FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat power industry and can be used in technologies of independent heating and hot water supply of individual houses, industrial buildings and facilities. A heating device includes an insulated housing with a furnace chamber arranged in it and provided with atomisers above which a heat exchanger with heat carrier inlet and outlet and a flue gas collector is installed. Additionally, the device is provided with a thermoelectric converter arranged in the furnace chamber, the outlet of which is connected through an in-series connected voltage inverter and a switching apparatus to a feed circuit of a delivery pump and an ozone plant connected by means of an air duct through the delivery pump to the furnace chamber.
EFFECT: invention allows reducing natural gas consumption by 15…20%, as well as considerably reducing toxicity of combustion products owing to reducing content of carbon and nitrogen oxides in them.
The invention relates to a power system and can be used in the technology of Autonomous heating and hot water supply to individual houses, industrial buildings and structures.
Known devices for heating, for example, buildings (patent WO 93/05347, 18.03.1993) containing an insulated casing placed in the lower part of the furnace chamber with a burner, which is located above the heat exchanger in the form of a set of metal pipes with a reflective plates and inlet and outlet for coolant and manifold flue gas.
A disadvantage of the known devices is a significant fuel consumption per unit of produced heat with increased content of carbon oxides and nitrogen oxides (CO, NO and NO2in the composition of combustion products.
The technical result of the invention is to increase the heating efficiency of buildings while reducing the harmful effects of combustion products.
This technical result is achieved in that the device for heating containing an insulated casing placed in the lower part of the furnace chamber with a burner, which is located above the heat exchanger in the form of a set of pipes with a reflective plates and inlet and outlet for coolant and manifold flue gas, additionally equipped with a thermoelectric Converter is spruce as batteries, thermocouples, placed in the combustion chamber, the output of which through cascaded voltage source inverter and the switch is connected to the power circuit of the intake of the pump and the ozone generator connected through a duct through the discharge pump with furnace.
The Device (Fig.1) for heating, which represents a boiler, includes an insulated housing 1, comprising placed in the lower part of the combustion chamber 2 with 3 burners, which is located above the heat exchanger 4, made from a combination of pipe with a reflective plate 5 and is connected to the input 6 and output 7 of the collector, and the collector 8 flue gas outlet 9. In the combustion chamber 2 between 3 burners and heat exchanger 4 posted by thermoelectric converters 10 in the form of a battery of thermocouples. Thermoelectric Converter 10 is connected to the input of inverter 11 voltage. The output of the inverter 11 voltage connected to the input of the switch 12 and the circuit 13 of the power (e.g. electric motor) delivery pump 14. The output of switch 12 is connected with the ozone generator 15, which by means of the duct 16 through a pressure pump 14 is connected with the furnace chamber 2.
The device operates as follows. When the fuel supply to the burners 3 of the furnace 2, the coolant from the system enters a stand-alone boiler body 1 through the inlet 6 is ollector, further, the coolant passes through the set of tubes of the heat exchanger 4 is heated and exits through the outlet 7 of the collector to the consumer. The heat exchanger 4 is made masloemkost (for example, pipes made of copper or a copper-Nickel alloy with an inner diameter equal 21-23 mm), and outer fins that allows you to efficiently collect heat from teplopoteryami flue gases passing from the burners 3 in the combustion chamber 2 through the heat exchanger 4 in the collector 8 of the flue gases. On the tubes of the heat exchanger 4 reinforced reflective plate 5, creating turbulence of the flue gas stream, thereby increasing the efficiency of their warmth. Flue gases, giving warmth through the heat exchanger 4 to the coolant flow to the collector 8 of the flue gases, where through the outlet 9 are ejected. Thermoelectric converters 10 under the influence of different environments in the combustion chamber 2, convert a portion of thermal energy heating boiler into electrical energy. In accordance with the physical phenomenon Seebeck output thermoelectric converters 10 there is a constant voltage (EMF), which is applied to the inverter 11 voltage where it is converted to AC.
Ozone-air mixture can be fed both continuously and discretely pulsed. Continuous re is the ima of filing this voltage is applied to the circuit 13 of the power intake of the pump 14 and through the switch 12 to the ozone generator 15. In the ozone generator 15 is ozonization of air through barrier discharge. The result is an ozone-air mixture which is pumped by the pump (fan) 14 into the combustion chamber 2. In the combustion chamber 2, an ozone-air mixture with enhanced oxidative properties, participates in the combustion intensifies the combustion process and improves the composition of the flue gases, oxidizing the nitrogen and carbon to less toxic oxides with higher oxidation States of the elements (CO2N2O5).
When the pulse applying an ozone-air mixture constant voltage generated by thermoelectric converters 10 and converted into AC voltage by the inverter 11, is fed to the ozone generator 15 periodically, due to the interruption of the circuit by the switch 12.
The rationale for the positive impact of ozone-air mixture in the combustion efficiency of gas are presented below. Natural gas in most modern boilers, in a volume of one cubic meter has the following composition:
1. CH4(methane) - 941,2 l
2. H2(hydrogen) - 4.4 l
3. N2(nitrogen) - 24.6 K
4. C2H6(Ethan) - 24,1 l
5. C3H8(propane) - 4,3 l
6. C4H10(Bhutan) - 0.5 l
7. With5H12(pentane) 0.6 l
8. C6H14(hexane) - 0.3 l
When complete combustion of natural g is for will occur following chemical reaction:
where ΔcrH0the enthalpy of combustion.
Theoretical calculation of the amount of heat released by complete combustion of 1 cubic meter of natural gas, gives the value of 35811,154 kJ. As seen from the equations of the reactions in the combustion of formed water vapor, which react with methane and other gases, especially at temperatures over 600°K. As natural gas, the main component is methane, CH4then become the following modes are possible (reaction):
2. CH4(G)+H2O(G)=CO +3H2(G)
The first three modes, as can be seen, go with the absorption of heat (endothermic), the fourth mode (equation) is the process of incomplete combustion of methane to carbon oxide (II), which leads to loss of 282 kJ/mol of heat. So, incomplete combustion leads to a sharp decrease in the heat transfer reactions to 35%. In addition, carbon oxide (II) is particularly hazardous substances polluting the environment.
Based on the foregoing, it is apparent that for the intensification of the combustion process and create conditions for more complete combustion of natural gas has a substantial reserve.
According to the Arrhenius equation, the rate constant of a chemical reaction is determined by the temperature (T) and energy (EO) activation molecules:
where K is the rate constant of a chemical reaction; Z - steric factor.
Thus, to increase the rate constant of a chemical reaction in the environment, it is necessary to increase the temperature or decrease the activation energy of the molecules. The temperature increase is associated with significant technical difficulties, so more acceptable remains the second PU is e.
It is known that the reaction rate is mainly determined by the energy stored in the vibrational degrees of freedom of the molecule. In this regard, it is necessary to provide conditions of chemical reactions, in which the main part of the applied energy is spent on the vibrational excitation of molecules. In this case a non-equilibrium molecular gas, which contributes to the activation of chemical reactions of substances in the air.
Most simply lower the activation energy of molecules and to obtain nonequilibrium molecular gas in the air is possible by creating it a high-voltage sharply inhomogeneous electric field. In addition, gas ions and free electrons during collisions with the molecules of the fuel change the internal structure of the latter. As a result of these changes the fuel molecule enters an excited state, and the activation energy of the molecules decreases.
One of the typical reactions in electric discharge is the reaction of formation of ozone. The main role in the formation of ozone is played electronically-excited oxygen molecules, resulting in the collision of molecules with electrons. Under the action of an electron energy of the oxygen molecule enters an excited state characterized by a high reactivity, which leads to reactions the image is of ozone. Ozone eliminates the induction period, typical for the oxidation of saturated hydrocarbons with oxygen, and the oxidation of hydrocarbons is accelerated very small quantities of ozone.
Thermally ozone begins noticeably to decompose at 100°C, so when the room temperature oxidation of hydrocarbons occurs mainly in reaction with ozone:
where CnH2n+2- the formula of a member of the Gemological series of saturated hydrocarbons (alkanes); n is a whole natural number (n=1, 2, 3,...)
Thermal effect for methane is 48,07 kJ/mol. At temperatures exceeding 100°C become a prominent atomic oxygen formed by the decomposition of ozone to O2and O. Effect of ozone on the kinetics of oxidation of hydrocarbons mainly due to its role in initiating the chain reaction. The effective activation energy of the oxidation of hydrocarbons in the presence of ozone is significantly reduced, that pretty much changes the conditions of ignition, shifting lower flammable limit in the direction of lower temperatures and pressures. In addition, ozone accelerates the spread of flame in mixtures of hydrocarbons with air resulting in the acceleration of oxidative reactions.
Thus, through the use of ozone-air mixture during combustion of fossil fuels can be substantially intensificate this process and to achieve a more complete use of natural gas in boilers. Ultimately this is reflected in the reduction of gas consumption by 15 to 20% and reduce harmful emissions into the atmosphere.
Consider the efficiency of the claimed invention that is implemented on the basis of the serial heating boiler thermal capacity of 11.6 kW. This boiler is in normal mode operation consumes 1,18 cubic meters of natural gas per hour (or weighing 28.32 cubic meters per day). For normal operation of the combustion chamber 2 of the boiler during the day will need 283,2 cubic meters of dry air.
Taking into account that the air normally contains 21% oxygen (one-fifth), it can be concluded that the combustion indicated amount of natural gas required 59,47 cubic meters of oxygen. When replacing the oxygen to ozone latter will require much less as the oxidizing properties of ozone are noticeably superior to the oxidative properties of oxygen. Found that taking into account the technological requirements of the positive impact of ozone-air mixture to the combustion of natural gas is achieved with supplements of 400 mg of ozone per 1 m3gas. In terms of the conditions of our example for the operation of the boiler during the day will need to 0.011 kg of ozone.
Upon receipt of ozone on modern electroisolator energy costs are 14...18 kWh per kilogram of ozone. Thus, in our example, the operation of the ozone generator 14 during the day is trebuutsa 0,2 kWh of electrical energy.
To discharge the required quantity of ozone-air mixture in the combustion chamber 2 through the inlet of the pump 13 will require the motor 12 with a capacity of 60...80 watts. During the day to work the motor 12 will be spent 1,92 kWh of electrical energy.
Total, obtaining and filing an ozone-air mixture in the combustion chamber 2 of a heating boiler during the day will require electric energy in the amount of QE'=0,2+1,92=2,12 kWh. This energy is converted thermoelectric converters 10 through part of the heat generated by the heating boiler. In this case, thermal energy is converted to electricity and sent to operation of the ozone generator 14 and motor 12 intake fans 13 during the day can be determined in accordance with the expression:
where ηozone- efficiency thermoelectric converters 10, ηozone=0,1, ηstat- the efficiency of the inverter 11 voltage (static Converter), ηstat=0,97.
After substitution in the expression of the numerical values we obtain: Qth=21,9 kWh.
When discrete, pulse applying an ozone-air mixture in the combustion chamber 2 there is the effect of additional combustion intensification at the expense of short-term thermodynamically nonequilibrium processes prevremeni the ozone and its interaction with hydrocarbons, included in the fuel. For example, when applying ozone in the initial moment there is an increase in the temperature of the reaction mixture increases the speed of the combustion reaction, but at the same time increases the rate of decomposition of ozone, resulting in stability of supply of ozone and its effective concentration drops, and the rate and temperature of combustion is reduced.
The proposed solution allows to reduce the consumption of natural gas by 15...20% of that during the day will reach a value of 4.5 cubic meters of Savings amount of natural gas by burning it will allow you to obtain the heat capacity of 1.84 kW or thermal energy in the amount of 44,16 kWh per day, twice the amount of heat energy taken from the boiler to ensure the health of the ozone generator 14 and motor 12 delivery pump 13. In addition, the present invention allows to reduce the toxicity of products of combustion by reducing them in the content of oxides of carbon and nitrogen in low oxidation States (CO, NO and NO2).
Device for heating, containing an insulated casing with the inside of the combustion chamber with a burner, which is located above the heat exchanger with the inlet and outlet for coolant and manifold flue gas, characterized in that it is additionally equipped with a thermoelectric PR is an experienced educator, placed in the combustion chamber, the output of which through cascaded voltage source inverter and the switch is connected to the power circuit of the intake of the pump and the ozone generator connected through a duct through the discharge pump with furnace.
SUBSTANCE: heat exchanger of hidden heat of a condensation boiler, which includes a heat exchanger of sensible heat, which absorbs hidden heat of water vapour contained in a combustion product, subject to heat exchange by means of the heat exchanger of sensible heat, an outlet hood for removal of the combustion product flowing through the heat exchanger of hidden heat, and a water condensate outlet for removal of the water condensate generated by the heat exchanger of hidden heat; with that, the latter is made so that the combustion product generated by a burner flows through the heat exchanger of sensible heat, ascends vertically to the heat exchanger of hidden heat, descends in an inclined manner to the outside at a sharp angle from horizontal plane, and is subject to heat exchange by means of the heat exchanger of hidden heat, ascends vertically and is exhausted to the outlet hood.
EFFECT: improving heat transfer efficiency; simplifying production.
8 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed hot-water boiler includes a housing with a furnace, water-wall panels, a gas duct and a water-tube heat exchanger made of tubes in the form of a coil, which are connected with taps; the housing walls are located with a gap relative to panels; tubes are located as to height at least in two parallel rows in a staggered order in the furnace above burners; tube ends are installed in the front and rear panels with possibility of being moved relative to them during heating; taps are taken beyond the furnace boundary and located between water-wall panels and the front and rear boiler water walls; burners are of injection type and located horizontally in a row in the furnace bottom part and connected to a gas header located between the front wall and the front water-wall panel and connected to an automation unit with a pressure sensor and a temperature sensor located in the furnace, and gas duct is installed on top water-wall panel closer to the rear water-wall panel.
EFFECT: improving maintainability and reliability of hot-water boiler with simultaneous improvement of its efficiency due to reduction of heat losses at water heating.
SUBSTANCE: heat-insulating panel assembly includes the following: a variety of panels; the first and the second hot water supply tubes installed separately inside the panel to provide at least two hot water passages; and the first and the second connection assemblies provided in the panel for connection to a boiler or to the first and the second hot water supply tube for water circulation in the first and the second hot water supply tubes. According to the present invention, two hot water tubes provide different hot water passages inside the panel used for heating of a room.
EFFECT: improving heating efficiency; simplifying manufacture of a double structure of hot water supply tubes with improved stability to temperature variations and corrosion; possibility of choosing a configuration, a pitch and a shape of tubes without any restrictions owing to using as a tube material the thermoplastic elastomer with a polybutylene layer on inner surface, as wells reducing the diameter and length of hot water supply tubes installed in the panel, due to which thickness of the panel is reduced and the boiler load is minimised.
7 cl, 15 dwg
SUBSTANCE: formation method of multi-purpose plastic panel for its being used for room heating and cooling is characterised with installation in panel of upper and lower plates one opposite another so that cavities are formed between them, and with installation of headers for arrangement of heat carrier movement in end parts of the panel. Layers of plates, which form cavities are made in the form of honeycomb cells using at least one layer, around which on external layer there formed is honeycomb cells in the form of extended functional channels using at least one layer for the purpose of their being used for arrangement of heat exchange, and to headers by means of nozzles there connected are pipelines of heating and cooling systems; at that, some part of cells of external layer are plugged on the side of heat carrier headers and to them by means of vertical channels there made is air supply and discharge line from ventilation system.
EFFECT: providing the functioning of panel both of heating and cooling systems, possibility of using the panel as independent finishing material for room finishing.
5 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: procedure for production of multi-layer sectional heating panel consists in: stacking layers of sound and moisture proof material and porous heat insulation material on base of synthetic resin one on another. A row of shock absorbing poles passes through layers at specified horizontal step; the poles have metal protective caps on their upper parts. Layers are stacked on a bearing device on the first worktable. The bearing device is designed for transfer together with a fabricated heating panel along worktables set successively along a work line. Further, the procedure consists in matching and connection of a lower heat accumulating plate to upper surface of heat insulating material on the second worktable; in matching and connection of a heat conducting steel plate to upper surface of the lower heat accumulating plate on the third worktable; in matching and connection the upper heat accumulating plate to upper surface of the heat conducting steel plate on the fourth work table; in making holes for rivets by drilling the upper and lower heat accumulating plates, heat conducting steel plate and upper parts of corresponding protective caps put on upper parts of shock absorbing poles on the fifth worktable; in setting rivets into holes on the sixth work table; in riveting with a riveting machine on the seventh worktable for through connection with rivets via holes made in the heat conducting steel plate and holes in an upper part of the protective caps of the shock absorbing poles thus producing a finished heating panel of several layers combined into an integral one; and in transporting the finished panel from the eighth worktable with a transporting device.
EFFECT: ease at construction and operation, raised efficiency at fabrication of great number of multi-layer heating panels.
FIELD: heating systems.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to heating equipment, namely to radiant heating systems, and can be used for keeping temperature mode in domestic and public buildings during winter period. Radiant panel device contains one or several heating panels with heat-release surface and heat generator; heating panel includes closed circulation loop filled with working medium in the form of liquid and its vapours, in which there is the following: condensation section having thermal contact with heat-release surface of heating panel; evaporation section interconnected with it and having thermal contact with heating device of heat generator; accumulation-and-displacement section interacting with evaporation and condensation sections and having thermal contact with device of cyclic heating of accumulation-and-displacement section to the temperature exceeding temperature of the rest sections of circulation loop and cyclic cooling of accumulation-and-displacement section to the temperature not exceeding temperature of the rest sections of circulation loop. The device located between accumulation-and-displacement section and condensation section and allowing movement of working medium from condensation section to accumulation-and-displacement section and preventing, completely or partially, movement of working medium from accumulation-and-displacement section to condensation section. The device located between accumulation-and-displacement section and evaporation section and allowing movement of working medium from accumulation-and-displacement section to evaporation section and preventing, completely or partially, movement of working medium from evaporation section to accumulation-and-displacement section.
EFFECT: increasing efficiency of heat transfer from heating device of heat generator to heat-release surface of panel.
17 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: heating systems.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to control method of convective heat exchange system in which heat energy is exchanged between liquid and medium. Control method of convective heat exchange system in which heat energy is exchanged between liquid and medium involves creation of liquid flow through medium, determination of value of transferred heat by adding several differences between liquid temperature at medium inlet and liquid temperature at heated medium outlet; at that, temperatures are measured in fixed time periods within fixed time intervals, determination of change of medium temperature during fixed time interval, and calculation of ratio between transferred heat and temperature variation. There also described is floor heating system and method of determining temperature of massive floor with tubes built in the floor.
EFFECT: improving available convective heat exchange systems, namely high-inertia systems like floor heating systems, which allows increasing comfort, decreasing temperature variations and increasing economy.
10 cl, 21 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: heat electric power supply system consists of heat energy use sub-system, straight and return main pipelines of heat network, circulation circuit of heat carrier of centralised heat supply at least with one heating unit of the building, and electric power supply sub-system. At that electric power supply sub-system consists of power plant; power lines; at least one liquid transformer consisting of at least one winding; tank with transformer liquid; circulation pump; and separating heat exchanger the secondary circuit whereof is equipped with circulation pump. When the above circulation pump is in operation, heat carrier of secondary circuit of separating heat exchanger is supplied to one heating unit of the building, which is connected to secondary circuit of separating heat exchanger. Version of heat electric power supply system is described as well.
EFFECT: improving efficiency, ecological properties and reliability of the system, fuel calorific capacity fully used by centralised heat supply source, and effectiveness of heat removal from transformers, reducing temperature loads on electrical part of the system during intense ambient temperature decrease, cost of operation and overall dimensions of electrical transformers.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: heating engineering.
SUBSTANCE: heating system comprises round or elliptic inner passage for fluid, top and bottom plates that face each other and define an inner passage for flowing the heat-transfer water, a number of connecting members, inner passage for water made in the plates by means of connecting members, and two sections for transporting fluid for supplying and discharging water.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
10 cl, 13 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices for combustion of gaseous fuel on an inner surface of a furnace lining, its warm-up and transmission of radiant energy to a product coil and can be used namely in high-temperature tubular furnaces. A horizontal flame burner includes sleeve 4, inside which cylindrical shell - air duct 3 is installed, gas supply tube 1 connected to gas header 2, flame spreader 8 installed with a gap relative to an outlet end face of cylindrical air duct 3 and pilot burner 6. A peculiar feature of the burner is that gas header 2 is made in the form of an annular distributing chamber with radial holes, which is arranged between flame spreader 8 and the outlet end face of air duct 3. Gas supply tube 1 and pilot burner 6 are located in a gap between air duct 3 and sleeve 4.
EFFECT: burner is able to operate on any fuel without any flashback at a reduced noise level.
3 cl, 2 dwg