Temperature effects test bench
FIELD: test equipment.
SUBSTANCE: test bench comprises the appliances to place the unit under test thereat, source of temperature effects with water feed and drain systems arranged under said unit and vertical screen. The latter is arranged along the edges of said source and secured at the columns and elevated above soil to vary the spacing between soil level and source lower edge. Besides it incorporates the system of protection against satellite observation of tests and unit under test. Said system comprises horizontal screen secured from above at vertical screen columns. Said vertical screen consists of metal frame and refractory metal cables spaced in parallel along the frame lengthwise axis and over width exceeding the object overall dimensions. Said cables are braided in crosswise direction at the screen centre part by nichrome bands completely covering the object outlines.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of tests, protection against observation from space.
Known for setting Fire to simulate fire effects on the test object (C. A. Viktorov, M. R. Mole, A. A. Pekhterev, P. M. Tagirov / proceedings of the scientific conference of the Volga regional center raras "Modern methods of designing and testing of missile and artillery armament, Sarov, pages 261-266, ISBN 5-85165-389-2, 2000). The apparatus comprises a housing, providing a homogeneous temperature field around the test object, the stand, which is a test object, the main source of temperature effects, made in the form of a pallet of fuel and sources of temperature effects in the form of a fuel reservoir located at the base of the stand. The unit is designed to simulate fire conditions in accordance with the requirements of the IAEA with the volumetric average temperature of 800°C and measuring the realized temperatures in the inner layers of the test object.
The famous "Setting for the study of the object on temperature effects (see patent RU No. 2193187, IPC 7 G01N 25/24, published 20.11.2002), comprising a housing in which is installed the test object placed on the bed with a support, the main source of temperature effects placed under the test object, and an additional source placed near the test object in the environment of the products of combustion of the foundations of the th source temperature effects. The body is made in the form of a vertical screen located on the perimeter of the main source temperature effects, and elevated above the ground level. This unit is selected as a prototype.
The disadvantages of these plants are: vertical screen, with no possibility of changing the distance above ground level, i.e. the ability to influence the fire; the availability of additional sources of heat treatment, placed near the test object, which leads to uneven heating of the test object, the inability to ensure a uniform distribution of the fuel under test.
The technical problem solved by the claimed invention, is to provide protection from observation from space for the process of testing large objects at high temperature effects and possible changes in the geometry of the test object.
The technical result consists in providing protection when testing against observations from space, ensuring that it is impossible to determine the material and geometric parameters of the test object (s) by changing the geometry OI, its glow in the combustion process.
The technical result is achieved due to the fact that declare a test object for temperature effects, containing prisposoblenie to install the test object, the source temperature effects, established under the test object, the vertical screen located on the perimeter of the source temperature effects, fixed to the columns and raised above ground level, unlike the prototype is equipped with a protection system from the satellite monitoring of the testing process and the test object, including horizontal screen mounted on the top of the columns of the vertical screen consisting of a metal frame frame, discretely mounted thereon parallel to the longitudinal axis of the frame width greater than the dimensions of the object, ropes made of heat-resistant material, bound in the transverse direction in the Central part of the screen nichrome ribbons, closing the contour of the investigated object, the vertical screen is made with the possibility of changing the distance from ground level to its lower edge, and the source temperature effects is further provided with systems of water supply and drainage.
Supply stand protection system from the satellite monitoring of the testing process and the test object, including horizontal screen mounted on the top of the columns of the vertical screen consisting of a metal frame frame, discretely mounted thereon parallel to the longitudinal axis of the frame width in excess of GABA is etnie the size of the object, ropes made of heat-resistant material, bound in the transverse direction in the Central part of the screen nichrome ribbons, completely closing the contour of the investigated object, provides the change in the geometry of the test object, its glow in the combustion process and therefore provides the impossibility of identifying material and geometric parameters of the AOI.
Implementation of vertical screen with the possibility of changing the distance from ground level to its lower edge provides the ability to control blowing at a given mode tests taking into account climatic factors (temperature, wind, rainfall).
Supply stand systems cooling water source temperature effects helps provide uniform combustion temperature along the perimeter of the booth by providing horizontal level and the same height flammable liquid, using a layer of water, which eliminates existing and emerging in the process of testing irregularities of the bottom of the source temperature effects.
The invention is illustrated by figures. In Fig.1 shows a General view of the stand from the side, Fig.2 shows a General view of the stand from the top of Fig.3 shows a protection system from satellite observations.
A test object for temperature effects contains the mounting of the volume of the TA test, made in this example of execution in the form of two supports 1 bed 2, the source temperature effects 3 installed under the test object 4, the vertical screen 5 located on the perimeter of the source temperature effects 3 fixed to the columns 6 and raised above ground level 7.
System protection from the satellite monitoring of the testing process and the test object includes a horizontal screen 8, is fixed on the top of the columns 6 vertical screen 5 consisting of a metal frame frame 9, discretely mounted thereon parallel to the longitudinal axis of the frame 9 width greater than the dimensions of the object 4, the rope 10 of heat-resistant material, bound in the transverse direction in the Central part of the screen 8 nichrome ribbons 11, completely closing the contour of the investigated test object 4.
Vertical screen 5 is arranged to change a distance from ground level 7 to its lower edge, in this example, run through a removable, height-adjustable panels 12 around its perimeter.
The source temperature effects 3 provided with a supply system 13 and the drain 14 of the water.
Declare a test object for temperature effects is as follows.
Support 1 and the cradle 2 are installed and fixed inside the source of temperature effects 3 (in this case - pallet).
On the cradle 2 in the masking cover (Fig. not shown) placed the test object 4.
At a given height from the ground on a vertical screen 5 set the panels 12. Top mounted horizontal screen 8, fastened to the columns 6 vertical screen 5. Remove from the test object 4 masking case.
First, water is supplied, then the combustible fluid in the source temperature effects 3 carried out the ignition.
In the process of testing the horizontal screen 8 fully closes and changes the contours of the test object 4. Different materials horizontal screen 8 and OIS 4 have different luminescence spectra at different temperatures, resulting in discrete fixed ropes 10 of heat-resistant material, bound in the transverse direction in the Central part of the screen nichrome ribbons 11, distort both the geometry and the spectrum of the glow OI 4 when burning, which ensures the impossibility of identifying material and geometric parameters of the AOI.
A test object for temperature effects, contains a device for installation of the test object, the source temperature effects, established under the test object, the vertical screen located on the perimeter of the source temperature effects, fixed to the columns and raised above ground level, from which causesa fact, that is equipped with a protection system from the satellite monitoring of the testing process and the test object, including horizontal screen mounted on the top of the columns of the vertical screen consisting of a metal frame frame, discretely mounted thereon parallel to the longitudinal axis of the frame width greater than the dimensions of the object, ropes made of heat-resistant material, bound in the transverse direction in the Central part of the screen nichrome ribbons, completely closing the contour of the investigated object, in this case the vertical screen is made with the possibility of changing the distance from ground level to its lower edge, and the source temperature effects is further provided with systems of water supply and drainage.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to measurement equipment and can be used for heating and temperature measurement of specimens, which are transparent in an infrared (IR) radiation region. The invention proposes a method for determination of temperature of specimens, which are transparent in an IR region, subject to action with flows of charged particles or electromagnetic radiation, which involves heating or cooling of specimens, measurement of temperature of specimens by means of thermocouples. Specimens are placed in a closed housing made from material with high thermal conductivity and located in a vacuum chamber; air is pumped out till the pressure is 10-3-10-5 Pa; the housing is heated or cooled at the specified temperature interval. Continuous preliminary temperature measurements are performed with thermocouples located outside and inside the housing together with the test specimens till temperature stabilisation moment. Then, final temperature measurements are performed with these thermocouples at a stabilisation moment of the temperature that coincides with the temperature of the test specimen till external action with flows of charged particles or electromagnetic radiation. External action is performed; after external action is completed, a specimen temperature measurement procedure is repeated.
EFFECT: improving accuracy of determination of temperature of specimens transparent in an IR region.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to measurement equipment and can be used for testing of fire-resistant efficiency of protective compounds and coatings for timber. The proposed method involves preparation of a specimen, flame action on the specimen, temperature measurement of exhaust gaseous combustion products, measurement of weight of the specimen and determination of weight loss, as per which fire-resistant efficiency is determined. Specimen weight measurement is performed continuously during flame action on the specimen and after the action is completed, and a moment exceeding the limit weight loss established by classification or moment of stabilisation of specimen weight after completion of its burning is taken as a test completion moment. This method is implemented by a device containing a chamber for arrangement of a specimen, a gas burner, an exhaust system with a thermoelectric converter, an instrument for measurement and recording of temperature of exhaust gaseous combustion products. The device is also equipped with a unit for automatic measurement and recording in time of specimen weight during fire tests, which includes a lever mechanism made so that a specimen holder can be installed and connected to a weight measurement instrument connected to the processing and recording unit.
EFFECT: obtaining more accurate data for investigation of a fire protection mechanism.
5 cl, 1 tbl, 4 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: reactor vessel steel samples are heated to temperature from 300°C, their further ageing is carried out at this temperature within certain time, subsequent tests of samples are carried out for impact bending, and test results are analysed to determine the value of the shift of critical brittleness temperature, at the same time samples of reactor vessel steel in process of ageing at the temperature of reactor vessel operation of 300-320°C are additionally exposed to neutron radiation with flux of 1011-1013 n/cm2·sec for 103 hours, after that they perform baking at the temperature of 400-450°C with duration of at least 30 hours, and assessment of extent of steel embrittlement is determined using the value of shift of critical brittleness temperature ΔTk(t) as a result of thermal ageing for the time making more than 5·105 hours, in accordance with a certain mathematical expression.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of assessment of extent of embrittlement of VVER-1000 reactor vessel embrittlement as a result of thermal ageing.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to monitoring the flue gas composition. This method is suitable for monitoring of steam boiler operation at burning the chlorine-containing fuel. It can also be used at pyrolysis, gasification and the like processes. Composition of flue gases resulted from thermal processes, particularly, at combustion of biological fuel or fuel produced from wastes is monitored by measurement of quantity of particles of definite sizes at, at least, one point in flue gas path. Measured are particles of sizes that are known to be composed of alkaline metal chlorides.
EFFECT: monitoring of alkaline metal chloride compositions in flue gases.
9 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: physics; control.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to space, aviation, radio engineering, instrument-making and mechanical engineering and can be used in all industries for automatic control of the thermal state and functional parameters of technical devices. The method for automatic control of the thermal state and functional parameters of technical devices involves setting and determining the type and parameters of thermal functions of technical devices, from which values of thermal functions during operation of the devices and downtime thereof are calculated, and making adjustments in actuating devices through a numerical control computer system upon reaching the calculated values of set acceptable values. The method involves determining the type, the time variation characteristics of standard laws of thermal functions of the position, movement and state of technical devices, heat-loaded parts thereof, assemblies and components during heating and cooling thereof for each controlled functional parameter during operation of a technical device and during downtime thereof. Statistical characteristics of the time variation of thermal functions of heating and cooling for each controlled functional parameter during operation of the device and during downtime thereof are established during multiple tests. The obtained characteristics of the time variation of thermal functions in the working volume of the technical device during operation and downtime thereof are then used to calculate the value and/or position and/or movement and/or state of the controlled functional parameter in accordance with the operating time or downtime, for the current range of positions, movements and states of heat-loaded parts, assemblies and components of technical devices, and when values and/or positions and/or movements and/or states reach, with given probability, set acceptable values, the controlled functional parameter of the technical device is adjusted through a numerical control computer system by changing and acting on current parameters and functioning characteristics which define the level of the thermal conditions or state of heat-loaded devices.
EFFECT: high accuracy of functioning of technical devices, high reliability thereof, stability of maintaining the level or range of values of functional output parameters of the position, movement and state of technical devices during operation thereof, carried out without using additional mechanisms, devices and systems for measuring temperature and/or thermal deformations and/or the position and/or movement and/or state of heat-loaded parts of devices.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises: a sensor comprising a sensitive element and a heating element configured for heating of the sensitive element to the previously set operating temperature, besides, the sensitive element is perceptive to the specified gas so that at least one electric property of the sensitive element varies depending on presence of the specified gas, besides, the electric property of the sensitive element is measured by a gas metering device; and a control circuit comprising a heating element controller connected to the heating element and measuring its electric property, besides, the control circuit has a source of heating energy supplying energy to heating element. The controller of the heating element is connected with a source of heating energy and controls its operation depending on measurement of the electric property of the heating element; a facility of pulse modulation connected with the controller of the heating element, the source of heating energy for control of the energy value supplied to the heating element. At the same time the facility of pulse modulation is made as capable of generation of the first set of energy pulses, having certain duration, and the second set of energy pulses, having another, shorter duration for maintenance of temperature of the heating element substantially at the permanent level. Also the invention relates to the method for manufacturing and method of operation of the gas metering device.
EFFECT: device is manufactured and operated in a profitable and reliable manner.
8 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of determining dryness of wet steam involves measuring pressure in a controlled stream of steam. A steam sample is then collected from the controlled stream, the collected sample is throttled into a flow chamber and calculations are carried out based on the measured parameters. The collected steam sample flows from the first flow chamber into a second flow chamber. Both chambers are placed in the controlled stream of steam or other heating medium. Pressure and temperature is measured in each chamber. After the second chamber, flow rate, pressure and temperature of the collected sample is measured. The value of flow rate is then established based on parameters measured in the first chamber.
EFFECT: determining dryness of a stream of wet steam without condensing the collected sample.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: sample is heated to temperature of polymer binder decay. Filler content is calculated by variation of a sample mass, taking into account the ash residue in process of polymer binder decay defined under conditions identical to composite decay. At the same time the variation of the sample mass is defined according to a thermogram.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of detection of filler content in a polymer composite, reduced time of analysis, lower labour and power inputs.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method to display a temperature field of an object includes measurement of temperature in different points of its surface. Previously an object image is introduced into a computer base, and the image is displayed onto the screen, the points of temperature measurement on the surface of the object are displayed on the object image on the monitor screen, and after performance of measurements and treatment of results of measurements in the computer the image of the temperature field of the object is formed on its image with software.
EFFECT: simplified design of technical facilities used to vary temperature field of an object.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: testing equipment.
SUBSTANCE: sample of a lubricant material of permanent volume is heated with mixing in presence of air, measured, and the light flux absorption coefficient is determined. At the same time, at first each sample of the lubricant material is pre-heated for a continuous period of time at atmospheric pressure and fixed temperature, which in process of each subsequent test of a new sample is increased, and after each heating a sample of a lubricant material is taken with permanent mass, which is then heated with mixing in presence of air within the time established depending on the base under permanent temperature and permanent speed of mixing, which after oxidation is measured, the light flux absorption coefficient is determined. Then the graphical curve is built for dependence of the light flux absorption coefficient on heating temperature. Thermal-oxidative stability of the lubricant material is defined by heating temperature with least value of the light flux absorption coefficient.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of determination of thermal-oxidative stability of lubricant materials.
FIELD: radio engineering, communication.
SUBSTANCE: device consists of three layers: two outer construction layers and reinforcement plates are made of polymer composites, and the medium layer is from a lightweight filling material with reinforcement plates. The reinforcement plates and the outer base layers contain conductive materials with the surface resistance of 90÷1200 Ohm, providing for the absorption of falling electromagnetic waves and causing the reduction of a radio wave reflection in SHF S, C, X, Ku, Ka ranges from the device surface of polymer composites by 3÷5 times, and from a metallic surface - by 5÷50 times.
EFFECT: radar eluding device efficiency improvement due to the expansion of the frequency absorption range of falling electromagnetic waves.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: cable-type concealing long-span structure of load-carrying longitudinal and transverse cables tightened between columns and forming openings of a restricted value, which are closed with rectangular masks installed in bearing assemblies with possibility of their alternating opening by being turned about their central axis through 90° from horizontal position to vertical position by means of systems of winches, cables, blocks; with that, bearing assemblies of rectangular masks are installed between adjacent openings of the constrained value along longitudinal cables in intersection places of longitudinal and transverse cable with their stiff connection.
EFFECT: enlarging opening of a constrained value by two times and improving stiffness and reliability of the structure.
FIELD: weapons and ammunition.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used to perform flight development tests of jet projectiles (JP) equipped with cassette payloads (CP) with self-sighting submissiles (SSS), which operate in infrared (IR) ranges, as well as other types of ammunitions equipped with infrared target-seeking heads for simulation of thermal emissions of military objects at dislocation points or in source areas. The essence of the invention consists in the fact that a thermal target simulator includes a fabric cloth and heaters. Fabric cloth is made in the form of a cover and arranged on a demountable frame including two side walls and two end walls. Rear end wall is equipped with a metal shield, and the cover is equipped with a skirt located along the perimeter of the frame; with that, the cover and the skirt are made from fabric material, for example laminated cloth (GOST 7297-90), dyeing shade is dark (GOST 29222-91). Heaters are located inside the frame on supports adjustable as to height in compliance with thermal parameters of the simulated target; the cover is fixed from above on the frame by means of longitudinal clamps. The skirt adjacent to the rear end wall is fixed from below by means of a transverse clamp. Clamps are equipped with elastic fasteners, and the device itself is equipped with a simulator of the outline of the horizontal target projection, which is made in the form of stiff reference points connected with flexible connections.
EFFECT: thermal target simulators made in compliance with the invention provide thermal target image identical to thermal image of the simulated object, quick setup of demountable target fields consisting of a large number of thermal simulators under any climatic conditions and under conditions of failure of considerable volumes of electric power, and their reliable operation.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in a device to reduce infrared radiation of gas flow and external heated surface of a vessel stack there are vertical and horizontal screening plates made of composite materials, having radio absorption, heat insulation and heat reflecting properties.
EFFECT: reduced probability of vessel detection by means of infrared surveillance instruments operating in infrared and radar ranges of frequencies.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: weapons and ammunition.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to protection of armaments and military equipment against airspace surveillance in visible, IR and radar ranges. Combined false target is composed of a full-scale inflatable mockup of the object including radio reflecting coating to mask colouring and heat radiation source made up of electric heaters built in false target material with separate heating control, heat controller and its control unit, and differs from known designs in that said heaters are selected in quantity equal to K, that is, the number of characteristic sections defining the target heat image while shape and sizes are selected to equal those of the object. Note here that surface area of combined false target is
EFFECT: higher degree of simulation.
1 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of masking mobile objects with artificial vegetation involves distributing and attaching artificial branches using a net or clamps mounted on the object, wherein the ratio of the area D of the sum of projections of the vegetation protruding beyond the outline of the object on a plane to the projection of the area of that object on the area is selected maximally possible in the range 0<D≤0.5 and the weight of the vegetation Pv, used for masking is limited by the allowable margin of load bearing capacity Pb, of the mobile object Pv≤Pb. The ratio of the area T of the sum of the projection of leaves and/or branches of coniferous trees lying on the object on the an even surface to the sum of projections of openings in the volume of vegetation is selected close to or equal to T≤100%. The leaves in the volume of the mask, formed by artificial vegetation, is distributed in at least 2-3 volume-distributed layers, each forming said T≤100% projection, and elements of the mask of vegetation protruding beyond the mobile object are made curvilinear with density of at least T≥75…80%, which provides reliable deformation of contours of the mobile object. The composition of elastic or elastic element-containing frame of the material from which elements of the artificial vegetation are made includes and/or the back side of the leaves of said vegetation is coated with radar-absorbent and/or radar-scattering or radar-reflecting additive in form of a film, metal-coated of graphite sputtering, woven or non-woven, or chopped fibres, including with a different length of cutting the fibres.
EFFECT: high reliability of implementation and efficiency of the method of masking mobile objects with artificial vegetation by reducing the probability of recognition of the masked object owing to recommended arrangement of vegetation thereon, as well as owing to high making effect of the artificial vegetation and high making effect of the artificial vegetation in radar and infrared wavelength ranges.
13 cl, 6 ex, 20 dwg
FIELD: radio engineering, communication.
SUBSTANCE: method of concealing a ground mobile object from radar observation from space includes evaluating the time schedule of flights and directions to a space radar station, estimating the maximum radial component of the speed of the ground mobile object relative the direction of radar observation, estimating the required reduction in detection and recognition of the ground mobile object, estimating the capacity to shift the radar image of the object to a strongly reflecting background. To enable concealment of the mobile object from radar observation, acceleration on a selected section of the road in the required azimuthal direction is carried out and speed of the ground mobile object at the moment of radar observation, which provides shifting of its radar image to a selected section of the area, is maintained.
EFFECT: reduced level of detecting and recognising a ground mobile object during radar observation with a space radar station with high spatial resolution.
FIELD: weapons and ammunition.
SUBSTANCE: method consists in preparation of the masked surface and subsequent application of masking foams on it, at the same time at least two layers of masking foams are applied onto the masked surface, besides, the lower layer is the masking foam that withstands multiple loads within relatively long-term operation, and it is shaped to provide least reflection of a radar wave from interface of two media "air - cover" or "upper layer - lower layer", and the upper layer is less dense masking foam, having a low ratio of reflection of the dropping electromagnetic wave at the interface of two media "air - cover". The station and devices within its design provide for application of layers of the masking cover from foam polyurethane, water-air foam and hardening foam, produced from proposed solutions of foaming formulas, with introduction of solid additives into these layers, in particular, elementary fibres of specified length in necessary amounts.
EFFECT: increased effect of armament and military equipment, civil and military objects hiding with masking foam covers due to additional masking of most informative de-masking criteria in these objects, which show in infrared and radar ranges of electromagnetic waves.
28 cl, 12 tbl, 9 ex, 49 dwg
SUBSTANCE: adaptive masking device, which shields visually protected objects from viewers, characterised by that in order to reduce power consumption and improve the quality of masking, it further consists of a flexible screen connected to one or more digital video cameras through a computer which forms an image and sends said image to the corresponding areas of the flexible screen.
EFFECT: improved masking characteristics and low power consumption.
1 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: weapons and ammunition.
SUBSTANCE: device for reducing heat signature of the military machine comprises a pipe welded obliquely to the flange for discharge of exhaust gases of the military machine engine, on which by means of step-wise racks the lower, middle and upper with a curved guide element heat-protective flaps are mounted, and each heat-protective flap is tilted to the side of cut of the outlet pipe section for forming the ejection flow of atmospheric air, and the tilt angle of each successive heat-protective flap is greater than the previous one by an amount of 1-5°, each step-wise rack is made in the form of separate steps shifted from each other by a certain distance in the plane of the corresponding heat-protective flap to reduce heat transfer of the exhaust gases from the pipe to the upper heat-protective flap, and the guide element of the upper heat-protective flap is curved so that one its part is tilted at an angle of 25° to 30° to the cut of the outlet section of the pipe to provide the capture of atmospheric air by the kinetic energy of the exhaust gases flow, and the other part is smoothly rotated in the direction opposite the cut of the outlet section of the pipe to provide reduction of likelihood of appearance of turbulence zone in the ejection flow of atmospheric air and is tangent to the plane which is a continuation of the upper outer surface of the pipe.
EFFECT: reduction of heat signature of military vehicles with the operating engine.
1 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: military engineering, in particular, devices for concealment of troops and objects against a background of water surface by means of its unspotting.
SUBSTANCE: the method consists in the fact that colored or uncolored foam is continuously or periodically applied onto the water surface upstream the water section or onto the water basin section having no stream. The starting foaming solution, foam ratio, as well as the device for realization of the method are described. The device includes a reservoir connected through a liquid channel to a pump and unspotters located across or in the area of the water basin.
EFFECT: improved camouflage properties of the water surface.
13 cl, 8 dwg, 3 ex, 1 tbl