Heating device

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat power industry and can be used in technologies of independent heating and hot water supply of individual houses, industrial buildings and facilities. A heating device includes an insulated housing with a furnace chamber arranged in it and provided with atomisers above which a heat exchanger with heat carrier inlet and outlet and a flue gas collector is installed. Additionally, the device is provided with a thermoelectric converter arranged in the furnace chamber, the outlet of which is connected through an in-series connected voltage inverter and a switching apparatus to a feed circuit of a delivery pump and an ozone plant connected by means of an air duct through the delivery pump to the furnace chamber.

EFFECT: invention allows reducing natural gas consumption by 15…20%, as well as considerably reducing toxicity of combustion products owing to reducing content of carbon and nitrogen oxides in them.

1 dwg

 

The invention relates to a power system and can be used in the technology of Autonomous heating and hot water supply to individual houses, industrial buildings and structures.

Known devices for heating, for example, buildings (patent WO 93/05347, 18.03.1993) containing an insulated casing placed in the lower part of the furnace chamber with a burner, which is located above the heat exchanger in the form of a set of metal pipes with a reflective plates and inlet and outlet for coolant and manifold flue gas.

A disadvantage of the known devices is a significant fuel consumption per unit of produced heat with increased content of carbon oxides and nitrogen oxides (CO, NO and NO2in the composition of combustion products.

The technical result of the invention is to increase the heating efficiency of buildings while reducing the harmful effects of combustion products.

This technical result is achieved in that the device for heating containing an insulated casing placed in the lower part of the furnace chamber with a burner, which is located above the heat exchanger in the form of a set of pipes with a reflective plates and inlet and outlet for coolant and manifold flue gas, additionally equipped with a thermoelectric Converter is spruce as batteries, thermocouples, placed in the combustion chamber, the output of which through cascaded voltage source inverter and the switch is connected to the power circuit of the intake of the pump and the ozone generator connected through a duct through the discharge pump with furnace.

The Device (Fig.1) for heating, which represents a boiler, includes an insulated housing 1, comprising placed in the lower part of the combustion chamber 2 with 3 burners, which is located above the heat exchanger 4, made from a combination of pipe with a reflective plate 5 and is connected to the input 6 and output 7 of the collector, and the collector 8 flue gas outlet 9. In the combustion chamber 2 between 3 burners and heat exchanger 4 posted by thermoelectric converters 10 in the form of a battery of thermocouples. Thermoelectric Converter 10 is connected to the input of inverter 11 voltage. The output of the inverter 11 voltage connected to the input of the switch 12 and the circuit 13 of the power (e.g. electric motor) delivery pump 14. The output of switch 12 is connected with the ozone generator 15, which by means of the duct 16 through a pressure pump 14 is connected with the furnace chamber 2.

The device operates as follows. When the fuel supply to the burners 3 of the furnace 2, the coolant from the system enters a stand-alone boiler body 1 through the inlet 6 is ollector, further, the coolant passes through the set of tubes of the heat exchanger 4 is heated and exits through the outlet 7 of the collector to the consumer. The heat exchanger 4 is made masloemkost (for example, pipes made of copper or a copper-Nickel alloy with an inner diameter equal 21-23 mm), and outer fins that allows you to efficiently collect heat from teplopoteryami flue gases passing from the burners 3 in the combustion chamber 2 through the heat exchanger 4 in the collector 8 of the flue gases. On the tubes of the heat exchanger 4 reinforced reflective plate 5, creating turbulence of the flue gas stream, thereby increasing the efficiency of their warmth. Flue gases, giving warmth through the heat exchanger 4 to the coolant flow to the collector 8 of the flue gases, where through the outlet 9 are ejected. Thermoelectric converters 10 under the influence of different environments in the combustion chamber 2, convert a portion of thermal energy heating boiler into electrical energy. In accordance with the physical phenomenon Seebeck output thermoelectric converters 10 there is a constant voltage (EMF), which is applied to the inverter 11 voltage where it is converted to AC.

Ozone-air mixture can be fed both continuously and discretely pulsed. Continuous re is the ima of filing this voltage is applied to the circuit 13 of the power intake of the pump 14 and through the switch 12 to the ozone generator 15. In the ozone generator 15 is ozonization of air through barrier discharge. The result is an ozone-air mixture which is pumped by the pump (fan) 14 into the combustion chamber 2. In the combustion chamber 2, an ozone-air mixture with enhanced oxidative properties, participates in the combustion intensifies the combustion process and improves the composition of the flue gases, oxidizing the nitrogen and carbon to less toxic oxides with higher oxidation States of the elements (CO2N2O5).

When the pulse applying an ozone-air mixture constant voltage generated by thermoelectric converters 10 and converted into AC voltage by the inverter 11, is fed to the ozone generator 15 periodically, due to the interruption of the circuit by the switch 12.

The rationale for the positive impact of ozone-air mixture in the combustion efficiency of gas are presented below. Natural gas in most modern boilers, in a volume of one cubic meter has the following composition:

1. CH4(methane) - 941,2 l

2. H2(hydrogen) - 4.4 l

3. N2(nitrogen) - 24.6 K

4. C2H6(Ethan) - 24,1 l

5. C3H8(propane) - 4,3 l

6. C4H10(Bhutan) - 0.5 l

7. With5H12(pentane) 0.6 l

8. C6H14(hexane) - 0.3 l

When complete combustion of natural g is for will occur following chemical reaction:

1. CH4(G)+2O2=CO2(G)+2H2O

ΔcrH0=-802,25 kJ/mol

2. 2H2(G)+O2(G)=2H2O

ΔcrH0=-241,84 kJ/mol

3. 2N2(G)+5O2(G)=2N2O5(G)

ΔcrH0=12,5 kJ/mol

4. 2C2H6(G)+7O2(G)=4CO2(G)+6H2O(G)

ΔcrH0=-84,67 kJ/mol

5 C3H8(G)+5O2(G)=3CO2(G)+4H2O(G)

ΔcrH0=-103,9 kJ/mol

6. 2C4H10(G)+13O2(G)=8CO2(G)+10H2O(G)

ΔcrH0=-124,7 kJ/mol

7. C5H12(G)+8O2(G)=5CO2(G)+6H2O(G)

ΔcrH0=-146,4 kJ/mol

8. 2C6H14(G)+19O2(G)=12CO2(G)+14H2O(G)

ΔcrH0=-167,19 kJ/mol,

where ΔcrH0the enthalpy of combustion.

Theoretical calculation of the amount of heat released by complete combustion of 1 cubic meter of natural gas, gives the value of 35811,154 kJ. As seen from the equations of the reactions in the combustion of formed water vapor, which react with methane and other gases, especially at temperatures over 600°K. As natural gas, the main component is methane, CH4then become the following modes are possible (reaction):

1. CH4(G)+2H2O(G)=CO2(G)+4H2(G)

2. CH4(G)+H2O(G)=CO +3H2(G)

3. CH4(G)+CO2(G)=2SD(G)+2H2(G)

4. 2CH4(G)+3O2(G)=CO(G)+2H2O(G)

The first three modes, as can be seen, go with the absorption of heat (endothermic), the fourth mode (equation) is the process of incomplete combustion of methane to carbon oxide (II), which leads to loss of 282 kJ/mol of heat. So, incomplete combustion leads to a sharp decrease in the heat transfer reactions to 35%. In addition, carbon oxide (II) is particularly hazardous substances polluting the environment.

Based on the foregoing, it is apparent that for the intensification of the combustion process and create conditions for more complete combustion of natural gas has a substantial reserve.

According to the Arrhenius equation, the rate constant of a chemical reaction is determined by the temperature (T) and energy (EO) activation molecules:

K=Zexp(-EO/RT)

where K is the rate constant of a chemical reaction; Z - steric factor.

Thus, to increase the rate constant of a chemical reaction in the environment, it is necessary to increase the temperature or decrease the activation energy of the molecules. The temperature increase is associated with significant technical difficulties, so more acceptable remains the second PU is e.

It is known that the reaction rate is mainly determined by the energy stored in the vibrational degrees of freedom of the molecule. In this regard, it is necessary to provide conditions of chemical reactions, in which the main part of the applied energy is spent on the vibrational excitation of molecules. In this case a non-equilibrium molecular gas, which contributes to the activation of chemical reactions of substances in the air.

Most simply lower the activation energy of molecules and to obtain nonequilibrium molecular gas in the air is possible by creating it a high-voltage sharply inhomogeneous electric field. In addition, gas ions and free electrons during collisions with the molecules of the fuel change the internal structure of the latter. As a result of these changes the fuel molecule enters an excited state, and the activation energy of the molecules decreases.

One of the typical reactions in electric discharge is the reaction of formation of ozone. The main role in the formation of ozone is played electronically-excited oxygen molecules, resulting in the collision of molecules with electrons. Under the action of an electron energy of the oxygen molecule enters an excited state characterized by a high reactivity, which leads to reactions the image is of ozone. Ozone eliminates the induction period, typical for the oxidation of saturated hydrocarbons with oxygen, and the oxidation of hydrocarbons is accelerated very small quantities of ozone.

Thermally ozone begins noticeably to decompose at 100°C, so when the room temperature oxidation of hydrocarbons occurs mainly in reaction with ozone:

,

where CnH2n+2- the formula of a member of the Gemological series of saturated hydrocarbons (alkanes); n is a whole natural number (n=1, 2, 3,...)

Thermal effect for methane is 48,07 kJ/mol. At temperatures exceeding 100°C become a prominent atomic oxygen formed by the decomposition of ozone to O2and O. Effect of ozone on the kinetics of oxidation of hydrocarbons mainly due to its role in initiating the chain reaction. The effective activation energy of the oxidation of hydrocarbons in the presence of ozone is significantly reduced, that pretty much changes the conditions of ignition, shifting lower flammable limit in the direction of lower temperatures and pressures. In addition, ozone accelerates the spread of flame in mixtures of hydrocarbons with air resulting in the acceleration of oxidative reactions.

Thus, through the use of ozone-air mixture during combustion of fossil fuels can be substantially intensificate this process and to achieve a more complete use of natural gas in boilers. Ultimately this is reflected in the reduction of gas consumption by 15 to 20% and reduce harmful emissions into the atmosphere.

Consider the efficiency of the claimed invention that is implemented on the basis of the serial heating boiler thermal capacity of 11.6 kW. This boiler is in normal mode operation consumes 1,18 cubic meters of natural gas per hour (or weighing 28.32 cubic meters per day). For normal operation of the combustion chamber 2 of the boiler during the day will need 283,2 cubic meters of dry air.

Taking into account that the air normally contains 21% oxygen (one-fifth), it can be concluded that the combustion indicated amount of natural gas required 59,47 cubic meters of oxygen. When replacing the oxygen to ozone latter will require much less as the oxidizing properties of ozone are noticeably superior to the oxidative properties of oxygen. Found that taking into account the technological requirements of the positive impact of ozone-air mixture to the combustion of natural gas is achieved with supplements of 400 mg of ozone per 1 m3gas. In terms of the conditions of our example for the operation of the boiler during the day will need to 0.011 kg of ozone.

Upon receipt of ozone on modern electroisolator energy costs are 14...18 kWh per kilogram of ozone. Thus, in our example, the operation of the ozone generator 14 during the day is trebuutsa 0,2 kWh of electrical energy.

To discharge the required quantity of ozone-air mixture in the combustion chamber 2 through the inlet of the pump 13 will require the motor 12 with a capacity of 60...80 watts. During the day to work the motor 12 will be spent 1,92 kWh of electrical energy.

Total, obtaining and filing an ozone-air mixture in the combustion chamber 2 of a heating boiler during the day will require electric energy in the amount of QE'=0,2+1,92=2,12 kWh. This energy is converted thermoelectric converters 10 through part of the heat generated by the heating boiler. In this case, thermal energy is converted to electricity and sent to operation of the ozone generator 14 and motor 12 intake fans 13 during the day can be determined in accordance with the expression:

,

where ηozone- efficiency thermoelectric converters 10, ηozone=0,1, ηstat- the efficiency of the inverter 11 voltage (static Converter), ηstat=0,97.

After substitution in the expression of the numerical values we obtain: Qth=21,9 kWh.

When discrete, pulse applying an ozone-air mixture in the combustion chamber 2 there is the effect of additional combustion intensification at the expense of short-term thermodynamically nonequilibrium processes prevremeni the ozone and its interaction with hydrocarbons, included in the fuel. For example, when applying ozone in the initial moment there is an increase in the temperature of the reaction mixture increases the speed of the combustion reaction, but at the same time increases the rate of decomposition of ozone, resulting in stability of supply of ozone and its effective concentration drops, and the rate and temperature of combustion is reduced.

The proposed solution allows to reduce the consumption of natural gas by 15...20% of that during the day will reach a value of 4.5 cubic meters of Savings amount of natural gas by burning it will allow you to obtain the heat capacity of 1.84 kW or thermal energy in the amount of 44,16 kWh per day, twice the amount of heat energy taken from the boiler to ensure the health of the ozone generator 14 and motor 12 delivery pump 13. In addition, the present invention allows to reduce the toxicity of products of combustion by reducing them in the content of oxides of carbon and nitrogen in low oxidation States (CO, NO and NO2).

Device for heating, containing an insulated casing with the inside of the combustion chamber with a burner, which is located above the heat exchanger with the inlet and outlet for coolant and manifold flue gas, characterized in that it is additionally equipped with a thermoelectric PR is an experienced educator, placed in the combustion chamber, the output of which through cascaded voltage source inverter and the switch is connected to the power circuit of the intake of the pump and the ozone generator connected through a duct through the discharge pump with furnace.



 

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