Method and device for separation of fluids

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to cleaning of fluids and can be used at absorption or desorption column. Device comprises mass exchanger containing volatile fluid and poor-volatile fluid. Mass exchanger includes structure bed. The latter includes first layer (10) and second layer (100). Bed first layer (10) contacts with second bed (100) via spacing elements (24, 34, 44, 134, 144). The latter make the component of the bed first or second layer (10, 100) and are composed of bridges. Said elements (33, 43, 133, 143) confine open channels 12, 14, 16, 112, 114, 116. First bed layer (10) and second layer (100) feature wavy profile making said open channels (12, 14, 16, 112, 114, 116). Method of cleaning includes the feed of poor-volatile fluid into mass exchanger and its distribution over common surface. Beside said process comprises the feed of volatile fluid into mass exchanger and its distribution at gas inlet over the common surface. Volatile fluid flows in counter stream with fluid. Then, volatile fluid is collected at the bed fluid exit. Open channels of the bed first layer cross the second layer channels of the bed. Volatile fluid flows in said channels from fluid inlet to outlet. Poor-volatile fluid envelops volatile fluid to flow in the walls of channels. Therefore, mass exchange is increased between volatile and poor-volatile fluids via mass exchange surface composed by said channels.

EFFECT: decreased drop in head, higher separation capacity of structured bed.

18 cl, 14 dwg

 

The invention concerns a method of cleaning fluid, which preferably is carried out in the device, designed for cleaning fluid, such as, for example, absorption column or desorption column. The device contains a structured packing, which has a low pressure loss. The gasket is suitable in particular for applications of absorption with aqueous systems, such as the absorption of CO2from flue gas.

In absorption has for decades used the principle of structured packings (EUR. K. Sattler "Thermische Trennverfahren", VCH Verlag, Weinheim 1995), as it may be used for saving energy, and reducing the height of the absorption column.

Structured packing in standard implementation is made in the form of folded, adjacent metal sheets, the structure of which contains slanted and repeatedly intersecting channels. These channels have a positive impact on the flow of gaseous and liquid phase inside the padding and help misoperation between phases. This means that the channels gaskets gaseous and liquid phases are brought into contact, and this contributes to misoperation between phases.

To increase the separation capacity of structured packing, Oba is but increases the total surface of the structured packing, what often comes at the expense of more layers of padding and/or more narrow geometries of the channels. The total surface is calculated as the sum of the geometric surfaces of the layers of stuffing. These measures lead, however, to an increase in the incidence of pressure in structured packing. But this implies that to reduce the incidence of pressure must be provided by a smaller total surface, resulting in deteriorating the separation power efficiency gaskets. Besides can be provided more open intersecting channels. More open intersecting channels mean that selects the smaller the angle of inclination of the channels relative to the main direction of flow. This means that depending on the application should be found the optimum between the pressure drop and the best possible separation ability.

However, in the intersecting channels, there are many places of contact, which in some cases can have a positive, and in many other applications also adversely affected.

In cases with good wetting fluid flows, such as distillation processes with organic fluid environments, places of contact contribute to the incoming fluid flow is divided and deflected to the sides of the channels. Bliod the OC this increases the transverse distribution of the fluid and improves efficiency. The contact areas also contribute to the flow of gas took place mainly in the direction of the channels, and not in parallel with the main direction of flow, and can therefore be improved massoperedacha for gas.

Around the contact points can form dead zone in which the liquid to a lesser extent involved in the mass transfer than the rest of the fluid, which is a structured packing. This phenomenon is already known from document US 6378332 B1, which describes gasket for cryogenic rectification, intended to reduce the occurrence of such dead zones. The solution for US 6378332 B1 is to reduce the number of contact points between the layers of padding at the expense of alternately high and low folds of each individual layer of stuffing. However, we consider systems in which low surface tension still leads to the optimal total wetting of the surface, i.e. the area behind the contact points are still wetted by the liquid. It follows that the effective available surface mass transfer in the ideal case differs only by the value of the contact surface, which is necessary for points of contact. Only the designated contact lead, consequently, to the loss of effective available surface mass transfer. Effective radius is connected with a surface mass transfer is part of the overall surface, which is moistened volatile ingredients fluid medium, in most cases the liquid.

From US 6378332 B1 are known, thus, the method of rectification, in which a structured packing containing the structure of intersecting channels, i.e. consisting of a wavy or folded metal sheets, which are laid crosswise to each other. Adjacent metal sheets touch each other along the crests of the waves or, respectively, the edges. Between the folded metal sheets can flow volatile fluid in countercurrent to the volatile ingredients fluid, this can cause mass transfer. In the US 6378332 B1 is portrayed in a way that is designed to reduce the number of contact points between two adjacent metal sheets. This provides for varying the height of the wave crests or edges so that only part of the wave crests or edges of each sheet metal had the maximum height. Thus, the metal sheets touch each other only at the crests of the waves or edges, with the maximum height.

In various documents, it was suggested to apply the intermediate elements, which are located between two layers of padding, so that adjacent layers of the stuffing was at a distance from each other, see, for example, EP 1063009 or EP 1216752. This is an intermediate elements are plate-like elements of the large square, which can have a significant impact on the flow of gas and/or liquid and, in particular, could lead to increased pressure losses.

In systems with a liquid control determining impact on mesopredator has a surface mass transfer. This is in particular true when chemical reactions take place in liquid phase. In EP 0671963 B1 available closer to flatten the layers of padding to have more layers of packing per unit volume than normally. The drawback to this is, in turn, high material consumption and increasing the pressure loss.

Unexpectedly it turned out that the gaskets with fewer and differently spaced contact locations, which, on the one hand, reduce the pressure loss for gas, and on the other hand, reduces the overall surface, have a positive effect on the performance of absorption systems with liquid control, particularly when chemical reactions take place in liquid phase.

Consequently, this structure gaskets are preferably used in systems with a liquid control and preferably in systems designed for the absorption of CO2from gas streams. In these systems a decisive influence on mesopredator has a chemical reaction in the liquid phase. This CO2from aetsa in the exhaust gases, which are formed, for example, in power plants. In the subsequent absorption installation CO2is separated from the flow of exhaust gases through absorption, is compressed and then, for example, is directed to underground storage. For absorption must be structured packing, which creates as a smaller pressure loss and additionally has a high separation capacity.

Therefore, the object of the invention is to reduce the pressure loss inside the stuffing, as this may save the energy required to create a gas flow. However, the reduction of pressure loss may not occur due to the surface mass transfer. So the task is to provide, in mass-transfer machine system gaskets, which is characterized best by the use of General surface at a lower pressure loss and lower material consumption.

These tasks are solved by a device designed for cleaning fluid with mass transfer apparatus, which contains a volatile fluid environment and volatile ingredients the fluid, which contains structured packing, with structured packing provides the first layer of stuffing and a second layer of padding, while the first layer of stuffing and a second layer gaskets have a wavy profile, and this wave-like profile which forms an open channel, while the channels of the first layer gaskets overlap with the channels of the second layer of the gasket, through the channels may be volatile ingredients fluid medium, so that the channels can soak this volatile ingredients fluid medium, forming a film, and volatile fluid is inside the film, this may be cleaning or volatile fluid or volatile ingredients of the fluid by mass transfer between the volatile fluid medium and volatile ingredients fluid medium. The first layer of the gasket is in contact with the second layer of padding, contact through the spacer elements and the spacer elements are an integral part of the first or second layer of padding.

The spacer elements are preferably made in the form of jumpers. If provided, such spacer elements, the distance between adjacent layers of padding may increase, particularly if the jumpers are located on the vertices of the bounding open channels. Under the peak can be understood as the crest of a wave and the edge, i.e. the edge which is formed by two adjacent side surfaces of one channel. If the distance between the layers of the packing increases in mass transfer apparatus can be placed fewer layers of stuffing, if the total amount that is on EVCA, should not be changed. But it follows that the total surface of the gasket is reduced.

This is true for the total surface. However, it was found that for certain applications it is impossible to attribute this statement to the surface mass transfer. For volatile cleaning fluid, in particular gas, the mass transfer is carried out has been consistent for several partial steps. Contained in the gas components to be separated are transported by diffusion to the boundary with the liquid surface. Then these components must pass through the boundary surface and absorbed by the liquid. In particular, the fluid may also leak a chemical reaction, so that the components remain in the liquid and can be displayed with the liquid. If the speed of diffusion or reaction kinetics in the liquid compared to the previous partial steps require more time, the diffusion rate or kinetics of the reaction are the limiting factor for the entire mass. In order to improve mass transfer, it is necessary to provide a large area of mass transfer to the liquid. Degraded due to the reduced number of points crossing massoperedacha gas plays a crucial role for the mentioned applications with liquid is Tim control.

Another object of the invention is to select the location of the contact points so that adverse changes in mass transfer due to contact was minimal.

In particular, in the device according to one of the previous embodiments the spacer elements are located in the outer region of the first layer of stuffing. As the outer region should be considered, in particular, the band, which is directly adjacent to the edge of the layer of padding.

The length of the layer gaskets vertical mounting layer of stuffing in the mass transfer apparatus should be defined as the length of the layer of padding in the horizontal direction. The height of the layer of stuffing vertical mounting layer of stuffing in the mass transfer apparatus should be defined as the length of the layer of stuffing in the vertical direction. The mass-transfer apparatus with non-vertical axis, respectively, under the length of the layer of packing, you have to understand its length in the plane perpendicular to the axis of the mass transfer apparatus, and the height of the layer of stuffing its length in the direction of the axis of the mass transfer apparatus.

Forming the edge region of the strip has a length, which corresponds to the length of the layer gaskets or, respectively, the height of which corresponds to the height of the layer of stuffing. In addition, this strip has a width, which is determined is expressed as the perpendicular distance from the edge of the layer of padding.

This width depends on the angle at which the wave profile of the layer of padding is to the axis of the mass transfer apparatus. The strip has a width equal to twice the maximum height h of the spacer element, preferably a width of maximally equal to 1.5 times the height h of the spacer element, and h depends on the length of a spacer element as follows:

h=acos(Φ)

In contrast to the prior art, which still strive for uniform distribution of contact, but the number of contacts decreases, the invention completely abandon this uniform distribution of the contact locations on the surface. If these few contact areas are located closer to each other, the narrowing of the flow causes a reverse flow behind the places of contact, making an unexpected way-resistant surface behind the places of contact decreases. As a consequence, it turns out fewer contact points with less non-wetted surface, and the sum of the maximum ratio of surface mass transfer to the surface.

One of the preferred embodiments of the device, the spacer elements are located on each layer of stuffing. In this case, all layers gaskets have the same structure, allowing reduced costs made the E. In this embodiment, it is possible the continuous production of layers of stuffing, and the strip is continuously formed, while also making the spacer elements. Folded and provided with spacer elements, the strip is cut into desired sizes. From cut pieces of strip out layers of gaskets, each second layer gaskets are flipped, so it's a cruciform arrangement of layers gaskets when they are stacked on each other, adhering to each other.

Favorable spacer elements in the vertical orientation layer gaskets are under each other or next to each other. In particular, the spacer elements form a series of contact, which takes place either vertically or horizontally.

Therefore, another object of the invention is to offer a structured packing, the same or a smaller number of contact points has better stability. To improve the stability of the wave profile has a constant wave height.

Especially preferably, this device is used in the absorption column or desorption column.

The method of cleaning fluid in the mass transfer apparatus, which contains a structured packing, involves the following steps: n the giving of volatile ingredients of the fluid in the mass transfer apparatus, the distribution of summed volatile ingredients of the fluid on the overall surface, the supply of volatile fluid in the mass transfer apparatus in the entrance of the fluid, the distribution of volatile fluid in the area of the gas inlet on the overall surface, and the volatile fluid flows in countercurrent to the liquid collecting volatile fluid that comes out of the stuffing, in a fluid environment, with structured packing provides the first layer of stuffing and a second layer of padding, and the first layer of the gasket and the second layer gaskets have a wavy profile with a constant height of the wave, and this wave profile form open channels, while the channels of the first layer gaskets overlap with the channels of the second layer of stuffing, with volatile fluid medium flows through these channels from the input area of the fluid in the direction of the exit area of the fluid and volatile ingredients fluid covers the current through the channels of volatile fluid medium flows along the walls of the channels. The first layer of the gasket is in contact with the second layer of padding, contact through the spacer elements, so is the mass transfer between the volatile fluid medium and volatile ingredients fluid medium through the channels formed by the surface mass transfer.

Cleaning is done by m is soobben, which depends on the speed at which components must be removed from the flow of the volatile fluid, volatile ingredients are absorbed fluid medium, when should be cleaned with a volatile fluid, or which depends on the speed at which the components to be deleted from the volatile ingredients of the fluid, volatile ingredients are given fluid medium, when must be cleaned of volatile ingredients fluid medium, i.e. the process of distillation (stripping).

In particular, the volatile fluid is a gas, for example, the method can be used for the purification of gas containing CO2. Volatile ingredients fluid medium is a liquid, which may be a chemical reaction.

Thanks to the use of the spacer elements, and also due to the location of contact becomes possible maximum wetting fluid total surface mass transfer devices.

Preferably structured packing consists of layers of stuffing, all the folds which are of equal height. This ensures high stability of the packing, which is of particular importance especially in the columns of large diameter. The number of contact points between the individual layers of gaskets in accordance with the invention is implemented by introducing the spacer elements between the layers on which ivci. These spacer elements may be made in the form of jumpers, which, for example, consist of wire or narrow strips of sheet metal, which are applied to certain points on the folded layers of the gasket and thereby separated from other layers of padding at the specified distance in the specified places. The spacer elements can be manufactured by deep drawing or stamping of the material layer gaskets or due to the fact that the crests of the waves and shaped troughs of the grooves between the desired locations of the spacer elements are deformed so that the height of the folds was less.

The spacer elements are placed in predetermined locations, for example on the upper and lower edges of the layer of stuffing. When superimposed on each of the individual layers of stuffing the channels affect each other exclusively spacer elements in the outer region on the upper and lower edges of the layer of stuffing and contribute, therefore, a significant reduction in the number of contact locations, as well as to maximize the surface mass transfer with the same stability of the individual layers of padding.

Below the invention is explained using the drawings.

Shown:

Fig.1 - view of the proposed device, which includes multiple layers of stuffing,

Fig.2 - the image of the cross section of two neighbouring the x layers of stuffing, it is shown in Fig.1,

Fig.3 is a view of two adjacent layers of padding with a wavy profile,

Fig.4 - the image of the traditional layer gaskets path of flow of volatile ingredients of the fluid

Fig.4 - the image of the anchor points in accordance with the decision by US 6378332,

Fig.5 - image anchor points according to the first example embodiment of the invention,

Fig.6 - images of the node points to another example embodiment of the invention,

Fig.7 is an image of one of the locations offer the spacer elements

Fig.8a is an image relating to the dimensions of the spacer elements,

Fig.8b is an image of trigonometric dependencies for the example implementation shown in Fig. 8a,

Fig.9a is a visual representation of the deformation of the gaskets of the prior art when a transverse load,

Fig.9b is a visual representation of the deformation by the invention of printing in the transverse load,

Fig.10 - the image of the absorption unit,

Fig.11 - comparison of gaskets with the spacer elements and the absorption liquid control mass transfer.

In Fig.1 shows a device 1 proposed by the invention that contains multiple layers of structured packing 7, which form the body of the gasket. Under the structured packing 7 is understood as a means of masooma the and between the two fluid phases. Structured packing 7 is used in the mass transfer apparatus 2. Mass transfer apparatus can be performed, in particular, in the form of columns 5.

Structured packing 7 is composed of several layers of gaskets, which are orderly repeating geometric relation to each other. As an example of this geometric dependence can be selected distance between adjacent layers of stuffing. In accordance with the geometric dependence of the distance between adjacent layers of padding may be one and the same value so that the sum of layers of stuffing, a structure is formed, which is the same or at least recurring distances. The frequency has a place in all of the structured packing, so the gasket has an ordered structure. In particular, the structure may be made in the form of a wavy profile.

In contrast, the packing of the particles of the granular filler is comprised of particles of a granular filler, i.e. from the elements with the same geometrical structure, but each particle of the granular filler may be located at any distance from the neighboring particles of a granular filler, thus, the frequency of these distances is observed. The particles of the granular filler is introduced into the column in vegetasei. They form the bulk at the bottom of the column. This Nabal different random arrangement of individual particles of the granular filler.

Layers of the gasket depicted in Fig.1, composed of thin-walled elements, which have a wavy profile. This wave profile is different recurring sequence of elevations, i.e. the crests of the waves and shaped troughs of the grooves, that is, the troughs of the waves. This wave profile can be performed, in particular, in the form of a folded structure with zigzag profile sharply converging edges. Layers of the gasket are positioned relative to each other so that the wave profiles of the two neighboring layers of the gasket is inclined at some angle to the main direction of flow. The wave profiles of the adjacent layers of the gasket are arranged crosswise relative to each other.

In Fig.2a shows two adjacent layers 10, 100 structured packing 7, shown in Fig.1. The first layer 10 of the packing is located next to the second layer 100 gaskets. The first layer 10 of the packing and the second layer 100 gaskets may, in particular, contain an element of sheet metal or metal fabric, but this alternative also contain elements of a polymeric material or ceramics. One element can contain the entire layer of stuffing, or to form only a part of it. The element mo is et to take the form of a plate, which has an undulating profile, in particular zig-zag or undulating profile with rounded tops and dogami depressions. The element may be provided with a coating of polymer materials or ceramics to give a layer of stuffing greater resistance against chemical influences, such as, for example, corrosion, or thermal effects, such as, for example, temperature, or mechanical influences, such as, for example, pressure.

The first layer 10 of the packing and the second layer 100 of the gasket of Fig.2a depicts a view showing a fragment of the first surface 8 of the gasket 7. The first surface 8 of the packing 7 is essentially perpendicular to the main direction 6 of the flow. The main direction 6 of the flow is the direction of flow, in which the volatile fluid, in particular gas, in column 5 without the built-in elements flows upwards, i.e. in the direction of the head of the column 5. An alternative to this, in the primary direction of flow can also be set in the opposite direction. In this case, the main direction of flow corresponds to the direction in which the volatile ingredients fluid that is at least one liquid flows through the column 5 without the built-in elements, that is in free fall. In the gasket in the direction of flow locally rejected is raised from the main direction of flow, since the direction of flow is changed by layers of padding.

The first layer 10 of the structured packing 7 has an undulating profile, and this wave profile is formed by several open channels 12, 14, 16. These channels include a first trench 22 waves, the first ridge 32 wave and the second ridge 42 of the wave. The first ridge 32 wave and the second ridge 42 wave limit of the first cavity 22 of the wave. The first ridge 32 wave and the second ridge 42 waves have the first top 33 and the second top 43. On the second top 43 of the second ridge 42 made waves propagating in the direction of the second vertex 43 of the spacer element 44, which is made in the form of jumpers. The first trough has a bottom 23 of the waves. The spacer element 44 has a flange 45, which is located at a greater distance 27 perpendicularly from the bottom 23 of the depression 22 of the wave than the second top 43 of the second ridge 42 of the wave from the bottom 23 of the depression 22 of the wave. The same is true for edges 35 of the spacer element 34.

The perpendicular distance between the first top 33 of the first ridge 32 of the wave and the bottom 23 of the first cavity 22 of the wave is called a wave height of 28. Accordingly, the height 28 of the wave is less than the distance 27 perpendicularly. In the layer gaskets in accordance with this invention, the height 28 of the waves, in particular, is essentially constant, that is, it is in the range is the area normal tolerances, which lie within 0.5 mm

Also on the first vertex 33 may be located a crosspiece 34. The choice of retainer 24 can also be located on the first bottom 23 of the hollow.

The second layer 100 of the structured packing 7 has an undulating profile, and this wave profile is formed by several open channels 112, 114, 116. These channels include a first cavity 122 waves, the first ridge 132 of the waves and the second ridge 142 waves. The first ridge 132 of the waves and the second ridge 142 wave limit of the first cavity 122 of the wave. The first ridge 132 of the waves and the second ridge 142 waves have the first node 133 and the second top 143. At first the top 133 of the first ridge 132 made waves passing in the direction of the first vertex 133 jumper 134. On the second top 143 of the second ridge 142 made waves propagating in the direction of the second vertex 143 jumper 144. The first cavity 122 wave has a bottom 123 of depression. At the bridge 134 has a flange 135, and at the bridge 144 has a flange 145, which is located at a greater distance 27 perpendicularly from the bottom 123 of the cavity 122 of the wave than the second top 143 of the second ridge 142 waves from the bottom 123 of the cavity 122 of the wave. At least part of the tops can be made in the form of a flange. At least part of the troughs of the waves can be made v-shaped. The perpendicular distance between the bottom of the trench and the top, as shown in the IG.2a, for all wave crests layer of padding is essentially the same.

In Fig.2b shows two adjacent layers of structured packing with a wavy profile, whose vertices do not form sharp edges and designed in the form of curves. Otherwise, refer to the description of Fig.2a.

In Fig.3 shows the influence of the location of contact on the surface of the mass, for example, the layer 10 of the gasket depicted in Fig.2a or Fig.2b. Thus in Fig.3a shows the arrangement of the prior art. Layer 10 gaskets overlaps invisible, as located in the plane of the drawing behind it the layer 100 gaskets. Layer 10 gaskets shown, for example, the first top 33, the second peak 43 and located between the bottom 23 of the depression. The first and second peaks 33, 43, and the bottom 23 of the trench to form the edges of the folds. Vertices 33, 43 rest on the bottom 123 of the basin, which belongs to a layer 100 gaskets. Of course, each of the layers 10 gaskets and layers 100 gaskets are accordingly several other peaks and troughs, which are not marked in detail, since they do not differ from the marked peaks and troughs. In Fig.3 lines related to the peaks of the crests of the waves, carried more fat than line relating to donham depressions. Additionally, there are line with long strokes for the peaks of the crests of the waves of the second layer 100 gaskets, and a line short the strokes for the bottoms of the depressions layer 100 gaskets. At the points where the bottom of the trench layer 10 of the packing and the top layer 100 gaskets, there are 48 places of contact, which in Fig.3 indicated by a filled circle. Designated 48 contact the two shows layers 10, 100 gaskets are distributed evenly over the total surface.

It is evident from Fig.3 shows that the contact areas are very close to each other, making is very much little not wetted volatile ingredients fluid medium zones 46 and, together with the relatively small portion of the surface of the mass relative to the total surface. In Fig.3 shows only one area 46, the arrows 47 symbolize for volatile ingredients of the fluid.

In Fig.4 shows the case when the number of contacts is reduced, for example, by folding layers of stuffing, which is offered in the US 6378332 B1. Although, in General, is considerably less, but larger non-wetted areas 46 due symbolized by arrows 47 current volatile ingredients of the fluid. In sum gives back a small percentage of the surface of the mass relative to the total surface. The geometric shape of the layers of the gasket shown in Fig.4, it will be even considered in detail in Fig.9.

In Fig.5 shows the position of the seat 48 of the contact between two adjacent layers 10, 100 gaskets. Layer 100 gaskets located behind the layer 10 gaskets. In relation to the image styles is shown in Fig.3. The number of contact points is reduced in relation to the surface layer 10 gaskets. In particular, the designated contact is not distributed evenly over the total surface.

Layer 10 gaskets contains the first regional restriction 50 and the second boundary limit to 60, and the first regional restriction 50 is essentially parallel to the second edge of the restriction 60. In the vertical orientation layer gaskets boundary limit 50 sets an upper boundary surface and the boundary limit of 60 lower boundary surface. In addition, the layer 10 of the gasket includes a first boundary limit 51 and the second boundary restriction 61. In the vertical orientation layer gaskets first regional restriction 51 and the second boundary restriction 61 are held in the gasket near the inner wall of the mass transfer apparatus, in particular column, or on the border of the segment, to which the large mass-transfer apparatus is adjacent to another segment of the gaskets. In the mass transfer apparatus with a large diameter, for example, equal to 1 m and more, to simplify manufacturing and Assembly has been proven separation gaskets on the segments of the packing. One segment gaskets are covered only part of the cross-sectional area of mass exchange apparatus. Several of these segments gaskets are located next to each other, so that the sum of the segments of the packing of chemicals which covers the entire cross-sectional area of mass exchange apparatus. Designated 48 contact located near the first and/or second boundary limits 50, 51, 60, 61. The contact areas are preferably provided with spacer elements. These spacer elements may be made in the form of bumps or jumper. Several spacer elements, which may have the same structure as one of the spacer elements 34, 44, shown in Fig.2a or 2b, is located near the first edge limits 50, 51.

Alternative or additionally several spacer elements 24 may be positioned near a second boundary limits 60, 61. Of course, the spacer elements may also be located near at least one of the first and second boundary limits.

In Fig. 6 shows another variant, in which the contact areas are not adjacent to each other and over each other. There is also the flow of liquid through the places of contact helps to minimize non-wetted surface between the places of contact.

The horizontal location of the contact shown in Fig.5, has the advantage that it is not possible education non-wetted areas behind the bottom close to the edge of the contact, so that the liquid stagnates near the boundary between the located one above the other gaskets. In principle, it is preferable dates shall be the contact areas near the boundary of the constraint 50, 60, 51, 61, because here the wetting is already difficult because of other interfering influences. If, on the contrary, have a designated contact within the layer of stuffing, because of this poorly wetted by another portion of the surface, which otherwise would have remained unaffected.

View layer 10 gaskets according to the invention is shown in Fig.7. In addition, the layer 10 of the packing shown in Fig.7 in the projection. The corresponding structured packing 1 contains the first layer 10 of the packing and the second layer 100 gaskets, and the second layer 100 of the gasket preferably has an undulating profile, as the first layer 10 gaskets. The first layer 10 of the packing and the second layer 100 gaskets are arranged so that the channels of the first layer 10 gaskets overlap with the channels of the second layer 100 gaskets. The first layer 10 is in contact with the second layer 100 gaskets, adjoining at least one crosspiece 24, 44. The jumpers are located on each of the first and second layers 10, 100. Preferably the jumpers are set as shown in Fig.5 or Fig.6. The second layer 100 gaskets on the drawing of Fig.7 for the sake of simplicity is not shown. Jumper of the first layer 10 of gaskets, in contact are in contact with the ridges of the second layer 100 gaskets. Preferably jumper 44, which are located near the first edge limits 50, are arranged in such a way that they are made as is osveshenii on the first side 11 of the layer 10 gaskets. Lintel 24, which are located near the second edge constraints 60, made in the form of elevations on the second side 13 of the layer 10 gaskets. The first side 11 of the layer 10 gaskets is opposite the second side 13 and forms a surface layer of stuffing.

In particular, in the vertical orientation of the first and second layers 10, 100 gaskets jumper can be placed under each other. An alternative to this or in combination with the vertical orientation of the first and second layers of padding jumper can be placed next to each other.

Along the top of the layers 10, 100 gaskets can be, there are also other spacer elements, which should not be done or made not only in the form of jumpers. Such a spacer element may be formed in any elevation that is above the normal height of the folds. The height of the folds refers to the distance between the crest of the wave and the adjacent trough of the wave. If the crest of a wave at its top end has a bend, then this distance is defined as the perpendicular distance between the two spaced parallel tangent points of the vertices. If the curve is infinite, i.e. the peak is sharp and therefore the highest point is not clearly defined tangent line through the highest point is the plane that contains the CE point vertices of one side of a layer of stuffing. Through the lowest point of the trough is also the plane that contains all points of the trough, as well as other troughs of the waves. Both planes must be parallel to each other. It follows that the height of the folds is the perpendicular distance between these two planes. Such spacer elements are distributed on the part of the vertex or edge. The spacer elements can be manufactured by the method of deep drawing of the preform layer of padding, such as a metal sheet for printing, or by placing an item in the form of a harness, such as a wire element or rod element along the top edge. Preferably the spacer elements are placed one hand on the top of the wave crests or troughs of the folds. Preferably the spacer elements are placed along the opposite or the same outer region 50, 60.

The advantage of this arrangement lies in the fact that the workpiece can be made with infinite length. Such procurement may consist of a strip of material, for example, be in the form of a plate of sheet metal. From a strip of material is then cut into specific lengths. These segments are converted, for example, by bending in a wavy profile. Alternative whom this applies strip material, which already has an undulating profile. Sliced cut with a wavy profile forms then a layer of stuffing. This undulating profile during the bending process can be a process of deep drawing, so that, during the bending process by the method of deep drawing are spacer elements. An alternative possible method of manufacture in which the area between the ridges bent or otherwise subjected to deep drawing to a mild degree, so that they had a different height than the jumpers. The first layer 10 of the packing and the second layer 100 gaskets again by turning each of the second profile are stacked on each other accordingly. Between all layers of stuffing is one row of spacer elements near the upper and lower boundary limits and/or near the lateral boundary constraints.

Fig.8 illustrates the determination of the length globorotalia the spacer element on the top 33, 43 undulating profile of the first layer 10 gaskets. Vertices 33, 43 are located at an angle Φ (Phi) to the main direction 6 of the flow, and the distance from the first vertex 33 to a second vertex 43 is b0. The distance b0may be, in particular, a constant. In addition, the distance between the first bottom 23 of the depression and the second bottom 26 of the hollow pillar is t b 0. In Fig.8 the first bottom 23 of the basin coincides with the first cavity 22 of the wave, and the second bottom 26 of the cavity coincides with the second cavity 25 waves. The length of the spacer element 24, 34, 44 in Fig.8 marked "a". Length "a" represents a longitudinal length of the spacer element in the direction of the respective nodes. Length "a" is preferably chosen so that each vertex of the first layer 10 of the gaskets has a point of crossing with the apex adjacent the second layer 100 of stuffing exactly where the spacer element. The spacer element layer 10 gaskets, adjoining, is in contact with the contact point of the top of the second layer 100 gaskets. The contact point can, but should not be part of the spacer element of the second layer 100 of stuffing.

a=b0/sin(2Φ)

This dependence was obtained with the assumption that the angle of inclination (Φ) of the first layer of stuffing on the magnitude equal to the angle of inclination of the second layer of padding.

This assumption is made on the basis of Fig.8. The length of a spacer element must have exactly the size that it was crossed by exactly one spacer element of the second layer gaskets or, respectively, its crest of a wave. That is, if A point of intersection lies exactly at the end point of the first spacer element, then the point B of intersection lies a few the outside of a length of the second spacer element. Since this infinitesimal difference could not be shown in the drawing, in the drawing of Fig.8b, there are two points of intersection for the first wave of the second layer of padding.

If the second layer of the gasket is shifted horizontally to the left relative to the position of the layers of the gasket of Fig.8b, A point of intersection moves along the length of a spacer element to the end of the spacer element located opposite the point A.

In the depicted case, the second layer of the gasket is located exactly so that there is a boundary case in which the point A is the point of intersection with the spacer element at point B there is no point of intersection with the spacer element. Since the tilt angles of two adjacent layers 10, 100 gaskets largest is equal to the distance AB on the top of the wave crest of the second layer of stuffing also corresponds to the length of a spacer element.

Therefore, triangle ABC with the lengths of the sides x, a, a is isosceles. In addition, it appears that formed between two sides of a corner is just 2 Φ. Also on the drawing specified b0the wavelength, i.e. the perpendicular distance between two adjacent peaks of the wave crests of the first layer of stuffing. This triangle must be a right angle, as well as to form the angle 2Φ on the edge B.

Thus, it is desired zavisimost the b to a by means of the angle Φ and the wavelength of the b 0.

a=b0/sin(2Φ)

Preferably the height of the spacer elements is in the range from 10 to 30% of the height of the layer, so that one obtains the gaps between the individual layers of padding in this range of values. The gap is not less than 15 mm for water systems. Narrower gaps can be preferred as a liquid, in particular water, can be maintained between two adjacent edges, stay there and form a liquid bridge.

In Fig.9a depicts a layer gaskets of known construction, provided with different heights folds in order to reduce the number of contact locations. The disadvantage of this design is that when the loads on the upper and lower side, with the arrows 20, 21 indicate the direction of efforts layer gaskets are flattening out. The folds has a first top 65, and the second peak 85 and located between the depression 75 of the wave. The first and second peaks 65, 85 can be in contact with nasobrahan adjacent layer of stuffing. Between the first top 65 and bottom 75 of the basin are intermediate cavity 66 of the waves and the intermediate ridge 67 waves, which form a crease. The intermediate depression 66 wave has a bottom 68 of the intermediate cavity, and an intermediate ridge 67 wave, there is an intermediate vertex of 69. The distance of 70 perpendicularly between the bottom 68 of the intermediate in the Adina and intermediate top 69 less than the distance 71 perpendicularly between the top 65 and bottom 75 of depression. The distance of 70 perpendicular to the example implementation shown in Fig.9a, is approximately half the distance 71 perpendicularly. Thus, the intermediate cavity 66 of the waves and the intermediate ridge 67 wave form fold half height. Fold half height is the area of the collapse and deformation. Due to this deformation, on the one hand, it is impossible to build a sustainable housing gaskets, on the other hand, cannot adhere to a given elevation layer gaskets. The height of the layer corresponds to the earlier distance of 71 on the perpendicular.

Using the proposed invention designs can work around this problem. As shown in Fig.9b, the layer gaskets are supplied with the spacer elements on each fold is flattened much smaller, and therefore this layer gaskets may be subjected to higher loads from the top and bottom sides. This allows you to create a more sustainable housing gaskets and provides an essentially constant layer height.

In Fig.10 shows absorption installation 90. Absorption install 90 includes two mass transfer apparatus: one absorber 91 and one desorber 92, which, in particular, made in the form of columns. In the absorption installation in the absorber 91 one Il the several components are distinguished from the gas stream. This applies to a liquid solvent or absorbent. In desorber 92 solvent or absorbent cleared from the absorbed components.

As the absorption and rectification are separation processes are used for allocation of the available original thread 93 of one or more components. Distillation is used for separating mixtures of liquids due to the different boiling points of the individual components, with rectification should be understood continuous distillation, which, in particular, includes several separation steps. Upon absorption, on the contrary, one or more components are absorbed from the gas stream using an appropriate solvent or absorbent 94 and thus stand out from the gas stream. Product head part of the absorber 91 represents, thus, a purified gas stream 95. Product 96 of the lower part of the absorber 91 is a full component or components of the absorbent or solvent. For economic, energy and environmental reasons, it might be advisable to clean absorbent or solvent and re-submit them again in the absorber in the form of the pure solvent or absorbent 94. Purification absorbent or solvent occurs in desorber 92. Filled with absorbent or solvent, that is about the SPS 96 the lower part of the absorber, forms the starting flow of desorber. This original thread is served in desorber, as shown in Fig.10, in the form of liquid. Desorber 92 may include one or more gaskets in one of the previous embodiments. Filled with solvent or absorbent flows toward the lower portion 95 of desorber. In the lower part of the absorbent or solvent at least partially vaporized, which provides the evaporator 98 bottom. Evaporated in the evaporator bottom absorbent or solvent contains are subject to Department components and during the ascent in the column absorbs these be the separation of the components of the current in the direction of the lower part of the original thread is filled with absorbent or solvent. In desorber occurs gaseous partial stream 99, which is enriched to be separation of components. These are subject to Department components can be separated from the gaseous partial flow 99 or thermal method, i.e. by condensation or by other subsequent separation steps.

Alternative or additionally it can be provided by the expansion device, if desorber should be operated at a lower pressure than the absorber, or compression devices, if desorber should be operated at a higher pressure, h is m absorber.

In principle, if rectification is massoperedacha between gas and liquid due to the temperature difference of the lower part and the head part in both directions. Volatile ingredients fluid is condensed from the gaseous phase and is absorbed by the liquid and volatile fluid is evaporated from the liquid phase into the gaseous phase. When absorption occurs massoperedacha only in one direction, the gas absorbed by the liquid.

But the difference between distillation and absorption is that if rectification for the gas and the liquid are connected to each other, when absorption contrast, the two streams can be regulated independently from each other: when rectification certain amount of liquid vaporized and rises up towards the head of the column. At the head of the column all the steam is condensed and at least partially returned to the column as liquid flow. The maximum amount of liquid, respectively, is equal to the total condensed the amount of steam that enters the head of the column. If at the bottom evaporate more liquid, more liquid can flow back. So both threads are interconnected, and massoperedacha crucially depends on the flow of steam. Consequently, in cases where skin is ment for rectification, as a rule, carried out the gas control.

In contrast, in cases of application for absorption by means of pumps and blowers can be set to different operating conditions: a great deal over the absorbent may be in contact with a relatively small gas flow, and Vice versa. In addition, the absorbents can link the components of the gas: physically, by a chemical reaction or both physically and chemically. The choice of absorbent or solvent for a specific gas component, and the concentration in the gas and liquid are crucial to massoperedacha carried out preferably with a gas or preferably liquid control.

To check the possibility of applying the invention gaskets were manufactured prototype gaskets, containing the spacer elements: traditional stuffing removed several layers of padding and the vacant space is filled with the spacer is pushed elements of equal thickness between other layers of stuffing. Each layer of padding is provided on a strictly specified distance from two adjacent layers of the gasket, allowing it turns out the gap of predetermined width between all layers of stuffing. In the studied case, this width is 1.5 mm To the same number of contacts in the prototype is reduced with 79500 m -3up to 18,000 m-3and the total surface 205 m2/m3up to 190 m2/m3. With the reduction of the total surface should be reduced separation ability, or, respectively, the efficiency of the packing, if this loss is not compensated by other measures. According to US 6378322 B1 possible ways to implement that, despite the overall reduction in the surface rectification have preferred separation effect.

At first, it was tested using the above prototype for rectification. This gasket was installed in the test column with an inner diameter of 250 mm, and at atmospheric pressure using the test system was measured chlorobenzene/ethylbenzene. The tests confirm what was already suggested earlier: thanks to the open surface of the cross-section, which is formed by gaps, loss of pressure on the gasket slightly reduced compared with the gasket without the spacer elements. The decrease of the total surface of the leads, however, to reduce the separation ability. Gasket with the spacer elements have a smaller number of separation stages per meter (NTSM: number of theoretical stages per meter) than without the spacer elements. For comparison are decisive point below the point of load application, in this example below, the factor F is equal to 3 PA 0,5. The factor F represents the average gas velocity in an empty column, multiplied by the square root of the gas density. The factor F is proportional to the kinetic energy of the gas. Under the point of load application is the high point of interaction of gas-liquid.

The corresponding values NTSM be 1.6/m for stuffing with the spacer elements and 1.7/m for stuffing without the spacer elements. Is NTSM is the main value for the separation ability. The higher the value NTSM, the more separation capacity of the gaskets. Thus, the separation ability in relation to the total surface was not improved.

So, these are obtained so far, the findings indicate that the proposed invention the gasket with a reduced number of contact locations and the increased distance between the layers of stuffing, though, and reduces the pressure loss, but additionally leads to a reduction of the separation ability by rectification. Consequently, such a gasket when rectification is useless and so is fundamentally different from gaskets are presented in US 6378322 B1, which is obviously preferable for rectification.

In an unexpected way other experiments showed that there are mass system for which the invention gasket improves section is sustained fashion ability on the overall surface. The focus is on the system with a large surface tension is mainly water systems - which, as a rule, prone to poor wetting of the surface. First of all, absorption strenuously applied water solutions, which due to its high surface tension of water only at very high costs fully moisten the total available surface, forming a liquid film. Poor wetting of the total surface of the gasket, on the contrary, inevitably leads to the decrease of the separation ability. Therefore, a structured packing with absorptive application must have the following properties: low loss of pressure on the gasket and having the greater overall surface, and this surface should wetted by the liquid.

Therefore, hypothesis, why the decrease in the number of contacts leads to improved absorption capacity is due to poor wetting properties of fluids being applied behind the contact layer gaskets are formed zones, which are not wetted by the liquid. Thus, the total surface cannot be used with liquid in full. Designated contact prevents further flow of fluid, it stagnates and is deflected to the sides. A similar can be stated, to the Yes water in the form of a film flowing down on a flat surface and for suddenly disturbed entered by the subject (for example, finger, put on a plane), behind the subject for the film is broken, and there is a dry, non-wetted surface, which will be re-wetted only when the item will be removed from the stream.

Studied mass system is a water system with a liquid control. CO2that is in the surrounding air, absorbed and chemically binds sodium lye. A chemical reaction in the liquid flows so quickly that the absorption in principle limited to the surface boundary between the gaseous and liquid phases. This means that everything here is partly dependent on the proportion of surface mass transfer from the General surface. All other mechanisms play only a subordinate role.

By appropriate correlations (EUR. Duss et al.: "Effective Interfacial Area and Liquid Hold-up of Nutter Rings at High Liquid Loads", Chemical Engineering & Technology 24 (7), 2001, pp. 716-723) on the obtained measurement results can be directly determined at the disposal of surface mass transfer. As shown in Fig.11, the gasket with the spacer elements and the reduced number of contact despite the smaller total surface provides a large surface mass transfer than the gasket without the spacer elements and a large number of contact locations. This means, the separation of str is functioning mass systems with liquid control can be effectively improved by reducing the number of contact locations and the proper location of the contact masses. Also when applying the spacer elements can be reduced, the pressure loss and reduced material consumption, because you need fewer layers of stuffing. The lower curve of Fig.11 shows the surface mass transfer for the offer on the market of structured packing Mellapak typeTMwhen increasing the load mass transfer apparatus of volatile ingredients fluid medium, and the load L in m3/m2plotted on the x-axis. The upper curve of Fig.11 shows for comparison the surface of the mass relative to the total surface of structured packing in accordance with the invention. For all the considered measurement points, it turns out that the above ratio when using gaskets with the spacer elements is greater than for stuffing without the spacer elements.

Such systems are intended primarily for absorption preparation of the exhaust gas, in which a jet of aqueous solutions from the gas stream must be removed problematic components. An example of this is the absorption of climatically harmful CO2from exhaust gases of power plants using water absorbents, which may contain organic or inorganic basic substances such as, for example, MEA or potash.

In such mass systems nabiscos reduced number of contact shows a significant decrease in the incidence of pressure, and unexpectedly increase the separation ability in contrast to comparable gaskets with a large number of contacts and without gaps between the layers of padding.

Thus, this gasket is best suited for, in particular, be used in the absorption of CO2from exhaust gases of power plants basic aqueous solutions.

1. Device for cleaning fluid with mass transfer apparatus for cleaning or volatile fluid or volatile ingredients of the fluid by mass transfer between the volatile fluid medium and the volatile ingredients of a fluid medium and mass transfer apparatus is an adsorber (91) or desorber (92), which is made with a possibility of it volatile fluid and volatile ingredients of the fluid and which contains structured packing and structured packing includes the first layer (10) gaskets and the second layer (100) gaskets, and the first layer (10) gaskets and the second layer (100) gaskets have a wavy profile, and this wave profile form open channels(12, 14, 16, 112, 114, 116), moreover, the channels (12, 14, 16) of the first layer (10) gaskets overlap with the channels (112, 114, 116) of the second layer of stuffing, and through channels(12, 14, 16, 112, 114, 116) may be volatile ingredients fluid medium, so that the channels can soak this hard the volatile fluid medium, characterized in that the first layer (10) of the gasket is in contact with the second layer (100) gaskets, contact through the spacer elements(24, 34, 44, 134, 144), moreover, the spacer elements are an integral part of the first or second layer (10, 100) padding and is made in the form of jumpers, and the spacer elements are located on the vertices(33, 43, 133, 143), limiting open channels(12, 14, 16, 112, 114, 116).

2. The device under item 1, with the spacer elements(24, 34, 44, 134, 144) located in the outer region of the first or second layer (10, 100) padding.

3. The device according to p. 2, and the edge region comprises a strip which is directly adjacent to the edge of the layer (10, 100) padding.

4. The device according to p. 3, and the strip has a length, which corresponds to the length of the layer (10, 100) padding, and the length of a layer (10, 100) padding vertical mounting layer (10, 100) padding in the mass transfer apparatus is equal to the length of the layer (10, 100) padding in the horizontal direction.

5. The device according to p. 3, and the strip has a length, which corresponds to the length of the layer (10, 100) padding, and the length of a layer (10, 100) padding is the length of the layer (10, 100) padding in the plane perpendicular to the axis of the mass transfer apparatus.

6. The device according to p. 3, and the strip has a height that corresponds to the height of the layer (10, 100) padding, and the height of the layer (10, 100) is abuki vertical installation in the mass transfer apparatus is the length of the layer (10, 100) padding in the vertical direction.

7. The device according to p. 3, and the strip has a height that corresponds to the height of the layer (10, 100) padding, and the height of the layer (10, 100) padding is the length of the layer (10, 100) padding in the direction of the axis of the mass transfer apparatus.

8. The device according to p. 3, and the strip has a width equal to twice the maximum height h of the spacer element.

9. The device according to p. 3, and the strip has a width, maximum equal to 1.5 times the height h of the spacer element.

10. The device under item 1, with the spacer elements (134, 144) are on the second layer (100) padding.

11. The device under item 1, with the spacer elements in the vertical orientation of the first and second layers (10, 100) gaskets are located under each other or next to each other.

12. The device under item 1, and the wave profile is essentially constant height (28) waves.

13. The method of cleaning fluid in the mass transfer apparatus, which is an adsorber (91) or desorber (92) contains a structured packing comprising the following steps: feeding of volatile ingredients of the fluid in the mass transfer apparatus, the distribution of summed volatile ingredients of the fluid on the overall surface, the supply of volatile fluid in the mass transfer apparatus in the region of the entrance of the fluid distribution legal the cloud of fluid in the area of the gas inlet on the overall surface, moreover, the volatile fluid flows in countercurrent to the liquid collecting volatile fluid that comes out of the stuffing, in a fluid environment, with structured packing provides the first layer of stuffing and a second layer of padding, and the first layer of the gasket and the second layer gaskets have a wavy profile with a constant height of the wave, and this wave profile form open channels with the channels of the first layer gaskets overlap with the channels of the second layer of stuffing, and volatile fluid medium flows through these channels from the input area of the fluid in the direction of the exit area of the fluid moreover, volatile ingredients fluid covers the current through the channels of volatile fluid medium flows along the walls of the channels, and the first layer of the gasket is in contact with the second layer of padding, contact through the spacer elements and the spacer elements are an integral part of the first or second layer of padding and is made in the form of jumpers and are on the tops of(33, 43, 133, 143), limiting open channels(12, 14, 16, 112, 114, 116), so is mass transfer between the volatile fluid medium and volatile ingredients fluid medium through the channels formed by the surface mass transfer.

14. The method according to p. 13, and the cleaning occurs by mass transfer, which is dependent on the speed, which components must be removed from the flow of the volatile fluid, volatile ingredients are absorbed fluid medium.

15. The method according to p. 13, and the cleaning occurs by mass transfer, which depends on the speed at which the components to be deleted from the volatile ingredients of the fluid, given volatile ingredients in the fluid.

16. The method according to p. 13, and the volatile fluid is a gas.

17. The method according to p. 16, and the gas is a gas containing CO2.

18. The method according to p. 13, and volatile ingredients fluid medium is a liquid in which the chemical reaction proceeds.



 

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3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: petrochemical industry; oil-refining industry; chemical and other industries; devices for realization mass-exchange processes in the column apparatuses.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the devices for realization of mass-exchange processes in the column apparatuses used both in the systems of a liquid-liquid type and in the systems of a vapor-liquid type and may be used in petrochemical, oil-refining, chemical and other industries. The mass-exchange head includes a row of rectangular platesinclined to each other at an angle with a flanging towards to each other in the upper part of the plates. The rectangular plates of no more than 1 mm thick are made with a perforation in the form of a louver gauze, in which the slit louver holes have a width S equal to 0.3-0.5 mm and with a step equal to no more than the thickness of the plates, with an inclination at an angle α equal to 30-45°, the ratio of the plate length 1 to its width S - from 13 up to 25, a direction of the louver channels to the horizontal axis of coordinates at an angle β equal to 30-45° and with the spacing interval between the louver channels of 1-2 mm. The flangings are facing each other are connected among themselves without a clearance and form a blind bin with the overflow slats in height of no less than the values of a water seal. The inclined rectangular plates with the perforation in the form of a louver gauze in vertexes of the lower angles are connected by the blind plates, which form among themselves a drain branch pipe dipped into the blind bin with the overflow plates of the below lying row of the inclined plates. The advantage of the offered design of the mass-exchange head is expansion of the range of its stable operation at a high efficiency of the mass exchange both in the systems of the liquid -liquid type and in the systems of vapor-liquid type.

EFFECT: the invention ensures expansion of the range of the mass-exchange head stable operation at a high efficiency of the mass exchange both in the systems of the liquid -liquid type and in the systems of vapor-liquid type.

2 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: separation.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises uniform distribution and supply of gas-liquid mixture to the structurized members with macroscopic and microscopic structures, impregnating the surface of the members with the liquid to be separated, collecting liquid on the surfaces of the structures, and discharging liquid and gas separately. The liquid in gas phase is converted into the liquid phase by reaching the phase thermodynamic equilibrium of the mixture.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: regular nozzle comprises stack of sheets provided with sloping corrugations or projections. The perforated members are interposed between the sheets. The sheets and/or the perforated members interposed between them are provided with flow swirlers that define perforation. The axes of the swirlers are vertical. The swirlers can be defined by woven grid. The members may be provided with corrugations that intersect with the corrugations or projections on the sheets. The corrugations of the members are smaller than corrugations or projections on sheets. The swirlers are made of slots, and members are interposed between the sheets in pair.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

4 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: petrochemical industry; equipment for separation and the mass-exchange apparatuses.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of petrochemical industry, in particular, to the regular nozzle for the separation and mass-exchange apparatuses. The regular nozzle for separation and the mass-exchange apparatus is pertaining to the designs of the regular nozzles intended for realization the heat-mass-exchanging and separation processes in the system gas (steam)-liquid. The nozzle contains the turned relatively to each other packets of the sheets with the slant corrugations or the porous prominences crossing in the adjacent sheets. At that and the porosity of the prominences and/or the sheets in the packets is diminishing in the nozzle towards the gas outlet. Besides the prominences and/or the sheets of the packets are made on the gas inlet into the nozzle out of the hydrophilic material, and on the outlet of the nozzle - out of the liophilic material, and the ratio of the pores sizes of the prominences and/or of the sheets of the packets on the inlet and the outlet of the gas are proportional to ratios of the surface tension of the separable liquids in the power of 0.5. The invention allows to up-grade efficiency of the processes of the heat-and-mass exchange and separation by reduction of carryover of the liquid with the increased gas productivity.

EFFECT: the invention allows to up-grade efficiency of the processes of the heat-and-mass exchange and separation by reduction of carryover of the liquid with the increased gas productivity.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: oil-processing industry; chemical industry; production of the spiral heads for the heat-mass exchanging and simultaneous with them reaction processes.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is mainly pertaining to the oil-processing industry and chemical industry. The spiral head made in the form of the sequential rows of the spirals is installed in the packet in parallel to each other and to the flow in compliance of the dense location scheme. The adjacent and sequential spirals may be of the similar or counter rotation type. The sequential spirals are not necessary coaxial. Such location allows to form the oncoming or following movement of flows between the parallel spirals, that increases the turbulization and promotes stabilization of distribution of the dispersion particles according to their section and also to optimize selection of the design of the packet for the particular conditions of the process. The invention provides for manufacture of the layers of the spiral head by the strain of sheets, that makes it possible to organize its mass production in the wide range. Uniqueness of the spiral head ensures the effective interaction of the phases in their three possible relative movements: the direct-flow, the counter flow and the pseudo-liquefied flow.

EFFECT: the invention ensures manufacture of the layers of the spiral head by the strain of sheets, that that makes it possible to organize its mass production in the wide range and the effective interaction of the phases in their relative movements - the direct-flow, the counter flow and the pseudo-liquefied flow.

11 cl, 22 dwg

FIELD: natural gas industry; oil-refining industry; chemical industry; devices for realization of the mass-exchange processes in the gas(vapor)-liquid systems.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the devices for realization of the mass-exchange processes in the gas (vapor)-liquid systems, in particular, to the absorption and to the rectifying columns and may be used in the natural gas industry, il-refining industry, chemical industry. The regular overflow head contains the packed solids made out of the punching-drawn perforated sheets. The punching-drawn perforated sheets are made rectangular and bent along the longitudinal axis of the symmetry in the form of the small corners with the apex angle making from 110° up to 130°. The small corners are arranged with their peaks upward and laid in the staggered order one over another in the horizontal rows in the framework with formation of the packed-column block module. The small corners shelves edges of the above located row are connected with the apexes of the corners of the below row. In the shelves of the small corners and along the corners shelves edges there are the perforated section-shaped holes arranged uniformly in the staggered order along the whole area of the corners shelves. Above the holes there are the salient cone-shaped visors and their peaks on each of the corners shelves are facing the same direction in parallel to the corner shelf bent line. The mass-exchange column contains the packing block modules mounted one above another in the central part of the body. In the body the horizontal segment-shaped baffle plate are mounted. At that the baffle plates are arranged along the corners of packing modules on the opposite sides of the framework with formation of the zigzag-shaped channel of the multipath crisscross stream of the vapor. As the result of it the invention allows to increase effectiveness and productivity for the gas (vapor) in the mass-exchange column in conditions of the low loading by the liquid, to expand the range of the stable operation of the column as a whole.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased effectiveness and productivity for the gas (vapor) in the mass-exchange column in conditions of the low loading by the liquid and to expand the range of the stable operation of the column as a whole.

4 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: chemical industry; petroleum industry; natural gas industry; other industries; production of the nozzles used in the processes of the natural gas rectification, absorption, purification and dehydration.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to designs of the regular nozzles, which are used in the processes of the natural gas rectification, absorption, purification and dehydration and also as the mixers of the liquid and gaseous streams as the separators of the phases in the separation devices, as the contact elements in the condensers of mixing, as the sprinklers of the water cooling towers and may find usage practically in all production processes in petroleum, gaseous, chemical and other allied industries. The regular nozzle consists of the corrugated plates gathered in packages installed vertically and in parallel with the inclination of the flutes of the adjacent sheets to the horizon in the opposite sides, contacting by the protruding flutes to each other and forming among themselves the free channels of the complicated geometrical form. The nozzle is supplied with the spacers made in the form of the block of the horizontally laid in the rows in parallel to each another volumetric components. At that the symmetry axes of the components laying in the adjacent in height rows are mutually perpendicular. The ratio of the height of the package consisting of the corrugated sheets to the height of the spacer block lays within the limits of 2-5. The total height of the block of the spacers lays within the limits of 1.0-4.0 equivalent diametersof one component. The equivalent diameter of channels of the corrugated sheets package and the equivalent diameter of the component of the block of the spacer are in the ratio of 0.4-0.8. The components of the block of the spacer represent the solids of revolution, which are made in the form of the multiple-thread helicoids, at that the number of the threads makes 2-4. The components of the spacer block are laid in the rows with the clearance to each other, at that the interval, which separates the symmetry axes of the adjacent components makes 1.7-2.5 diameters of one component. The invention allows to raise intensity of the processes of the heat- and mass-exchange due to turbulization of the gas streams and redistribution of the liquid.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased intensity of the heat-exchange and mass-exchange processes due to turbulization of the gas streams and redistribution of the liquid.

4 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: separation of materials.

SUBSTANCE: nozzle comprises stacks made of vertical sheets provided with projections that define the sloping passages between the sheets for flowing the phases. The sheets of at least one pair of the stacks are coated with porous belts made of polymeric materials. The porous belts are connected with a source of positive charges.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

3 cl, 4 dwg

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