such as sand, located between the protruding up threads of plastic grass, the depth, the smaller the length of the tape, and directly on top of the geotextile in which the tape is twisted.
9. The method that provides the ballast coating system against lifting by the wind created by the strong winds blowing in landfills in the form of mounds and piles. This eliminates the need for extensive fortifications open geosynthetic materials.
10. The method, which will provide additional resistance to ultraviolet the radiation of one or more geotextiles, in which polyethylene filaments twisted or bound.
11. Coating system for landfills and man-made dumps, which can be converted to cover Subtitle D and coatings, regulated by the Agency of environmental protection,the addition of two feet (60,96 cm) of soil and vegetation on top. Drainage sand layer will provide sufficient throughput for compliance with regulations for the upper drainage infiltration into the plant soil closures ecological character.
12. Coating system which provides high performance internal friction between layers, which will ensure the placement of two feet (60,96 cm) soil embankment slopes greater than the ratio of the horizontal-vertical 3:1, subsequently without slipping coating system.
13. Coating system for landfills in arid areas where grass or other vegetation is not growing and get "credit quality of the air to control fugitive dust emissions due to wind erosion.
14. Because applications do not require transmissive layer, the present invention can be used without drainage component and backfill and artificial grass is applied directly on top of the geomembrane.
The invention is described specifically with reference to some of the options proposed is tvline, but changes and modifications can be made without deviation from the idea and scope of the invention.
1. Coating system for landfills containing:
A. artificial grass, which contains a composite of one geotextile layer, woven or linked to one or more of synthetic filaments,
Century impenetrable developed, which consists of a polymer material,
when this coating system is used in the absence of the upper bearing soil and vegetation, and impervious geomembrane is used with artificial drainage component.
2. Coating system under item 1, in which the impermeable geomembrane is selected from the group consisting of polyethylene, high density polyethylene, very low density, linear low density polyethylene or polyvinyl chloride.
3. Coating system on p. 2, in which the impermeable geomembrane is composed of linear low density polyethylene.
4. Coating system on p. 2, in which the impermeable geomembrane consists of high density polyethylene.
5. Coating system under item 1, in which the impermeable geomembrane is textured.
6. Coating system for landfills containing:
A. artificial grass, which contains a composite of one geotextile layer, woven or bound in one sinteticheskoy thread;
Century impenetrable developed, which consists of a polymer material; and
C. drainage system containing artificial drainage component, when this coating system is used in the absence of the upper bearing soil and vegetation.
7. Coating system on p. 6, in which the impermeable geomembrane is selected from the group consisting of polyethylene, high density polyethylene, very low density, linear low density polyethylene or polyvinyl chloride.
8. Coating system on p. 6, in which the impermeable geomembrane is composed of linear low density polyethylene.
9. Coating system on p. 6, in which the impermeable geomembrane consists of high density polyethylene.
10. Coating system on p. 6, in which the impermeable geomembrane is textured.
SUBSTANCE: material for reclamation of solid domestic waste landfills and quarries comprises the natural soil and industrial wastes. As the industrial wastes it comprises final slag formed during the production of ferrovanadium using aluminium-silicothermal manner with the mass ratio of natural soil to the industrial wastes equal to 1:1.
EFFECT: expansion of range of technical means.
2 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: for isolation of map of actual industrial waste dump the layered storage of landfill masses 1 is carried out, with an intermediate layer 2, and create a watertight barrier is made at the location of the base 11. At that the intermediate layer 2 is made in the form of multi-piece stabilising construction, for which on the landfill mass 10 the geogrid 3 is placed, a layer of broken bricks 4 of fraction of 20-40 mm with the capacity of 15 cm, a layer of contaminated sand 5 with a capacity of 20 cm, a geomembrane 6, a layer of contaminated sand 7 with the capacity of 70 cm with compaction, a geogrid 8, a layer of broken bricks 9 of fraction of 20-40 mm with a capacity of 50 cm. Storage of the subsequent landfill masses 1 is carried on the intermediate layer 2. The watertight barrier is created under the base 11 of the map along its perimeter by injecting a viscoelastic mixture 14 in the form of the polymer-loamy mixture through the perforation openings of the filter 13 of the horizontal wells 12 formed by drilling, in any of the angles of the base on two rays of this angle. At that the following angle for drilling the horizontal wells 12 is selected taking into account the possibility of injecting the polymer-loamy mixture on two or one ray to create a watertight barrier along the entire perimeter.
EFFECT: invention provides stabilisation of storage of landfill mass dumps, improving the insulating properties of the map base, simplifying the map isolation.
SUBSTANCE: this mix comprises oil slime, boring mud, peat, sand, water, sorbents, hydrocarbon biodestructors at the following ratio of components, in wt. %: oil slime and boring mud - 20-25, sand - 20-30, peat - 30-35, sorbents - 2-5, hydrocarbon biodestructors - 2-5, water - 10.
EFFECT: better environmental conditions, reclamation of oil contaminated soils.
3 cl, 2 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: material for intermediate isolation of compacted layers of solid municipal wastes in landfill is proposed. The material is used is the final slag formed during the manufacture of ferro-vanadium with aluminium-silicothermal method.
EFFECT: obtaining material which enables to insulate year round the compacted layers of solid municipal wastes in landfills without the use of natural materials, and expansion of raw material resources.
SUBSTANCE: for environmentally safe thermal deactivation of biogas of solid domestic waste landfills the biogas is removed by drainage and creation of forced vacuum gauge pressure. Then the moisture content in the removed biogas is reduced due to the sharp decrease in temperature, the biogas is compressed and the preliminary purification of biogas from moisture and hydrogen sulphide is carried out, it is filtered from dust, and the biogas is burnt. The exhaust flue gases are cooled and purified from acidic components and halogenated hydrocarbons. At that in the flow of flue gases and the concentration of hydrogen sulphide and acidic gaseous compounds of sulphur and carbon are measured continuously, taking into account which the dynamic consumption adjustment of sorbents and the reagent is carried out based on the previously obtained experimental data of approximating regression relationships.
EFFECT: increase in environmental safety, it stabilises the operation of the gas purification system and reduces the consumption of reagents.
3 cl, 5 tbl
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to oil and gas industry and namely to treatment methods of an acid gas containing hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide for injection into a formation through an injector. The concept of the invention is as follows: according to the method treatment of the acid gas for injection into the formation through the injector is made by the acid gas delivery to several compression and cooling stages at a temperature of 40÷60°C, drying of the compressed acid gas by glycol at a compressive pressure and temperature of 45÷65°C, transition of the dried gas into liquid state by further compression and cooling up to a temperature of 40÷65°C. At that before delivery to the compression stage acid gases are mixed with a liquefied gas C3-C5 or natural gasoline in quantity of 10÷40% by weight. Compression-cooling and drying of the acid gas is made at a pressure up to 0.4÷0.6MPa and its transition to liquid state is made at a pressure up to 0.8÷4.0MPa.
EFFECT: reduction of power consumption, reduction of gas hydrate formation risk, decrease in the number of compression and cooling stages for acid gases and utilisation of associated liquefied gases and natural gasoline containing hydrogen sulphide.
2 ex, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed radioactive waste storage (RWS) comprises a foreshaft 1, fixed with the steel shell 2, the well 4 drilled through this foreshaft 1 in rock mass 3, cased with the metal casing 6 with the bottom 7, the thermoinsulator 11 of inert waterproof and heat-resistant material, located on the inner generant of the metal casing 6, the external engineering protective barrier 9 with the lower protective screen 10 of bentonite-cement monolith, the internal engineering protective barrier 12 with upper protective screen 13, the aggregate state control system 14 of the material of the internal engineering protective barrier 12, made of pipes 15, tripping column 16 with containers 17, 18 placed on it with RWS, the radioecological monitoring system 20 and the lid 21 of the casing 6. The bottom 7 is provided with alighting bearing-centring hubs 8. The external engineering protective barrier 9 is created by grouting the annulus. The internal engineering protective barrier 12 with the upper protective screen 13 is formed inside the metal casing 6 with inert material which is solid in natural conditions, but able to change its aggregate state (solid-liquid) under the thermal effect.
EFFECT: invention improves environmental safety, area usage factor of land allocation intended for RW storage, increases the amount of waste of increased activity in the storage, reduces the labour intensity of RW storage decommissioning at the end of its period of use.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. The soil slurry-ground mixture for remediation of borrow pits and disturbed lands is proposed, which consists of two mixtures. At that the mixture used as a lower remediation layer comprises, volume percent: drill cuttings - 50-65, sand or sandy-loam soil - 16-25, peat - 15-23, the rest - active neutralising and ameliorating supplements, including gypsum or phosphogypsum in an amount of 2-3% of its volume. The mixture used as the upper remediation layer comprises, volume percent: drill cuttings - 35-50%, sand or sandy-loam soil - 20-30%, peat - 27-32.5%, the rest - active neutralising and ameliorating supplements, including gypsum or phosphogypsum in an amount of 1.5-2% of its volume. Also a method of remediation of borrow pits and disturbed lands is proposed.
EFFECT: group of inventions enables to improve fertility of disturbed lands and use more effectively the natural resources in Western Siberia.
10 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to reclamation of soils. Method comprises placing solid household wastes in landfill bowl, disposal of drainage waters to evaporation pool, forcing wastes and air into injection wells arranged in refuse tip, and forming aerobic, transitional and anaerobic zones. Oil-bearing wastes with moisture content of 80-95% are injected into wells in frost-free season at air temperature above 5°C in amount required to allow optimum concentration of oil products in the mix with solid household wastes of 1-2 wt %. Then, air injected. Note here that aeration of refuse tip saturated with oil-bearing wastes is carried out via aforesaid oil-bearing wastes injection wells. Set of placed wastes is defined by the following formula:
EFFECT: faster setting and increased set.
2 cl, 4 dwg, 6 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: insulating material contains clay and additionally a powdered composition of waste "non-contaminated dust of ferrous metals" from metallurgical production and dolomite flour, mixed in ratio of 1:3. To enhance biocidal action of the waste "non-contaminated dust of ferrous metals" from metallurgical production, a highly efficient preparation Bio Z is added.
EFFECT: material enables to reduce flammability of components of solid household wastes.
FIELD: treatment and stacking of domestic solid wastes.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertinent to the field of treatment and stacking of domestic solid wastes, in particular, to joint stacking of domestic solid waste products and the bioadditives produced on the basis of the settling sewage, the surplus active sludge of sewage treatment plants and the filling agents - composts from the factories for the domestic solid wastes processing. The technical result is an increased sedimentation of the placed domestic solid wastes at the optimal values of concentration of introduced bioadditives, decreased required useful area to process the domestic solid wastes and increased accuracy of determination of a time of the sedimentation process termination. The method includes introduction of the bioadditives produced on the base of a mix of sludge of waste waters of the sewage treatment plants and composts from a factory on processing of the domestic solid wastes. At introduction of bioadditives in amount of 5-7 % of the total mass of the placed waste products, the contamination of which by microflora - decomposer makes 108 - 1010 cells/g. Intensification of the process of decomposition of organic components of placed waste products takes place and due to that increased their sedimentation. At that the value of sedimentation of the layers of the placed waste products is determined by formula: , where Hsed - a value of sedimentation of layers of the placed domestic solid wastes, in meters; h - initial value of height of the placed domestic solid wastes, in meters; τ - time of sedimentation of layers of the placed domestic solid wastes, in day; Т - time constant of the process of sedimentation of the layers of the placed solid domestic solid wastes, in days. The time of a maximum sedimentation is determined by the formula: t = 3 ·T, where t - time during which the sedimentation process falls into a zone of 5 % from the value of maximum sedimentation of the layers of the placed domestic solid wastes, that is the time of termination of the process.
EFFECT: the invention ensures increased sedimentation of the placed domestic solid wastes at the optimal values of concentration of the introduced bioadditives, decreased required useful area to process the domestic solid wastes, increased accuracy of determination of a time of the sedimentation process termination.
FIELD: equipment for neutralizing range proving grounds for storage of solid domestic wastes by extracting of biogas for further utilization thereof.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has collector, perforated gas collecting pipes, condensate collector, flow rate meter, sampler, switching-off device, conveyance pipeline, and compressor station. Branches of perforated gas collecting pipes are connected to collector through flexible inserts. Stoppers are located at free ends of gas collecting pipes and collector. Condensate collector, flow rate meter, sampler and switching-off device are mounted on collector which is connected by conveyance pipeline through compressor station to cogenerator. Conveyance pipeline is equipped with compressed gas outlet.
EFFECT: simplified construction, enhanced reliability in operation and increased efficiency of biogas collecting apparatus.
2 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: dumping solid waste.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises trenching during the period of the beginning of soil freezing and laying heat and hydraulic insulation on the trench bottom and over the trenches during the period of the beginning of defrosting soils. The trenches are then filled with solid waste, and during the next period of freezing, the trenches filled with solid waste are trenched from both sides.
EFFECT: improved environmental protection.
FIELD: protection of environment, in particular, disinfection of industrial and domestic dumps, including shaft rock dumps and piles of other kinds.
SUBSTANCE: method involves leveling dump surface; placing onto leveled dump surface the following materials: clay in volume sufficient for constructing of low-permeable 0.5 m thick shield; sand in volume sufficient for constructing of drainage and leveling layers of 0.5-0.6 thickness; clay layer having thickness of at least 0.1 m; bird dung layer kept for at least one year and meeting sanitary and microbiological norms, said bird dung layer having thickness of at least 0.1 m; providing biological recultivation process, with top layer being preliminarily mixed through depth of 0.3 m.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in disinfecting of various kinds of dumps.
FIELD: methods of the radioactive waste disposal.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the radioactive waste disposal. Substance of the invention: the method of the radioactive waste disposal includes boring of a borehole, placement of containers with the A-waste and leaving of a barrier pillar in the zone of the plastic deformations of the surrounding rocks, filling of the free volume of the borehole with an expanding plugging material and sealing of a the borehole head. At that the A-waste disposal is conducted in a clay bed, which is in a plastic state. The containers with the A-waste are placed in the middle part of the clay bed in its section with a length of l = m -2hδ, where "m" is the clay bed thickness, hδ is the thickness of argillaceous rocks. The plugging of the free volume of the borehole is conducted using the extracted from the borehole dried and crushed rock. At that on the section of placement of the containers the plugging is performed by substitution of the drilling mud, and on the section of the barrier pillar after an evacuation of the drilling mud - by portioned feed with water addition in the volume corresponding to the natural humidity. Advantages of the invention consist in an increased degree of reliability at the radioactive waste land disposal.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased degree of reliability at the radioactive waste land disposal.
5 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: methods for temporary or constant disposal of sewage water sediment, in particular, for preservation of toxic bottom oil sludge and other kinds of sludge from storage pools in oil refining and chemical industry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves sequentially laying and compacting water-and-oil impermeable screen formed from drilling sludge and wastes which had been preliminarily dehydrated to residual moisture content of 5-30%; covering said sludge and wastes with water-and-oil impermeable screen, compacting, spilling layer of soil-plant ground thereon and planting. Dehydration of said sludge and wastes to residual moisture content is provided by evaporation in open air.
EFFECT: simplified disposal of toxic industrial wastes.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 3 tbl
FIELD: the invention refers to insulating materials.
SUBSTANCE: it may be used at burial places of toxic industry wastes of the third and the fourth degree of danger including solid domestic wastes. The material contains clay, sediment of staked lime or sludge of chemical water purification in quality of used lime waste material, bottom, floating oil-slime or soil polluted with mineral oils in quality of oil-slime at the following content of components, mass%: clay- 1-60, used lime waste- 15-40, oil-slime- 25-50.
EFFECT: allows to improve quality of insulating material and expand resources of raw materials.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: the method consists in mixing of the "tuilings" of the concentrating mill with carbonates with a subsequent storage of them without construction of a dam. Crumbs of brucite, as well as products of wood chemical processing of wood - lining are additionally introduced in the mixing, the place of storage is coated with a layer of an isolating water-proof film, 2 mm thick, withstanding without any rupture the action of the wheeled and caterpillar machinery. Shower and snowmelt waters are discharged by a water - way trench to the underlying area of the valley with a subsequent cleaning of them.
EFFECT: reduced danger of contamination of the ecosystems in the process of assimilation of mineral resources.
FIELD: environmental protection; methods of the environmental protection.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the environmental protection, in particular, to the methods of decrease of the soil, ground and atmosphere pollution in the places of formation of the uncivilized dumps of the domestic and the industrial wastes and the adjoined territories and may be used at realization of the nature- protective and nature conservation measures. The technical result of the invention is the increased efficiency and quality of the environmental protection: the soils, the ground and the aerosphere from pollution caused by the domestic and industrial wastes at liquidation of the uncivilized dumps due to prevention of propagation of contaminants on the territory adjacent to the dumps, permeation into the ground and the underground water-carrying layers and propagation in the air. The substance of the invention consists that prior to the beginning of the process of the dumps liquidation conduct the pilot survey of the territory abutting to the uncivilized dump and determine the character and the degree of pollution of the soils and the deep ground layers, as well as the availability and the parameters of the water-carrying layer; then they form the protective barrier around the dump in the soil and on the surface; at that in the soil the protective barrier is made to the depth of the of the penetrated pollution, and at availability of the water-carrying layer - up to the water confining layer, and on the surface - up to the height equal to the height of the dump. Then conduct removal of the wastes by their loading with the help of the loading mechanisms into the garbage trucks with the subsequent transportation to the garbage-processing works or to the civilized polygon of the solid wastes. Then the polluted soils and the ground of the dump territory is cut and removed into the depth of the pollution and their transportation to the special polygon remote from the habitation settlements, the rivers and basins for stacking, or to the operational civilized polygon of the solid waste for utilization as the intermediate insulating layer. Then the upper part of the indicated barrier is removed.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and quality of environmental protection.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: environmental protection; decontamination of the solid domestic and industrial wastes.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the environmental protection, in particular, to the decontamination of the solid domestic and industrial wastes and may be used for collecting and withdrawing of the biogas formed in the depth of the domestic and industrial wastes (DIW) polygon. The technical result of the invention is expansion of the technological capabilities at degassing of the DIW and decreasing of the harmful effect on the environment due to reduction of the harmful biogas outbursts in the air and withdrawal of the biogas for utilization at the DIW polygon operation simultaneously with allocation of the scrap. For this purpose on the polygon of the solid domestic and industrial wastes perform the preparation of the foundation, mounting of the system of the vertical gaseous drain from the net of the located on the polygon area wells with the perforated walls and the external filtrating earth-bank formed with the help of the sliding sheathing, the layer-by-layer placing of the wastes with the intermediate insulating layers, raising the wells in height of each layer of scrap; withdrawal of the biogas from the wells of the vertical gaseous drain is realized using the tubular drains of the horizontal drainage in the foundation of the DIW polygon. At that the lower links of the tubes of the wells of the of the vertical gaseous drain connect with the drainage wells of the horizontal tubular drains, and the upper ends of the wells of the vertical gaseous drainage shut by the plugs, which are installed after each cycle of the raise on the upper end of the sliding sheathing.
EFFECT: the invention ensures expansion of the technological capabilities at degassing of the domestic and industrial wastes (DIW), decreasing of the harmful effect on the environment, reduction of the harmful biogas outbursts into the air and withdrawal of the biogas for utilization at the DIW polygon operation simultaneously with allocation of the scrap.
3 cl, 1 dwg