Method for hydrodynamic activation of materials
SUBSTANCE: method for hydrodynamic activation of materials includes heating a starting common stream of materials, dividing said stream into parallel streams, further initiating cavitation in each stream while activating the stream by implosion caused by cavitation action and a shockwave initiated by hydraulic impact, and then injecting into a hydrodynamic reactor in which streams are collided on one axis to generate a hydroimpact, after which the streams are merged into a common stream once more.
EFFECT: high output, reliability and improved economic performance.
9 cl, 2 dwg
The invention relates primarily to methods of treatment of materials and products in order of their activation, primarily to methods of dehydration of hydrocarbons, cleaning fluid, including at nuclear power plants, sterilization of food liquids, such as milk, preparation of petroleum products to the pyrolysis and cracking, processing slozhnosochinennyh products and systems on their basis, and is intended for mining, chemical, power plants and systems remove impurities and biological objects of the target products.
Known methods for processing hydrocarbons, mining of minerals by means of intensification of heat and mass transfer, saturation, dispersion, mixing and homogenizing, based on the effect of cavitation and the resulting process of implosion. Such systems can also be used in the microbiological production and water purification systems as of the cage mill of microorganisms and cell membranes. Significant capabilities have hydrodynamic methods, which compares favorably to high efficiency. The characteristics of the hydrodynamic systems known problem of increasing the efficiency of the energy source through the use of vibrational, in particular resonant processes. Suggested ways of influencing washes the VA and objects successive shock waves, in which the effect is produced by a series of shock waves with the management of duration, frequency and strength of each of them. There are also known methods, including a combination of cavitation and hydraulic shock impact. At the same time, in many cases, such methods cannot be applied due to limitations on the resistance of materials or for economic reasons. The most serious limitations arise, for example, for food products, in particular systems disinfection of milk. Thus, the challenge is to create ways and hydrodynamic-based systems, industrial technology, capable of providing high efficiency hydroshock impact regardless of restrictions on the resistance of materials.
Known, in particular, the method serial impact of shock waves on substances and objects, characterized in that the impact produced by a series of shock waves in the operational management of duration, frequency and strength of each of them (RF patent for the invention №2335731, date of publication, 10.10.2008). The disadvantage of this method and device is the low efficiency of generation of ballistic shock waves and the need of spending additional materials.
A method of refining and device for its implementation, in which processors the ku carry out mechanical hydrodynamic without cracking catalyst, in at least one step in the same process space. The inventive processing of a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons carry out mechanical hydrodynamic without cracking catalyst, at least one step in the same process space, which is a centrifuge with a cylindrical or conical rotor system of environmental protection, and output pipes, when this raw material is constant over served in the technological space of the rotating cylindrical or conical rotor; mix mechanically the rapidly rotating rotor with partitions and installed dies when the speed of rotation of the rotor 8000-28000 rpm and the pressure inside the centrifuge to 1.2 MPa; the temperature of the raw processing regulate its preliminary warming up, as well as heating or cooling of the front cover and the space between the rotor and the centrifuge housing, recycled raw materials emit through the output pipe. This is an opportunity to conduct processing of crude oil at the point of production, facilitating transportation, improving the efficiency of processing of crude oil (RF patent for the invention №2304607, publication date 20.08.2007). The disadvantage of this method and device is also low efficiency and relatively low productivity.
The proposal is Yong also the way whereby the flow of the treated components enters the flow chamber, the liquid phase fills the surge vessel in the upper part of which is stored airbag. The flow components in a flow chamber which surrounds the cavitator, in the track which is formed a cavity, the trailing portion of a cavity under the action of the reverse currents generated by the generator surges, intense breaks up into small bubbles, forming a zone of collapsing microbubble, coinciding with the expanding part of the flow chamber located before the generator surges (RF patent for the invention №2029611, publication date 27.02.1995). The disadvantage of this method and device is also low efficiency and relatively low productivity.
At the same time, there is a method of implementation of the hydrodynamic activation of materials in which the total flow of materials is divided into parallel streams, activated implosion caused by cavitation effects, and the shock wave initiated by the hammer, with the aim, for example, ultrasonic cavitation treatment of heavy oil residues (the earlier material in a distillation column), which increases the yield of light fractions (RF patent for the invention №№2371245, publication date 24.09.2007-prototype). The inventive method is carried out to react the re, containing the generator surges in the processed product, suction apparatus and the means for circulating the processed product in which the input channels of the processed product to the inputs of the generator water hammer and cavitation device are separated from each other divisive valve, and in each of these channels has a check valve, and the reactor is supplied by the accumulator pressure, the entrance of which is through the non-return valve is connected to the first generator output and the output with a second entrance cavitation device whose output and the second output of the generator surges have the opportunity to connect with a reservoir for the product to be processed. The invention improves the efficiency of the process: the specific energy costs of cavitation in the claimed reactor used in combination with cavitation apparatus, an order of magnitude less than using industrial ultrasonic generators.
The disadvantage of this method is the need for additional supply of the processed product to the generator surges, high intensity, due to the presence of the high-pressure accumulator and a high load on the plate, a spring-loaded relative to the septum, experiencing the wear and tear caused by interaction with the saddle walls, which reduces the reliability and performance of the method is.
The objective of the invention to create a method of hydrodynamic activation materials, which extended the functionality of the method, improved reliability and productivity, and improved economic performance of the method, technologies and systems based on it.
The problem is solved in that in the method of hydrodynamic activation of materials in which the total flow of materials is divided into parallel streams, activated implosion caused by cavitation effects, and the shock wave initiated by the hammer, the General stream prior to separation of the flow is heated, and after the separation in each of the streams initiate cavitation, and then Inuktitut in hydrodynamic reactor, which carried out a counter along one axis collision of flows with the occurrence of water hammer, after which the threads are again combined into a common stream.
before injectionem equalize the pressure between threads using pulse tube.
- collision flows between them are using separating the threads of the elastic element capable of moving along the axis of the threads in the area of their connection.
materials choose from a number containing solutions, hydrocarbons, emulsions, suspensions, polydisperse system, or a mixture thereof.
- part of the total flow of materials oxidize emitting ene the GII, which is sent to the heating of the total material flow.
- total heat flux materials are due to the cooling of the coolant of a nuclear reactor.
- heating of the total flow of materials is carried out to a temperature of 20-40°C below saturation temperature or boiling component.
after separation of the flows in each of the streams dampen pressure fluctuations through the use of expansion joints or pneumogastric.
- support pressure flows by changing the feeding speed of the material.
In Fig.1 shows the scheme of implementation of the method, where the 1 - capacity of the original product, 2 - stream of the original product, 3 - heat exchanger of the original product, 4 - channel of the first flow, 5 - channel second thread, 6 - confuser first stream 7 - confuser second thread 8-the first stream 9 - second diffuser flow, 10 - injector of the first thread 11 - second injector flow, 12 - hydrodynamic reactor 13 - the capacity of the final product.
In Fig.2 Dan cut hydrodynamic reactor 12 in the zone of collision of the flows, where 14 - elastic element 15 and the outlet 16 with a common thread.
An example implementation of the invention is a method of hydrodynamic activation materials described below.
In the described example embodiment of the invention as the source of the product is applied asphalt emulsion that allows characterize the performance features of the invention as applied to the processes of bitumirovannaya radioactive waste in particular technologies, which includes the mixing of waste with bitumen emulsion at normal temperature, heating the resulting mixture for breaking emulsions and distillation of water and volatile organic components.
The method is as follows.
As the capacity of the original product 1 can be used for tank preparation of emulsions, which are prepared in emulsion by mixing with sludge radioactive waste, chemicals (surfactants) and bitumen, with the formation of the flow of the original product 2 supplied in the heat exchanger 3.
Emerging from the heat exchanger 3, the flow of the original product at the output share at least two flow channels 4 and 5. The following describes with reference to one of the threads, the first thread. For parallel flow description of the process is quite similar to the collision of the flows in hydrodynamic reactor 12. Channel 4 the first stream is directed to the input confuser first stream 6, in which the flow speed and activate the implosion caused by the cavitation effect due to the use of the cavitator (not shown), for example, in the form of a Central body. After passing the streamlined body cavitation occurs when a certain, quite specific for a given point of the flow, the value of dimensionless parameter
where p is the hydrostatic pressure of the flow, pnis the saturated vapor pressure, ρ is the density of fluid, u∞- the speed of the liquid at a sufficient distance from the body. This option is called "cavitation number", it is Known that cavitation occurs when the flow boundary velocity u∞=Vcwhen the pressure in the flow is equal to the steam pressure (saturated vapor). This speed corresponds to the boundary value criterion cavitation.
Depending on the value of X one can distinguish four types of flows:
- precovitation - continuous (single-phase) flow when X>1;
- cavitation - (two-phase) flow at X~1;
film - stable branch of the cavitation cavity from the rest of the solid stream (film cavitation) when X<1;
- supercavitating - when X<<1.
The increase in flow rate after the onset of cavitation causes a rapid increase in the number of cavitation bubbles, which leads to them about EDINENIE in General cavitation cavern, then the flow front of the diffuser 8 goes into the jet. In this course preserves the non-stationary nature only in the field circuit of the caverns. Maximum tensile carefully purified water, which was achieved through the extension of water at 10°C is 28 Mn/m2(280 kg/cm2). Usually the gap occurs at pressures only slightly less than the saturated vapor pressure. Low strength of real fluids associated with the presence of so-called cavitation nuclei: poorly wettable areas of solids, solids with cracks filled with gas, microscopic gas bubbles, protected from dissolution of monomolecular organic membranes, ion formations that occur under the action of radiation. As you know, when cavitation original product (emulsion) intensively breaks up into small bubbles, forming a zone of collapsing microbubble. At the collapse of micro bubbles implosion occurs, accompanied by high local pressure and high cumulative Microstream, which are detrimental to the components of the emulsion, dispersive them and activating fluid. Cumulative effects lead to a point increase of pressure up to tens of thousands of atmospheres, with the formation of point temperatures in the tens of thousands of degrees Kelvin. Also, abrupt (sudden) the disappearance of cavitation bubbles leads to the formation of hydraulic shocks, and, consequently, to the creation of waves of compression and tension in a fluid with ultrasonic frequency. In relation to food emulsions, such as milk, this effect leads to the implosion of micro bubbles produced in the liquid, just tears bacteria.
After the speed and recovery of total pressure in the flow after passing the confuser 8, the first stream is sent to the injector 10, which generates a stream of the first hydrodynamic flow inside the reactor 12. At the same time using the injector of the second stream 11 to form a counter-stream of the second stream, which is sent within a hydrodynamic reactor 12 on a collision course with a stream of the first stream, as shown in figure 2.
The collision formed jets streams produced in the zone of the outlet pipe 15 with the generation of water hammer. To control the frequency and amplitude of the generated shock waves using elastic element 14 capable of moving along the axis of collision of the flows. This element may be a sliding piston or, as shown in figure 2, is secured at one side of the oscillating membrane. The elastic element 14 serves for the mutual transmission of the counter-efforts of the collision of two streams. Unlike about what cnyh generators hammer with a head-on collision pressure of the shock wave is doubled and is determined by the formula N.E. Zhukovsky
where Δ - the intensity of the surge, PA;
ρ - density of fluid, kg/m3;
ΔV - speed jump in the pipe, m/s;
C is the speed of propagation of the shock wave (sound) without taking into account the compliance of the walls, m/S.
For metal pipes, the speed of propagation of the shock wave in water is taken 1000-1400 m/S.
From the formula (2) follows that the velocity of the water in the pipe v=40 m/s, at the time of abrupt shutoff of the pipe, the pressure therein will increase by an amount equal to 4000-6400 kPa. In the proposed method in a collision pressure of the shock wave will be 8-12 MPa.
Given the implosion initiated by cavitation in front of the diffuser, additional shock wave increases the effect of the primary cavitation shock waves. In addition, there is an additional condensation water hammer, which is determined by the condition of the water vapor formed by boiling flow in the zone of cavitation. Such water hammer occurs when criter the th Fruta
where VW- the speed of the liquid, referred to full section of pipeline, m/s;
g - acceleration of gravity m/s2;
DTr- internal diameter of pipe, m
As the diameter increases, increases flow, and therefore, the performance of this method, the use of local cavitation, boiling short duration gives more efficient way. To this end it is expedient to heat the raw product 2 in the heat exchanger 3 lead with a relatively small underheating to a temperature of 20-40°C below saturation temperature at pressure p, which refers to boiling component of the original product, in this example - to the saturation temperature of water. The original General flow of materials can be heated in the heat exchanger 3 through the cooling of the products of oxidation of materials or a nuclear reactor that reduces the demand for third-party energy.
For the avicenia energy dispersion in the proposed method, even at low flow velocity in the injector V=20 m/s the pressure at the shock front hydrodynamic reactor 12 will be 31 MPa, almost three orders of magnitude increases the efficiency of dispersion.
For damping of the shock wave in front of the heat exchanger 3 after the separation of the flows in each of the streams dampen pressure fluctuations through the use of expansion joints or pneumogastric, which can be used various known methods, including, for example, using a gas cushion in the hydraulic lifters, similar to that at NPP with VVER. Can be applied and piezoresitive. Pressure flows appropriate to support the change of the flow of the source material or by using the controls in the channels 4 and 5 (not shown).
The use of the elastic element 14 in hydrodynamic reactor 12 allows you to selectively influence the frequency and amplitude of the shock wave by changing the stiffness, moment of inertia and resonance frequency of the elastic element 14, which increases the selectivity and the selection of the mode.
With the same purpose can be used various additional threads, including the supply of materials that complement the original product. For example, the output from the hydrodynamic reactor 12 can be supplied reagents, sorbent flow components. This solution can be used, in particular, for the recovery of liquid natural hydrocarbons heavy metals or sulfur compounds.
To eliminate the effect of neodnorodno is her planographic flows appropriate before submitting flows into the injectors 10 and 11 to hold the equalization of pressure in both threads for example, combining their pulse tube or leveling pipeline with the separation membrane.
In a variant of application of the method in combination with pyrolysis reactors proposed method can improve both the efficiency and productivity of the main process, and reduce the amount of heavy oil residue.
As the initial product in the tank 1 can be selected from materials from a number containing solutions, hydrocarbons, emulsions, suspensions, polydisperse system, or a mixture thereof. This series covers a wide range of natural resources, such as heavy oils, a variety of waste, including radioactive waste, food products such as milk.
In the processing of source material on the proposed method does not use rotating elements or spring sites that improves the reliability and efficiency of the method and promotes its use, for example, in the food industry with high demands on mechanical impurities and damage.
Thus, this method will allow you to extend the functionality, reliability and performance, improved economic performance of the method, technologies and systems based on it.
1. The method of hydrodynamic activation of materials in which the total flow of materials is divided into parallel streams, aktivere what's implosion, called cavitation effect and shock wave initiated by the hammer, characterized in that the total flow before flow separation is heated, and after the separation in each of the streams initiate cavitation, and then Inuktitut in hydrodynamic reactor, which carried out a counter along one axis collision of flows with the occurrence of water hammer, after which the threads are again combined into a common stream.
2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the collision of the flows between them are using separating the threads of the elastic element capable of moving along the axis of the threads in the area of their connection.
3. The method according to p. 1 or 2, characterized in that before injectionem equalize the pressure between threads using pulse tube.
4. The method according to p. 1 or 2, characterized in that the materials choose from a number containing solutions, hydrocarbons, emulsions, suspensions, polydisperse system, or a mixture thereof.
5. The method according to p. 1 or 2, characterized in that part of the total flow of materials are oxidized with the release of energy, which is sent to the heating of the total material flow.
6. The method according to p. 1 or 2, characterized in that the heating of the total flow of materials are due to the cooling of the coolant of a nuclear reactor.
7. The method according to p. 1 or 2, characterized in that the heating of the total flow of materials done by the keys to a temperature of 20-40°C below saturation temperature or boiling component.
8. The method according to p. 1 or 2, characterized in that after the separation of the flows in each of the streams dampen pressure fluctuations through the use of expansion joints or pneumogastric.
9. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the support pressure flows by changing the feeding speed of the material.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power engineering and may be used in heating systems of residential premises, and also in heaters for various technological processes. The substance of the invention is in the fact that a source of heat energy is a circulating pump with a wet rotor, in which during circulation of coolant partially to 95% they close an inlet and/or an outlet cut-off valve.
EFFECT: method to generate heat will make it possible to increase efficiency factor of a plant due to reduction of heat losses during pump operation.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat engineering, and namely to methods for heating of water and other liquids without any fuel combustion. As per the proposed method and device, liquid heating is performed by its supply to a vortex tube and formation of a resonant cavitation mode of its flow. Before the liquid flow enters the vortex tube, it is supplied through slots that are located at an angle to the central axis of the vortex tube along its perimeter, tangentially swirled by means of the above slots and subjected to ultrasonic irradiation with further rarefaction under resonance conditions. Then, the liquid is supplied to a consumer.
EFFECT: invention improves the liquid heating efficiency and is environmentally safe.
10 cl, 3 dwg, 3 tbl
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of heat power engineering and may be used in systems of heating, water heating for domestic and production needs. The concept of the invention is as follows: a multi-functional vortex heat generator according to the first version comprises a closed body with nozzles for supply of heated liquid and drainage of heated liquid, rotors installed inside the body and made in the form of two discs fixed on independent shafts having independent drives and capable of rotating towards each other, suction turbines, which are stiffly fixed on independent shafts together with discs of rotors, and in discs of rotors opposite to installed turbines, along the circumference there are conical-cylindrical holes made, directed into the cavity between the discs, higher by radius of which radially along the circumference there are rows of fingers rigidly installed, at the same time fingers are made so that rows of fingers of one disc freely with a gap enter between rows of fingers of the second disc, and conical-cylindrical holes of one disc are located opposite to the conical-cylindrical holes of the other disc, and each disc with each turbine is equipped with a separate nozzle, being a nozzle for supply of heated liquid. According to the second version, in a heat generator each electric motor additionally comprises a device to adjust frequency of rotation, and rows of fingers of rotors are made in the form of ellipsoid fingers-blades, perforated with through conical-cylindrical holes and are installed on discs so that holes in fingers-blades are directed along with rotation of discs-rotors. According to the third version in a vortex heat generator the outlets of electric motors of rotor drives, a temperature sensor of a collector of heated liquid are connected with appropriate inlets of a control unit, and entire internal surface of the body and the external surface of turbines, discs with fingers and shafts of the drive placed inside the body are coated with wear-resistant ceramics.
EFFECT: increased speed of liquid heating.
3 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: aircraft engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed aircraft comprises lifting air-bag and bearing air-bag and power plant with heater. Lifting air-bag is filled with working fluid of power plant arranged in its nacelle and including compressor, heater, turbine, power load and working fluid lines connected with lifting air-bag. Bearing air-bag is composed of sections and incorporates volume variator.
EFFECT: higher power-to-weight ratio.
9 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to wind industry and can be used in heating and hot water supply systems of residential and industrial buildings. Friction heat generator comprises vertical cylindrical body with lid and bottom, drive shaft, cold water inlet manifolds and hot water outlet manifolds, movable disc at the bottom with blades and stationary disc. Pipe rigidly put on the shaft has rocker arms on the top attached to it from both sides, and cantilever beams at the bottom, supported by disc. Disks are attached at the bottom on both sides of cantilever beams, vertical rods attached to them come out from their centre. These rods have discs with blades and discs with hollow rings around them, which are put loosely on them. Rods are fixed at the top in the sleeves attached to the rocker arms.
EFFECT: performance permits to increase the conversion factor of one form of energy into another, compared with similar heat generators.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heating equipment, particularly, to water heater incorporated with heating system and hot water supply. Windmill heat generator comprises cylindrical housing with cover and bottom and cylindrical horizontal partition accommodating thrust bearing and journal-and-thrust bearing. Vertical shaft runs in said bearings and is equipped with coupling fitted from above to receive power from windmill, rotary vane element being secured thereto from below. Cold water inlet pipe is fitted inside the housing, at its bottom, while hot water discharge pipe is arranged at its top section connected with cold and hot water supplies, respectively.
EFFECT: enhanced performances, heating of two and mote premises.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: wind friction heat generator comprises cylindrical housing with lid and bottom, drive shaft and fittings of cold water inlet and hot water outlet at the top right side of the housing. Drive shaft under the lid has a flange rigidly connected in the bottom with flange of screw, and from sides with plate, having openings for connection of peripheral screws to it. The centre screw at the bottom has opening in which the axle rigidly connected with movable disc attached on the bottom, is installed on the sliding key. Peripheral screws at the top are freely located with clearance of 1.5-2.0 mm in the openings of plate and at the bottom have discs attached to them, contacting with annular disc attached to the bottom. All screws at the bottom are combined by hollow ring filled with heat accumulating material of phase transition, and their surface has the raised roughness.
EFFECT: improvement of efficiency of liquid heating.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power engineering and can be used for heating water in housing and utilities sector and in agriculture. Essence of the invention consists in the fact that the acceleration bush of a heat generator is made as a set of concentrically embedded fixed bushes with radial gaps, the bush is installed in a water heating device comprising an operating network pump, feeding and return pipelines with shutoff valves providing for interaction of the heat exchanger with the heat generator which includes at least one casing fitted by a cylindrical part made as a vortex tube with a braking unit being set at the base of the casing and its other side being connected to the end face side of a fluid accelerator which is made as a volute connected to the pump and fitted by the acceleration bush set coaxially to the vortex tube axis line and connected to the discharge tube of the pump by a channel.
EFFECT: device arrangement will make it possible to increase fluid heating efficiency and reach stable performance.
12 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method of a hybrid unit control and to the hybrid unit in which this method can be implemented. Control method for a unit 1 comprising at least a compressor plant 2 and/or a drying unit on one side and a heat regeneration system 3 on the other side. The heat regeneration system 3 absorbs heat from the compressor plant 2. Additionally the hybrid unit 1 comprises a controller 5 and a device 6 to set one or more system parameters. The controller 5 performs control both of the compressor plant 2 and/or the drying unit and the heat regeneration system 3 on the basis of the said system parameters along with the optimisation of the overall efficiency of the hybrid unit.
EFFECT: reduction of total power consumption by the hybrid unit.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is referred to the field of electric engineering and operation of systems with asynchronous electric motor and frequency control, in particular to control of rotation speed and prevention of critical operation modes. Technical result of the method lies in that reliability of the cavitator is improved; its stable operation is maintained by means of operation mode correction when the detected sign proves potential stalling with change in the electric motor rotation speed. The method for control of stability improvement in cavitator operation includes liquid passing in a gap between the rotor and stator and subsequent conversion of the received energy into thermal energy, control by the heating process. The claimed method for control of the cavitator operation modes is based on the analysis of higher harmonics ratio in the electric mains, its comparing with the threshold value and shaping of the control signal for frequency control unit which controls the rotation speed of the electric motor.
EFFECT: control method allows reaching maximum efficiency for activation of process liquids for the purpose of their use in different processes of chemical production such as dilution, heat generation, and synthesis.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to blast processes of the synthesis of materials, in particular, diamonds. Proposed device comprises flow vessel 1 with tight cover 3, mix of explosive arranged inside said vessel that features a high specific energy and graphite or carbon-bearing explosive with negative oxygen balance, initiator 5, indestructible cylindrical barrier 6 composed by pipe arranged aligned with vessel 1 there inside. Note here that said mix of graphite and explosive and initiator 5 are placed at barrier 6 centre.
EFFECT: protection of device wall against maximum loads, increased bulk of explosive without increase in device volume and weight.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to testing of materials. Proposed device comprises collar ring 7 vertically fitted at base 12 to house mother ampoule with material specimen 11 to be tested by high dynamic pressure above which arranged is striker 5 composed of aluminium disc. Besides, it includes pyrotechnical charge to be initiated by trigger to produce detonation wave towards said disc. Guide steel ring 4 is arranged above said pyrotechnical charge 3 to accommodate said aluminium disc spaced from collar ring 7. Said mother ampoule is composed by base 8 and cover 9 jointed together by thread joint. Cylindrical recess for disc-shape insert 10 is made at ampoule base centre. Conical cavity is made at the centre of said recess to accommodate conical material specimen 11 to be tested. Specimen base is located flush with recess bottom surface while said insert 10 is arranged in cylindrical recess between cone base and ampoule cover 9. Specimen conical shape and ampoule design allows straining the specimens to over 2 Mbar using single detonator.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of testing.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to explosive processing and can be used for compaction of powders, production of new materials with unique properties at high pressures. Proposed device comprises cylindrical charge of explosive wherein block of material to be squeezed is arranged axially. Metallic liner is arranged with clearance on outer side surface and furnished with sheet propellant and end face detonation plating. Similar detonation plating is added to charge second end face. Said metallic liner allows phase rate of detonation excitation along cylindrical charge side surface U=(1.3…1.6)D, where D is charge detonation rate.
EFFECT: simultaneous loading at all sides.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: testing equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a base, on which there is a flat-shaped sample 2 of a material, a striker 3 to form an impact wave in the sample 2 in the form of an aluminium disc, which is installed at the distance above the base with the sample, a generator 5 of a flat impact wave to speed up the striker 3, comprising an explosive charge with a paraffin insert, initiated from a detonator, at the same time the device is equipped with a heater 7 with smooth adjustment of spiral heating temperature, enclosed into a ceramic vessel, and which via a metal plate 8 is pressed to the surface of the sample 2, and a thermocouple 9, located between them. The ceramic body of the heater 7 is made with a central hole for passage of a probing beam 10 of a laser in an interferometric speed meter.
EFFECT: expansion of functional capabilities and increased validity of produced comparative results as a result of performance of serial sample testing under high temperatures.
6 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to research of , for example, hydrogen, deuterium, helium, etc, in megabar pressure range. Proposed device comprises charge of cylindrical explosive 2 surrounding case 2 with chamber 3 for analysed gas accommodating extra cylindrical shell 4. thus, two coaxial chambers A and B are made in said device. Said chambers can be sealed. Metal cylindrical rod 8 electrically isolated from case elements is arranged in the device along axis of chamber 3. Said rod allows registering, apart from mean density, electric conductivity of quasi- isentropically compressed gases in one experiment.
EFFECT: reduced cumulation of energy nearby device axis, practically uniform pressure distribution at maximum gas compression.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to surface processing by shock wave and may be used in, for example, shock wave hardening, blast welding and liquid-phase sintering. At least one working jet is formed for be forced into chamber with the mix of liquefied propane and air, and directed to material surface. Electric pulse is sent to said working jet to cause electrothermal blast that allows propagation of shock wave in aforesaid mix to generate processing force on material surface.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to apparatus for thermal pyrolysis of hydrocarbons in order to obtain lower olefins. The reactor comprises a rotor with working blades which form an axial blade array, a fixed toroidal collar which adjoins the ends of said blades, and a housing which surrounds the collar and the periphery of the rotor in such a way that a passage with an annular meridional section is formed. One or more partitions are mounted in the passage, an inlet orifice being arranged after each partition and an outlet orifice being arranged in front of each partition. Nozzle blades forming a nozzle array are mounted on the inlet side of the rotor array, and diffuser blades forming a diffuser array are mounted on the outlet side of the rotor array. There is a space without blades between the outlet of the diffuser array and the inlet of the nozzle array. The group of nozzle blades arranged directly after each partition can be separated from the remaining nozzle blades by a diaphragm such that a channel is formed connecting the corresponding inlet orifice to said group of blades. The geometrical parametres of the nozzle and diffuser arrays can change in a circular direction in order to provide the same pressure at the inlet of the rotor array and at the outlet of the rotor array.
EFFECT: invention increases output of lower olefins, reduces consumption of raw material, simplifies design and starting up the reactor, prevents radial leakage through gas between the rotor and the housing.
3 cl, 7 dwg, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention may be used in nanotechnology and in recycling of ammunition. Detonation synthesis of superdispersed diamonds is carried out by explosion of charges in liquid medium, and every time at least two charges distanced in space are exploded. Then diamond-containing charge dissolved in liquid medium is collected, and diamonds are extracted from it. Between surface of liquid medium and exploded charges splitter of gas bubble may be located, and in space over surface of liquid - drop curtain is arranged. Charges used may be represented by ammunition subject to recycling or their parts. Increased yield of superdispersed diamonds with required characteristics is achieved by selection of charges capacity, distance between them, space configuration, time of delay in initiation.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to cheapen production of diamond-containing charge with improvement of efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to physics of superstrong pulsed magnetic fields, pressure of which can be used for studying properties of substances compressed with pulsed pressure and obtaining substances with new properties. The device for compressing substance has a source of pulsed magnetic field 1 with an explosive charge 3 and at least one sample of substance. On the axis of the device there is a current conducting rod 3 with channels 4 for placing samples, where at the centre of the rod there an annular constriction 5, formed by cones, whose peaks face each other. The length of the annular constriction is equal to the diametre of the rod. The wall above the channel in the rod where the sample is located has thickness which is greater than thickness of the skin layer, and the length of the rod is greater than the length of the explosive charge.
EFFECT: provision for directed movement of the sample along the axis, which enables determination of place of installation of sample catchers and so preserving the sample after removing the load.
4 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to chemical apparatus, and more specifically to apparatus for activating chemical reactions, heat-mass exchange, saturation, mixture and homogenisation of heterogeneous media, as well as destruction of macromolecules. The reactor has a hydraulic impact generator, a cavitation device and apparatus for circulating processed products in the reactor. Channels carrying products to the inputs of the hydraulic impact generator and the cavitation device are separated from each other by a disconnecting valve and a check valve is fitted in each of these channels. The reactor is fitted with a pressure accumulator, input of which is connected through a check valve to the first output of the generator, and the output - to the second input of the cavitation device, whose output and the second output of the hydraulic impact generator can be connected to the reservoir for the processed product. The cavitation device has a housing with inlet and outlet channels, a chamber formed in the housing, as well as a cavitator. The cavitation device has a second inlet channel linked to the chamber, which can be connected to the output of the pressure accumulator and lies at a tangent to the inner surface of the chamber. The cavitator is placed in the outlet channel.
EFFECT: more efficient processing of the product.
18 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves water purification from mechanical admixtures by way of filtration, water treatment with pulse ultrasound field with a frequency equal to 22±1.65 kHz, ultrasonic oscillation power equal to nearly 120-200 W, intensity equal to nearly 10-20 W/cm2 and exposure lasting 3-5 minutes. Then water is repeatedly filtered and treated with ultraviolet radiation at wave length amounting to 200-250 nm.
EFFECT: drinking water treatment technology simplification combined with simultaneous increase of the degree of water purification from undesirable admixtures and the required quality water obtainment.
2 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex