SUBSTANCE: pier is a linear gravitational hydraulic structure located on the coast of the Arctic seas, mainly in lower reaches of navigable rivers. The pier is designed in the form of an ice platform 1 of a rectangular section, placed on the sea bottom. The pier is equipped with wind-capture electric power plants 10 of a tower type located on the shore, liquid cooling and air cooling systems in the form of pass channels 2. The pier is additionally equipped with a thermo-fluid insulating screen 7, placed on the platform surface 1, and a solid floor covering 8 in the form of flat elements of a rectangular shape in plan, arranged at an angle of 45°C to the longitudinal axis of the platform. The platform 1 is designed with slopes at side edges, located at the level of calved ice. The liquid cooling system is designed of interconnected atmospheric cold storage batteries 3, 4 of cooling pipelines 5, 6 and consumers of a coolant 9. The cooling pipelines are arranged along the slopes and under the thermo-fluid insulating screen 7.
EFFECT: increased strength, stability, reliability and durability of the ice structure.
The invention relates to the field of linear construction of hydraulic structures and transport facilities, in particular to the construction of piers on the coast of the Northern seas, has to do with power using natural energy sources, wind, air quality, ecology, environment and can be used in the construction of sea and river berths, jetties and dams in the offshore waters of the Arctic seas and in the lower reaches of the Northern rivers for the construction of roads, passages in the waters of the lakes, runways, and other linear facilities in flood-prone and wetland areas of the subarctic and Arctic areas of Russia, and during the construction of piers in Antarctica.
The famous pier on the coast of the Northern seas, including hydraulic structure of reinforced concrete and steel structural elements (...) (RD 31.55-93 and others, see folder "Different" about ice...).
The disadvantages of the known reinforced concrete and steel piers on the coast of the Northern seas are relatively high complexity and cost of their erection in severe climatic conditions or the complexity of large and medium vessels with cargo for the production of construction works close to the shore, to the place of unloading due to the small depth of water, big time vozvedenie complexity of building such waterworks.
The disadvantages of the known ice of the temporary piers are their fragility, lack of reliability, a relatively small linear dimensions, which does not allow to achieve their depths necessary to approach heavy draft vessels, as well as the underdevelopment of ice construction, which limits the durability and functionality of the piers reduces their attractiveness to investors.
The purpose of the invention is to create long-term ice platform for the construction of a line of fortifications on the coast of the Northern seas of Russia, increase strength, stability, reliability, durability and functionality, increase (as a result of implementation of the invention) transport accessibility of small settlements and work places in the North, to accelerate the development of the Northern regions of Russia, to improve the environmental, economic efficiency and investment attractiveness of the construction of the ice structures to support social and economic needs of the population.
This goal is achieved by the fact that the pier is made in the form installed on the seabed ice platform of rectangular cross-section, are mainly located at the mouth of the Northern navigable rivers, equipped located on the banks metrosexuality power tower type, W is dostoy cooling system and air cooling system in the form of shafts, hydrothermolysis screen placed on the surface of the platform, and solid flooring in the form of a flat rectangular elements in terms of shape, arranged at an angle of 45° to the longitudinal axis of the platform. While the platform is designed with slopes on both sides, located at the level of the floating ice, and provided with reinforcing mesh placed at the level of the median plane of the air channels. Liquid cooling system is made of inter-connected batteries atmospheric cold, pipelines, cooling and consumers of refrigerant and piping cooling placed along slopes and under teplogeneriruyuschim the screen.
The invention is illustrated by drawings, where Fig.1 in plan, Fig.2, 3 - sections shown pier, Fig.4 - the plan shows a portion of the pier, and Fig.5 and 6 in plan and section showing the battery naturally cold.
The design of the pier consists of ice array 1 includes an air tunnel 2, the batteries of atmospheric cold 3 and 4 (4 banks), piping refrigeration 5, 6, teplogeneriruyuschie screen 7, the road surface 8 and the consumer of liquid refrigerant 9.
The piers on the coast of the Northern seas of Russia place mainly at the mouths of navigable rivers, because in the absence of roads and Railways rivers are practically the only the military transport system for a large number of goods from the southern regions of the country.
Before construction of the pier near on an elevated stretch of coastline establish one or two microsoftie tower power plant 10, the electric power which is necessary both during construction and during operation of the pier. Energorashodyi tower, if necessary, equipped with coastal navigation, lighting and other necessary equipment.
Before the onset of winter produce, alignment strip of bottom - Lodge, the Foundation of the future of the pier. With the onset of sustained negative air temperatures and education on water ice cover 11 along the contour of the future pier perform end-to-end slots, install non-removable formwork and produce a layer-by-layer freezing ice. In the process of forming ice array 1 are laid pipelines cooling 5, 6. On the sides of the ice massif perform with slopes of 12 to an angle of 30°-40° to the surface of the ice cover 11. As numerazione ice ice array 1 under its own weight falls on the prepared bed of the sea / river bed, which gets frozen ice due to the low temperature of the ice array.
The entire length of the ice masses have not less than two air tunnels 2. The 2 tunnels, which are designed primarily for cooling ice masses in the warm period of the year, have a 1.5-2.0 metres from the slight pressure from the beginning of the faces of the walls of the pier and combined with the atmosphere of supply and exhaust ventilation pipes 13.
On the surface of the ice masses and the coast, install the batteries naturally cold (Oh) 3, 4 in the insulating sheath 14. Ah 3 connects through piping cooling 5, 6 with a circulating pump 15, a battery of cold 4 role of expendable tank, and consumer refrigerant (fuel) 9. As a coolant in liquid cooling systems using Arctic diesel fuel, consumers are road, track transport and located at the pier of the court. All batteries cold equip with a built-in shell tanks thermosyphons seasonal activity 16. Each battery is cold, in which is placed holdorova 17 and coil air pipe 18, connected respectively with the refrigerating machine 19 and the compressor 20. On the surface ice of the array 1 is placed teplogeneriruyuschie screen 7, and on top - solid surface 8 of the concrete slabs. Flat solid cover feature in the plan relative to the longitudinal axis of the pier at a 45° angle and welded to each other through embedded parts. The gaps between the slabs of concrete fill.
Construction of linear facilities, including piers on ice performance, on the coast of the Northern seas in countries such as Russia, USA (Alaska) and Denmark (Greenland), it becomes possible, pascalc the average annual air temperature - negative, and the preservation of ice array 1 in the summer season in totominskom condition is ensured by the air and liquid cooling systems that operate on a stand-alone sources of natural energy.
In the cold period of the year the tunnel 2 is used as a cooling space. Frosty with low temperature air is supplied and discharged into atmosphere through the vent pipe 13. Increase the cooling effect and the strength of the ice in the peripheral layers of ice masses is achieved through close to the vertical walls of one -, two -, or multi-tiered layout of tunnels 2. During operation of the pier tunnels 2 is also used as a refrigerator for a long time (backup) storage products. In summer (July - August - September) for cooling the air in the tunnels use the compressor 20, the electric power which is served from versamatic power plants 10.
Cooling system with liquid refrigerant, operates as follows. In the cold season, the refrigerant in the Ah is cooled using thermosyphons seasonal 16, where the non-freezing fuel circulates through the temperature difference between the ambient air and the refrigerant (fuel). The constant cooling of the refrigerant to a low temperature leads to incandescent cold in Ah. At the end of the winter temperature is RA refrigerant in the tank can reach minus (35°-40°C). At higher temperatures, for example, to minus 34°C thermosyphons seasonal 16 is automatically "locked", that is, they circulation of fuel stops. In a liquid cooling system, there is a continuous selection of refrigerant fuel from a supply tank (Ah-4) motor vehicles or watercraft. This causes the natural-artificial circulation of fuel through pipelines cooling 5, 6, lowering the temperature and, consequently, the increase in strength properties of ice.
The amount of fuel taken from the system by consumers, reimburse the fuel that enters the Ah-4 to the pipe 21 from the supply tank.
In the summer season includes a pump 15, through which the cooling system carry out the circulation of the liquid refrigerant with low temperature. When the temperature of the refrigerant to minus 10°C) in the automatic mode of the refrigeration machine is 19 and works to restore the estimated negative temperature of the refrigerant in the cold storage and cold 3, 4.
In the summer season when there are currents in the area of the pier, ice come in motion. Ice meets on his way pier, begin to climb the sloping surface of the slope 12 and under its own weight break. The presence of slopes can reduce the horizontal pressure LDO is on the pier, to ensure the sustainability of ice structures and, as a result, to reduce the transverse size of the pier.
Length of sea pier in shallow shelf waters of the Northern seas can reach several hundreds and even thousands of meters, width - not less than 15 meters. While Pearce performs its basic functions berthing and handling facilities. Under certain conditions and circumstances pier can perform the role of a runway.
Concrete slabs that make up a hard coating 8, stack on teplogeneriruyuschie screen 7 at an angle of 45°to its base. This arrangement of the plates is selected to reduce the shock load on the transport when moving wheels through the joints of the plates and, on the contrary, the load from the wheels of the vehicle on the joint plates. The angle of 45°With appointed from traditional manufacturing slabs of a rectangular shape, as the most rational from the point of view of their manufacturing transportation and warehousing. Theoretically and experimentally, that the impact load on transport and transport on the plate decreases exponentially with decreasing slope of the line of intersection of the trajectory of the wheels.
Pearce, representing placed on the coast of the Arctic seas linear gravitational hydraulic structure, the ex is different, however, that pier is made in the form installed on the seabed ice platform of rectangular cross-section, are mainly located at the mouth of the navigable rivers, equipped located on the banks metrosexuality power stations of the turret type, a liquid cooling system and air cooling system in the form of shafts, teplogeneriruyuschim screen placed on the surface of the platform, and solid flooring in the form of flat elements rectangular in plan form, arranged at an angle of 45°to the longitudinal axis of the platform, while the platform is designed with slopes on both sides, located at the level of floating ice, liquid cooling system is made of inter-connected batteries atmospheric cold, pipelines, cooling and consumers refrigerant and piping cooling placed along slopes and under hydrothermolysis the screen.
SUBSTANCE: underwater structure (US) operates at depth in the range from 100 to 120 m from sea level. At the same time the US comprises a support-bearing underwater complex and a drilling complex or a production complex. The support-bearing underwater complex includes a support-bearing plate and a wellhead complex. The support-bearing plate, in its turn, comprises a wellhead block, an energy block, a residential block, and also a life support block, internal and external circular corridors, radial transitions, sectioned ballast pontoons of circular shape and propelling agents. Retention of the underwater structure in the vertical position at the specified point for the whole period of stay is provided by control of filling of ballast pontoon sections, at the same time retention in the horizontal plane is done due to operation of the propelling agents. The inner surface of the body of the drilling complex and the production complex is congruent to the external surface of the wellhead complex, and the lower surface of the body of the drilling complex and the production complex is congruent to the upper surface of the support-bearing plate.
EFFECT: increased safety, reliability and quality of performed works.
13 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to erect underwater tunnels, including tunnelling of slopes and drifts, creation of a mine of arched shape, fixation of its walls and fixation of its walls and vault by monolithic reinforced concrete, backlining external hydraulic insulation from bitumen putty, a ramp and a water impermeable lock, water drainage by means of drainage trays, differing by the fact that in order to ensure efficiency of tunnelling works and higher reliability of tunnel hydraulic insulation, its length is divided into sections with open and underground methods of tunnelling. An inclined entry trench is built on an open area with minimum water level in a river by means of open works, in the end of the trench a protective horseshoe-shaped border is erected from reinforced concrete, walls are erected, the arched vault of the tunnel with rigging, on top of which they lay a hydraulic insulation jacket from Typar material and filled with removed soil, the tunnelling of the underwater section of the tunnel is carried out in a regimen of moderation by tunnelling combines in counter headways until they are joined at the design elevation, and water breakthrough in the tunnel is collected in a sump with subsequent pumping by pumps via wells to a surface interception ditch, connected with a water reservoir.
EFFECT: higher reliability of tunnel hydraulic insulation, reduced labour intensiveness and material intensity in construction.
1 tbl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to perform underwater technical works during installation of bulk items includes delivery of an item in the form of a box caisson to the place of installation, its flooding and assembly with the help of a cargo barge and a floating lifting facility. Delivery is carried out using a double-hulled watercraft made as capable of placement of the loaded barge in the space between pontoons that form the double hull and are connected to each other with metal frame structures with weight-lifting facilities for lifting and lowering of the box caisson, and also equipped with structures having extended elements, providing for retention of the box caisson as it is delivered to the place of installation. The barge with the box caisson of full availability is driven in the water area in the space between pontoons of the double-hulled watercraft, the box caisson is lifted with the help of its weight-lifting facilities, the unloaded barge is driven from the space between the pontoons into the water area, the box caisson is lowered for its installation onto extended elements, the specified elements are extended with the help of a drive, and the box caisson is rested onto them. The watercraft with the box caisson by self-motion or towing is delivered to the place of works production, the watercraft is moored, and the box caisson is flooded and installed by release from extended elements that retain it using weight-lifting facilities, which are installed on the watercraft.
EFFECT: optimised technology and reduced costs for production of underwater technical works during assembly of bulk items and structures.
7 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: underwater garage comprises a tight body, descents for entry and exit of transport from the garage, floors arranged within the body. The body is arranged in the form of a module representing a tight solid reinforced concrete box. At the end sections of the body there are ramps arranged, which are made curvilinear and rise above water. Entry and exit are carried out along a piled bridge that connects the quay and the curvilinear ramps. The method to construct the underwater garage includes construction of a coastal pit separated from the river with a soil dam. The pit is arranged by providing vertical walls reinforced with the help of a metal rabbet. Then assembly is carried out in the module pit, and it is hydraulically insulated. The pit is filled with water, the dam is dismantled, and the module is transported to the place of installation. The module is installed into a previously prepared underwater pit by means of partial filling of the module with water, the module is surcharged in order to prevent floating and, and works are performed to reinforce the bottom with subsequent water pumping. Descents are arranged in the form of the piled bridge that connects the quay and the ramps of the underwater garage.
EFFECT: improved conditions for operation due to considerable reduction of space for entering a garage using curvilinear ramps.
2 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in a bay formed by two parallel dams there are two stands 2, 4 installed. A base 6 of stands 2, 4 is rigidly connected to the bottom 7 and to the stands 2, 4. Stands 2, 4 are rigidly connected to a rod 5 placed inside the bushing 3. The bushing 3 is rigidly connected to a unit from two blades 1 arranged on a single plane.
EFFECT: efficient protection against impact of waves under storm conditions.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering and is designed to protect coastal line, as well as objects of port and transport infrastructure from damage. The damper of sea waves comprises a receiving plate 1, a protective grid 2, a hopper 3, a pipeline 4, a nozzle 5 and a guiding plate 6. The receiving plate 1 is made as capable of lifting wind waves up. The wind wave rolls into the receiving plate 1, rises up and having lost its speed, via the grid 2 arrives to the hopper 3. Along the pipeline 4 via the nozzle 5 under pressure the water moves towards a new wave weakening its energy. The plate 6 serves to direct return water from the plate 1 at the required angle to a new rolling-in wave and protects the base of the device from erosion.
EFFECT: increased reliability of device operation under conditions of impact of wind waves.
SUBSTANCE: method for protection against wave action of a single hydraulic structure consists in the fact that arriving waves of the hydraulic structure are separated on both sides around the structure by creating horizontal near-surface streams diverging to both sides across the direction of waves, which are formed by a flat symmetrical floating-up gas-liquid flow that is created in water environment under arriving waves. Symmetry plane is located in a diametrical plane of the structure and perpendicular to wave movement. Flow rate of gas, mainly air is chosen so that horizontal velocity of near-surface streams of a gas-liquid flow is at least 0.2 of velocity of arriving waves. A zone where a gas-liquid flow is formed is located in the above symmetry plane at the distance before the hydraulic structure of not closer than (0.3-0.5) of the width and not farther than (1.5-2.0) of the length of the hydraulic structure. Length means the structure size along diametrical plane in the wave direction, and width means the size along the wave front. Gas-liquid flow is created at the depth of not less than 0.6 of amplitude of an arriving wave by supplying the air under pressure to water environment so that bubbles are formed. A device for the method's implementation includes a discharge device on both sides around the hydraulic structure of arriving waves based on the use of a gaseous substance, mainly air. The above device is made in the form of a deaerator of water environment with bubble air inclusions, which consists of perforated tube 1 located along the diametrical plane of the structure along the movement direction of arriving waves and increased air pressure source 3 connected to it via main line 2. Length of tube 1 is (1-1.5) of length of the hydraulic structure, and location of the tube end that is the closest to the above structure is (0.3-0.5) of width of the structure. The tube is located so that it is submerged under water to the depth equal to at least 0.6 of an amplitude of an arriving wave starting from still water surface.
EFFECT: providing effective protection of a single hydraulic structure against power action of waves arriving at it.
6 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: gabion retaining wall includes stones, arranged in a grid frame with hexagonal cells. The stones, filling the space of the grid frame, are artificial and previously made of concrete. A glass-cloth with lining along the perimeter is stacked between the layers of stones inside the gabion in a horizontal plane over the entire height. The artificial stones have preferably cubic or prismatic shape and may be packed in columns or with displacement in layers. Such technical solution will prevent the thrust of the gabion retaining wall and will significantly increase the height. Large effect will be achieved if the glass-cloth will be glued to the contacted layers of stones.
EFFECT: increase of the bearing capacity and efficiency.
6 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device includes an anchored floating base with suspended equipment installed on it, and a forming-towing vessel with a handler. The floating base comprises two corridors - an accumulating one and a rafting-forming one. Guide bridges are fixed to the floating base near the accumulating corridor.
EFFECT: possibility to manufacture bundles of breakwaters suitable for towing and operation from floating wood in areas of water storages with simultaneous cleaning of water reservoirs from floating wood.
SUBSTANCE: retaining wall according to the first version is made of tubular sheet piles. At least some piles are equipped with a seasonal cooling device of any available type. Cooling devices are so arranged in the sheet pile to provide for contact of their upper part with atmospheric air. The retaining wall according to the second version comprises seasonal cooling devices made in the form of an air circulation pipe. The cooling devices are placed inside the inner cavity of tubular sheet piles and are installed coaxially or with displacement relative to the axis of the tubular sheet pile. The air circulation pipe is connected in the upper part to atmosphere with the help of a covered hole. The lower part of the pipe is brought near the permafrost soil of the base.
EFFECT: environmental safety, reduced costs, increased reliability of design and lower labour intensiveness of construction.
10 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: tongue and groove joint comprises a tongue and groove ledge with a comb and a tongue and groove grip with a race and a mouth made of rolled sections. The mouth of the tongue and groove grip follows the shape of the comb of the tongue and groove ledge and covers it with the possibility of partial rotation. The tongue and groove grip is made as welded from two rolled sections. Each grip section has a cross section in the form of a hook and comprises a C-shaped section and a rectilinear section coupled with its one edge. At the same time grip sections are facing each other with concave sides of C-shaped areas to form a race for a comb of the tongue and groove ledge. The grip profiles are welded to each other by rectilinear sections or via an intermediate connection element to form a gap between free edges of the C-shaped areas.
EFFECT: simplified technology of grip manufacturing with provision of high strength of a proposed tongue and groove joint.
5 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: hydraulic engineering boom comprises vertical supports fixed in the bottom soil and made of pipes of larger diameter, and a horizontal wave-breaking element connected to them. Vertical supports are arranged at two sides of the horizontal wave-breaking element and are connected to each other. Inner cavities of the vertical supports are filled with lean concrete. The horizontal wave-breaking element is made of a reinforced concrete pipe of larger diameter, ends of which have concrete plugs with a fastening steel bracket. Vertical supports are connected with the horizontal wave-breaking element by steel chains.
EFFECT: increased extent of wave breaking and extended service life of a structure.
SUBSTANCE: retaining wall comprises front piles, anchor piles, at least one anchor bar and units of fixation of anchor bar ends accordingly to front and anchor piles. Each unit of anchor bar fixation to appropriate front or anchor pile is made in the form of a tongue and groove joint made of two locking elements. One of the specified locking elements is fixed on the pile so that its upper end is arranged above the water level in the water area. The second locking element is connected with the help of a hinged joint with one of ends of the anchor bar and is installed as capable of vertical reciprocal motion relative to the tongue and groove locking element, fixed on the pile. Lengths of the specified locking elements of the unit of fixation of at least one end of the anchor bar are arranged such that possibility is provided for a mobile locking element to move together with the joined end of the anchor bar below the water level in the water area for the specified depth and its fixation in the point located above the water level in the water area.
EFFECT: possibility to install and fix anchor bars of a retaining wall from a floating facility with elimination of underwater technical works.
5 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: wall comprises a face wall, elements of which are partially submerged into a base soil, and anchor traction rods arranged in a soil fill, every of which is arranged in the form of a flexible tape. Each flexible tape is made of a polymer material and comprises steel wires pulled along the flexible tape from its one end to the other, and the surface of the flexible tape at its both sides is structured with transverse ribs made of polymer, which increase intensity of soil and flexible tape interaction. Each flexible tape is connected to the face wall at its rear side by means of coverage of a cylindrical element on the face wall to form one or two free ends of the flexible tape, every of which with selected weakness is jammed in the stable part of the soil fill. The surface of the steel wire may be structured by irregularities.
EFFECT: reduced volumes of works in manufacturing of anchor traction rods, increased reinforcing effect at soil, which reduces pressure of soil fill at a face wall.
8 cl, 9 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly for river or channel banks and slopes consolidation.
SUBSTANCE: wall includes gabions formed of net and stones and laid in rows. Gabions are made as parabolic cylinders oriented transversely or along flow direction and connected one to another so that gabion ridges of upper layers are offset relative that of lower ones to which they are connected. Parabola in the base of parabolic cylinder is described by the following equation: Y = (4·hg·X2)/Bg , where X and Y are parabola abscissa and ordinate, hg and Bg are correspondingly gabion width and height, here Bg = (2 - 4) hg. In particular cases net may have different shapes of its cross-section, namely trapezoidal with expanded base, stepped with decreasing steps width in upward direction, T-shaped with shoulder oriented downwards and forming foundation or L-shaped.
EFFECT: increased load bearing capacity, reduced cost for foundation building.
5 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly for river or channel banks and slopes consolidation.
SUBSTANCE: wall includes gabions formed of net and stones and laid in layers. Gabions are made as parabolic cylinders oriented transversely or along flow direction and connected one to another so that gabion ridges of upper layers are offset relative that of lower ones to which they are connected. Wall is covered with concrete from one side. Parabola in the base of parabolic cylinder is described by the following equation: Y = (4·hg·X2)/Bg , where X and Y are parabola abscissa and ordinate, hg and Bg are correspondingly gabion width and height, here Bg = (2 - 4) hg. Wall may be reinforced with reinforcing cage from another side. In particular cases net may have cross-section of stepped shape with decreasing steps width in upward direction or L-shaped cross-section.
EFFECT: increased reliability, reduced cost for foundation building, increased service life.
5 cl, 12 dwg