Apparatus for thermal treatment of carbon-containing fibrous materials
SUBSTANCE: apparatus for thermal treatment of carbon-containing fibrous materials includes a carbonisation device and a graphitation device insulated from the carbonisation device, between which is integrated a device for accumulating and cooling carbonised material and/or washing and drying thereof. The graphitation device can be in the form of two identical electro-graphite furnaces which are not linked with each other and arranged in parallel one over the other. The electro-graphite furnace includes a heating element, a pipe for removing volatile products, a valve at the outlet for preventing entry of gaseous medium into the furnace, pipes for feeding an inert gas, a drive mechanism for transporting the material to be thermally treated, and a cooled metal housing with a heat insulation unit, in which there are horizontal slit-type channels for transporting material. The inlet channel is in the form of a pipe with a rectangular cross-section for removing volatile products, and between its upper and lower inner surfaces over the transported material at an inclination to said surfaces there is a graphite screen with gaps between the upper surface of the channel and the upper end of the screen, and between the lower surface of the channel and the lower end of the screen. The screen divides the heating chamber into a maximum temperature area, having a heater, and a medium temperature area.
EFFECT: high efficiency and stability of the process of thermal treatment of carbon-containing fibrous materials, high quality of the end product.
4 cl, 5 dwg
The invention relates to the field of technology for high-temperature carbon fibrous materials used as reinforcing fillers for composite materials based on polymer, carbon, ceramic and metal matrices.
Known unit for thermal treatment of carbonaceous fibrous materials in the production of carbon fibrous materials .
The Assembly includes a housing with zonal heaters. Installed inside the case of a graphite slit-like chamber, with inlet and outlet valves, nozzles for removal of gaseous products, located at a distance of 60-70% of the length from the entrance, provided with a device for combustion of volatile products. Under camera posted by pre-heat treatment (carbonization) of the material in the form of boxes located throughout the length of the zone heaters.
The unit has structural deficiencies that impair the process of heat treatment of carbon-containing fibrous materials and the quality of the obtained carbon fibrous materials.
The input and output of the processed material in the pre-carbonization arranged in one place, and the heating zone are not isolated from each other. In the volatile products released during various t is mperature heat treatment, have access to and interoperability of material in all heating zones, which degrades the quality of the products.
The location of the device for removal of volatile products in the middle of the heating chamber forces the volatile products released at relatively low temperatures, to move into the zone of higher temperatures, where increases their reactivity to interact with the processed material there, which deteriorate the properties of the obtained carbon fibrous material. The effect of the penetration of volatile products released in a high-temperature heating zones, in areas with relatively low temperatures also adversely affect the formation of the properties of the final material due to condensation of volatiles on its surface.
A device for high-temperature processing (graphitisation) carbonaceous fibrous materials , including electric graphite furnace, hopper, tightly connected with metallic water-cooled furnace housing, in which is placed a drum kiln feed processed material at the outlet of the furnace coupled with a water seal to prevent access of air into the furnace, above the zone of maximum temperature of the furnace has a built-pipe to remove volatile products of thermal processing. Metallicheskom building and insulating block furnace done horizontal channels (slots) for input and output of the processed material, as well as fitting for supplying neutral gas.
This device closest to the proposed technical solution design features, therefore, used as a prototype high-temperature zones.
Design of devices for high-temperature heat treatment inherent disadvantages: the result of the placement of the socket to remove volatile products, together with tightly connected to the furnace body water gate at the output hopper for the input into the furnace is catastrophic deterioration of the properties of the obtained carbon fibrous material, the reduction in work of a graphite heater and graphite snap insulating block furnace. Specified negative effect seen in the involuntary admission of volatile products in the form of a mixture of water vapor, carbon dioxide, paraffin and unsaturated hydrocarbons from inorganic compounds in the zone of high temperature in which the chemical activity of the volatile, primarily in relation to thermoablative material increases. When interacting with fibrous material and graphite snap fade. The obtained carbon fiber material loses its operational properties.
The objective of the proposed technical solution is to remove the s these shortcomings, increase performance and stability of the process of heat treatment of carbon-containing fibrous materials, simplifying the design of technological equipment of the process.
Most comprehensive achievement is due to the fact that, in accordance with the proposed technical solution installation for thermal treatment of carbonaceous fibrous material includes a device carbonization and isolated from it the device of the graphitization, between which is embedded a device for accumulating and cooling the carbonized material and/or washing and drying. Thus the device of the graphitization is made in the form of two identical electric graphite furnaces, not communicating with each other and placed parallel one above the other in height, and each of the electric graphite furnace for high temperature treatment of carbonized material including a heating element, a pipe for the removal of volatile products, the gate output to prevent access of the gas environment in the furnace, pipelines for supplying inert gas, drive mechanism for transporting thermoablative material cooled metal housing with insulating block in which done the horizontal slotted channels for transporting material, in accordance to present the technical solution of the input channel is made in the form of a tube of rectangular cross section for removal of volatile products, and between its upper and lower internal surfaces above the conveyed material at an angle to these surfaces has a graphite screen with clearances between the upper surface of the channel and the upper end of the screen, and also between the bottom surface of the channel and the bottom end of the screen, which separates the heating chamber to the zone of maximum temperature, containing a heater, and the zone of moderate temperature, while the screen is made of graphite in the form of a plate, whose lower end in the plane of the processed material is arranged in the sample in the form of flats width for the passage of material to be processed so what side of the screen along the flats remain the sides of equal width and the depth of the flats on the edge of the screen determines the size of the gap and is equal to the thickness of the material being transported and the plane of the flats is located at an angle to the lower surface of the screen, which is determined by the thickness of the gap.
The first distinctive feature of the proposed technical solution is that the system for thermal processing of carbonaceous fibrous material includes a device carbonization and isolated from it the device of the graphitization, between which is embedded a device for accumulating and cooling the carbonized material and/or washing and drying.
- The I the feasibility of establishing a facility for thermal treatment of carbonaceous fibrous materials with separate devices carbonization temperatures of 450°C (low temperature) and the graphitization to temperatures 1200-2400°C medium and high temperature) is determined by the need to prevent unregulated interaction of volatile products released during the pyrolysis in areas of low and high temperatures with the material at different temperatures. This is because released during low temperature pyrolysis of CO, CO2N2Oh, and others have a high chemical reactivity at high temperatures. As a result of interaction increases weight loss, oxidation and, as a consequence, a sharp decline in the quality of the finished material.
The traditional use of inorganic compounds as a catalyst carbonation reaction of carbonaceous fibrous material increases the rate of carbonation. However, penetrating into the high temperature zone, they interact with thermoablative material, which deteriorates the performance properties of the finished carbon fiber material.
The location of the device for accumulating and cooling the carbonized material and/or washing and drying, thermal processing of carbonaceous fibrous material between devices carbonation provides additional technical effect: cooling thermoablative material after carbonization predot await unregulated development process thermocatalytic carbonization, the resulting heat by flow of exothermic reactions of pyrolysis and resulting in catastrophic deterioration thermoablative material. To reduce the exothermic effect usually reduce the speed of transportation of the material and increase the dimensions of the device, thereby reducing the capacity of the equipment. When using storage devices is the rapid cooling of the material and the "freezing" of the pyrolysis process. The result eliminated the post-effect of self-heating of the material and decrease its quality. There is no need to reduce the speed of transportation of the material during heat treatment and to increase the overall dimensions in length.
The next distinctive feature of the proposed setup is that included in its structure, the device of the graphitization is made in the form of two identical electric graphite furnaces, not communicating with each other and placed parallel one above the other in height. This difference is allowed to obtain the technical effect of increasing the life of the refusal of the proposed installation. Resource operation to failure depends on the duration of work graphite heaters when the temperature of the graphitization, which is compared with the duration of the works sendrpid graphite design elements as the graphitization, and device carbonation. Therefore, the work mode setup thermal processing of carbonaceous fibrous material is discontinued when out of the graphite heater device of the graphitization. Besides the fact that the process is cancelled at least 24 hours for preventive care and replacement of the graphite heater new, significantly increases the number of technical waste due to the irretrievable loss of an expensive source of fibrous material in the device of carbonization and carbonization of intermediates in a device of the graphitization.
To address these shortcomings in the device of the graphitization used two identical electric graphite furnace, which in turn are included in the graphitization process carbonized fibrous material. When the mode of the graphitization is one of the furnaces, the second is on prevention: it replaced a failed heater for a new one, it is dressed transporting feed. All connectors of the furnace is closed and it is in standby mode graphitisation.
When failure of the heater operating the furnace turns on the power to the furnace, which is in the standby mode, to transporting the broach filed the end of carbonized fibrous material from accumulating inogo device. Removing the oven temperature is carried out on the transport wire. After leaving the furnace at a predetermined temperature of the heat treatment is subjected to a carbonization material.
Another difference electric graphite furnace for high temperature treatment of carbonized fibrous material is that the input channel is made in the form of a tube of rectangular cross section for removal of volatile products, and between its upper and lower internal surfaces above the conveyed material at an angle to these surfaces has a graphite screen with clearances between the upper surface of the channel and the upper end of the screen, and also between the bottom surface of the channel and the bottom end of the screen, which separates the heating chamber to the zone of maximum temperature, containing a heater, and the zone of moderate temperature.
The specified design feature of the device of the graphitization of the proposed setup allows to improve the conditions of high temperature treatment of carbonized fibrous material due to the separation of flows of volatile products released in areas of average and maximum temperatures of the graphitization. Sloped built-in screen in the input channel of the device of the graphitization through which the processed material is transported and removed the opposite direction of its transportation is tiravanija volatile products, separates the stream of volatile released in the medium temperature zone below the screen, from the stream of volatile products released in the zone of maximum temperature of the graphitization, which features a graphite heater, and remove heat from the camera device of the graphitization above the screen. The screen installed in the channel featured way, almost completely eliminates the possibility of penetration of chemically aggressive flying in the zone of maximum temperature.
Constructive-technological scheme of the proposed installation for the heat treatment is such that the nozzle for removing volatiles from the reaction zone device carbonization is located at the exit and inlet to remove volatile from the heating chamber located at the inlet of the graphitization and simultaneously functions as a channel for input in him carbonized material. Structural scheme of the device carbonization organizes the evacuation of volatile products in the direction of transportation of the processed material, preventing the flow of volatile whose temperature is relatively high, in the low temperature zone of the device carbonization, where they can condense on carbonization material and together with him to move into the zone of elevated temperatures, which, exposed to secondary pyrolysis, is formed on top of the spine of the coke material film, krupkova it and greatly reduces its properties as a precursor of a carbon graphite material.
Concluding formula of the present invention is the difference characterizing the design features a graphite screen installed in the entrance channel of the device of the graphitization. Graphite screen is made in the form of a plate of constant thickness, the lower end of which has a chamfer, verterbrae in the middle of the plate so that the sides of the formed sides of equal width and the depth of the flats on the end plate determines the depth of the gap and is equal to the thickness of the material being transported and the plane of the flats is located at an angle to the lower surface of the screen, which is determined by the size of the gap. These structural features of the screen to improve the conditions of heat treatment carbonized material, because in addition to the separation chamber of the heating device of the graphitization zone maximum and average temperatures and separate evacuation of volatile products released in these areas, graphite screen with structural elements, components examined differences more fully prevents access medium volatile in the zone of maximum temperature. This effect occurs due to the fact that the gap between the screen and the channel is guaranteed to equal that is mine material and stably hold for the entire process of thermal treatment of the material placed on both sides of the screen borders, which are the stops. This reduces the degree of injury of the material in the friction of the surface of the screen and canal transportation.
The use of the screen the proposed design eliminates the need to embed in the channel furnace special stops to ensure clearance between the screen and the channel that you want have to reconfigure height when changing the range of the processed material thickness. This operation is rather complicated and time-consuming, given the high processing temperatures and small values of the gaps. Changeover screens of various clearances of the proposed design is very simple and can be performed during thermal processing by replacing one screen to the other.
The following is a specific example of thermal processing of carbonaceous fibrous material (Fig.1-5): in Fig.1 shows a diagram of thermal processing of carbonaceous fibrous material; Fig.2 is a longitudinal section a-a of Fig.1 one of the electric graphite furnaces high-temperature processing device; Fig.3 is a cross section b-B of Fig.2 electric graphite furnace high-temperature processing device; Fig.4 - neckline In Fig.3 electric graphite furnace high-temperature processing device; Fig.5 graphite screen.
Part of the mouth is ovci are isolated from one another zone of thermal treatment of the material at low temperature - the device carbonization (item 1 in Fig.1), the zone of high temperature processing device of the graphitization (2) carbonized material (9). Device (4) includes a receptacle (7) "Shoe" type and provided with a driving mechanism (3) with adjustable speeds for feeding materials into the container (7) and derive from it. Drivers (3) placed in front of a device carbonization (1), on the capacity of the drive (7), the output of the device of the graphitization (2) provide transportation of the processed material (9) with a sync speed of its movement at low temperature and high temperature stages of heat treatment by varying the rotational speeds of the drives. Pipe (8) to remove volatile products at the exit of the device carbonization (1), which together with the presence of the shutter (10) of the input material (9) in the zone of carbonization, shutter (11) at the output of the material (9) from the zone of carbonization provides the removal of volatile products in the direction of transportation of the material (arrows with labels). Volatiles released from the zone of carbonization (1), removed exhaust ventilation (5).
The device of the graphitization (2) contains two electric graphite furnace (15), are not interconnected and placed in parallel one above the other. Over the conveyed material (9) in the channel (p. 16 RIS, 3) at an angle to its inner surface has a graphite screen (17), which separates the heating chamber of the furnace (15) of the graphitization zone of maximum temperature (18) containing a graphite heater (19), and the zone of moderate temperature (20). Graphite screen (Fig.5) comprises a chamfer (26) and the support flanges (27), which provide a guaranteed clearance between the lower end of the graphite screen (17 Fig.4) and the bottom surface of the channel. The graphitization furnace (15) the device of the graphitization (2 Fig.1) output is equipped with gates (12 Fig.3, 1), through which is discharged from the zone of high temperature heat treatment of graphite material (21). The presence of the stopper (12) is supplied to the inert gas through the pipe (22), at the outlet of the furnace graphite material (21) provides the removal of volatile products (shown as wavy arrows in Fig.3, 4) in the direction opposite to the transportation of the material (21).
Input channel (16) of the furnace (15) through a slit-like nozzle (23) in a water-cooled housing (24) is articulated with umbrella (25) aspiration, which is coming out of the heating chamber volatile products interact with oxygen and snowsports. The combustion products are removed with the help of umbrella aspiration (6). For efficient cooling roaming material (9) between devices carbonization (1) and graphitisation (2) shutter (11) is equipped with vodouhe edamame tubes (not shown). Shutter (12) located at the output of the electric graphite furnace (15), also has a water-cooled tube (not shown). Upon cooling and washing of the material (9) in the water tank (7) device-drive (4) equipped with heaters (not shown) for heating water to a temperature of 100°C. For drying wet material device (4) is provided with a drying chamber (not shown).
For feeding carbonaceous material (9) on thermal processing and acceptance of the finished graphite material (21) the plant is equipped with a bench supply and stand ready acceptance of material wound into a roll (not shown).
Describes how to install in thermal processing of carbonaceous fibrous material operates as follows.
A roll of carbon fiber material (3) in the form of felt, fabric, ribbon, wire harnesses is placed in the input device of the stand. Through the device of carbonization (1), pre-opening lid gates (10, 11), stretch fabric-feed (which can be used fiberglass, basalt or carbon fabric (carbon cloth preferred)), which ends up on the drivers (3) before the device carbonization, being part of the device-drive (4), are drawn through the electric graphite furnace (15), bolt (12), through the drive of the second mechanism (3) after the device graphitisation (2) and are sealed to the spool stand transport mechanism. Close the lid of the gates (10-12), in the input channel (16) of the furnace (15) on top of the filling end of the tissue-pulling establish tilted graphite screen (17), include the submission of a neutral gas in the pipe (22) gates (10-12). Within 10-15 min fill and purge gas to the working chamber of the device carbonization (1) and graphitisation (2). When raising the temperature in the graphitization furnace to a predetermined include the transportation of the material (9) at the minimum speed to prevent termecorso still located in the chamber of the heating device of the graphitization tissue-pulling. Upon reaching a predetermined temperature heat treatment in the device carbonization (1) and the device of the graphitization (2) the speed of transportation of the material is installed in accordance with the requirement of a technical process, governed by the speed of rotation of the drive rollers of the conveying mechanism (3) to ensure synchronous movement thermoablative material in the device of carbonization and the device of the graphitization, and the device (4) for the accumulation of material in front of the device graphitisation (if necessary, when switching from one furnace (15) on the other furnace (15)).
At the exits of the graphitization (2) the end of the tissue-pulling roll on which it is adopted, is removed from the stand reception of the finished material, it established the W new (empty) spool, which starts the end of the finished material. The valves (11, 12) set the desired cooling temperature.
From this point it is believed that the process of thermal processing of carbonaceous material proposed installation is displayed in the specified mode.
The operation of the recharge of the receiving stand is repeated as the filling of the material prepared for the next roll.
When generating a resource of the graphite heater (19) graphite furnace (15) through the furnace, which are in reserve, stretch fabric-feeding and fill it in a conveying mechanism (3), disconnect the power supply for the furnace was in operation, and connect the power supply for the furnace, which are in reserve. Turn off the conveying mechanism (3), pull carbonized material from the device memory. At this time carbonized material is carried out in a container (7) device-drive (4) before launching into the furnace temperature, which was in reserve. Sew the input end of the carbonized material to the end of the cloth-pulling, include in the work conveying mechanism (3), pull the material from the tank (7) and establish a set speed transportation through the furnace (15), which was in reserve, then it is considered to be operating in a given mode high temperature treatment of carbon is organized material. After cooling the furnace, formerly in operation, is subjected to the prevention and change of defective graphite heater new, stretch through her cloth-drawing, and the furnace is kept in reserve until the next failure of the heater on the working of the furnace.
Upon cooling and washing of the material coming out of the device carbonation in the water operation of the technological process of heat treatment is carried out as follows.
In a container (7) device-drive (4) pour the water, include heaters and bring its temperature up to 100°C. the Fabric-feed load capacity (7) in an amount necessary for processing in boiling water for up to 30 minutes at a given speed transportation. The output end of the tissue-pulling is carried out through the inlet conveying mechanism (3), is charged into the drying chamber (not shown), graphite furnace (15), pull the mechanism (3) installed at the outlet of the device of the graphitization (2), make it for heat treatment of the original fibrous material, as described above, set the drying temperature in the drying chamber is not higher than 70°C and produce heat treatment process as described above.
1. Patent RU NO. 2005829, D06 7/00, publ. 15.01.1992.
2. USSR author's certificate No. 303941, publ.23.02.1974.
1. Installation for thermal treatment of carbonaceous fibrous materials comprising the device of carbonization, isolated from his unit graphitisation, between which is embedded a device for accumulating and cooling the carbonized material and/or washing and drying.
2. Installation under item 1, characterized in that the device of the graphitization is made in the form of two identical electric graphite furnaces, not communicating with each other and placed parallel one above the other in height.
3. Electric graphite furnace for high temperature treatment of carbonized fibrous material, comprising a heating element, a pipe for the removal of volatile products, the gate output to prevent access of the gas environment in the furnace, pipelines for supplying inert gas, drive mechanism for transporting thermoablative material cooled metal housing with insulating block in which done the horizontal slotted channels for transporting material, wherein the input channel is made in the form of a tube of rectangular cross section for removal of volatile products, and between its upper and lower internal surfaces above the conveyed material at an angle to these surfaces has a graphite screen with gaps between the top p is a surface channel and the upper end of the screen, and between the bottom surface of the channel and the bottom end of the screen, which separates the heating chamber to the zone of maximum temperature, containing a heater, and the zone of moderate temperature.
4. Electric graphite furnace under item 3, wherein the screen is made of graphite in the form of a plate, at the lower end which made the chamfer width for the passage of material to be processed so that the sides of the screen are the sides of equal width and the depth of the flats on the end determines the magnitude of the gap and is equal to the thickness of the material being transported and the plane of the flats is located at an angle to the lower surface of the screen, which is determined by the thickness of the gap.
SUBSTANCE: nanoobjects sorting method (objects with at least one spatial dimension within the range from ~0.05 nm up to ~500 nm) wherein a) the initial mix with any primary content of electrically conductive nanoobjects and more electrically conductive nanoobjects contact any part of liquid substance surface; b) energy of the above mix of nanoobjects is transmitted so that different nanoobjects depending on degree of their conductivity are subjected to different degree of heating (per time unit), at that during any non-zero period of time upon beginning of the energy transmission T temperature is maintained in any part of the above contact substance surface at the level sufficient for compliance with at least one of the following conditions: (1) temperature T differential module for any part of the above surface of the contact substance and temperature of its active evaporation (Te) is less than ΔTn (i.e. |Te-T|<ΔTn), (2) temperature T differential module for any part of the above surface of the contact substance and temperature of the active chemical reaction threshold with the above substance (Tcs) is less than ΔTn (i.e. |Tcs-T|<ΔTn), (3) temperature T differential module for any part of the above surface of the contact substance and temperature of the active chemical reaction threshold with nanoobjects (Tcn) is less than ΔTn (i.e. |Tcn-T|<ΔTn)), and moreover it is provided that nanoobjects heated up to different temperature (Tn) are subjected to different degree of fixation with the contact surface (up to failure to fix), c) non-fixed and weakly fixed nanoobjects are separated from the surface and d) at least one spatially separated object is received out of pluralities of nanoobjects, which contains nanoobjects with the average conductivity differing from the average conductivity of nanoobjects in the initial mix.
EFFECT: improving the efficiency of sorting.
7 cl, 1 dwg, 12 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical technology, in particular to processes of carbonisation of fibrous viscose materials, and can be used in production of graphitised fibrous materials, used as filling agents of composite materials; electrodes; flexible electric heaters; filters of aggressive media; in products for sport and medical purposes, etc. The material is preliminarily subjected to relaxation processing. The obtained material, which contains a pyrolysis catalyst, is continuously transported through zones of carbonisation heating. Carbonisation is carried out to 320-360°C in not less than three zones of heating, heat- and gas-isolated one from another by transporting material with inclination from bottom to top, with increase of heating temperature from 160-200°C in the first zone by 40-60°C in each next zone of heating, in comparison with the previous one. Volatile products are simultaneously removed from the said zones into the evacuation zone, heat- and gas-isolated from the external environment and located above the heating zones and connected with them via a perforated wall. Temperature in the evacuation zone of volatile substances is set by 5-15°C higher than temperatures of the respective heating zones, temperature of the output branch piece being 5-15°C above the maximum temperature of carbonisation.
EFFECT: invention ensures increase of the process efficiency and improvement of quality of the obtained carbon fibrous materials.
2 dwg, 1 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves treating viscose fibre material with pyrolysis catalysts, heating to carbonisation temperature and subsequent graphitation to temperature of 3000°C in an inert medium. Carbonisation is preceded by preparation of precursor by preliminary washing of the starting material with water and/or 5-10% sodium hyposulphite solution with heating and drying, and/or ionising irradiation with a beam of fast electrons during transportation through the irradiation chamber of an electron accelerator, and/or warm-wet synthesis of a complex catalyst on the surface of viscose fibres and in the pore system thereof in boiling 10-20% aqueous ammonium chloride solution and with addition of diammonium phosphate in ratio of 0.5-4.0, followed by steaming in hot steam and final ventilated drying with constant transportation, which enables to deposit the catalyst in form of an amorphous film.
EFFECT: high stability of the process of carbonising viscose fibre material and improved physical and mechanical properties of the obtained carbon material.
6 cl, 7 dwg, 1 tbl, 12 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to modification of the surface of inorganic fibre by forming a highly developed surface of inorganic fibre used as filler by forming carbon nanostructures on the surface of the fibres and can be used in producing high-strength and wear-resistant fibre composite materials. The method of modifying the surface of inorganic fibre involves the following steps: (a) soaking inorganic fibre with a solution of an α2 sinter fraction in organic solvents; (b) drying the soaked fibre; (c) heat treatment of the soaked inorganic fibre at 300-600°C; (d) depositing a transition metal salt onto the surface of the fibre heat treated according to step (c); (e) reducing the transition metal salt to obtain transition metal nanoparticles; (f) depositing carbon onto the transition metal nanoparticles to obtain carbon nanostructures on the surface of the fibre. The composite material contains modified fibre made using the method given above and a matrix of polymer or carbon.
EFFECT: high strength of the composite material in the cross direction relative the reinforcement plane by preventing surface deterioration when modifying with carbon nanostructures.
9 cl, 3 ex, 1 tbl, 5 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises processing initial cellulose fibrous material by liquid-phase composition containing silanol groups with molecular weight varying from 900 to 2400 and viscosity varying from 520 to 1700 cPs, and 2-7%-water solution of fire retardant. Processed material is dried to 105-125°C for 60-120 min. Then, carbonisation is performed in air at 140-170°C for 25-40 min. Carbonisation is terminated at 700°C to proceed with high-temperature processing at, at least, 2200°C.
EFFECT: high physical properties and yield.
4 cl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heterogeneous catalysis and can be used to recycle hydrocarbons and halogen-substituted hydrocarbons when producing composite materials, catalysts, sorbents and filters. Catalytic pyrolysis of hydrocarbons is carried out at 500-700°C on a catalyst obtained by dispersing articles of solid nickel and alloys thereof with other metals, e.g., iron, chromium, as a result of reaction with 1,2-dichloroethane vapour. The catalyst contains dispersed active nickel particles attached to carbon nanofibres with diameter 0.1-0.4 mcm. The starting material used is bromine- or chlorine-containing hydrocarbons, alkanes, olefins, alkynes or aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g., ethane, propane, acetylene, benzene. Output of carbon nanofibres is equal to or more than 600 g per 1 g metal.
EFFECT: high efficiency of the method.
5 cl, 2 dwg, 9 ex
SUBSTANCE: dust-like or granular solid substance is continuously sprayed onto the outer surface of a hollow drum substrate 2. After deposition, the catalyst on the revolving substrate enters reaction zone 3, into which carbon-containing gas is continuously fed through a gas-distributing collector 17, and gaseous pyrolysis products are continuously output through a nozzle 18. The reaction zone is heated with infrared heaters 7. The end product is removed from the substrate using a blade 9 and a cylinder brush 10, and then unloaded from the apparatus by an auger 14.
EFFECT: invention enables continuous synthesis of carbon fibre materials.
5 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: apparatus for spreading a carbon bundle has series-arranged coiling unit 1, a pair of feed rolls 2, a unit for controlling 3 and regulating tension in the processed bundle, a unit for spreading 4 the carbon bundle with an air stream, a pair of receiving rolls 5, as well as a unit for winding 6 the spread bundle. The unit for spreading 4 the carbon bundle with an air stream is in form of two supporting rolls 11, 12 and a nozzle 13 which is installed between and under the supporting rolls with inclination angle of 30°-70° to the displacement surface of the bundle, and is made with a flat slotted opening 14 with possibility of feeding compressed air through said opening. The slotted opening 14 of the nozzle 13 of the unit for spreading 4 the carbon bundle can be made with partitions 15. The nozzle can be fitted with possibility of regulating its inclination angle depending on the thickness of the bundle.
EFFECT: high speed of the stream of compressed air results in efficient splitting of the carbon bundle into monofilaments and obtaining a belt of carbon fibres with lower surface density.
3 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: procedure for production of carbon nano materials consists in loading catalyst into reactor, in bringing catalyst to contact with gas containing compound of carbon and in unloading carbon nano material from reactor. Also, catalyst is loaded by applying particles or granules of catalyst on surface of a compact layer of carbon nano material, while carbon nano material is unloaded by its withdrawal from a lower area of the layer at rate facilitating stationary thickness of the compact layer of carbon nano material.
EFFECT: high efficiency at uniformity of nano carbon product and minimal formation of side products.
5 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to nonwoven fibrous materials that can be used in various electrochemical devices, hydrogen accumulators, filtration devices, catalytic substrates, etc. Nonwoven fibrous material consists of fragments of activated carbon fibre, the average characteristic ratio of which is approximately between 1 and 5.
EFFECT: increasing efficiency of electric duodielectric capacitors.
16 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: production of charcoal-fibrous adsorbents.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with the field of production of charcoal-fibrous adsorbents, in particular, with devices of charcoal-fibrous materials activation. The installation contains a vertical furnace for activation of a carbon fabric and a conjugated with it steam generator, which are connected to the power source and a control unit. And at the furnace output there is a reception device. At that the furnace contains a through heated muffle, through which the treated charcoal-fibrous fabric is continuously passing. At that the muffle is located inside the detachable heat-insulating furnace body, on the inner side of which there are heating elements. Besides at the furnace outlet there is a movable container with water, in which the lower end of the through muffle is dipped. The invention offers an installation for production of activated charcoal-fibrous material, which ensures a continuous process of treatment of the charcoal-fibrous material with an overheated steam and formation of the activated fabric with high mechanical properties and a cellular structure, simple in assembly and reliable in operation.
EFFECT: the invention ensures production of the activated fabric with high mechanical properties and a cellular structure, simple in assembly and reliable in operation.
8 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: carbon materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of preparing fibrous carbon materials via pyrolysis of structure and nonaromatic hydrocarbons and provides a method residing in that catalyst in the form of dust-like nickel-based alloy is atomized into argon-blown reactor, heated to 600-1150°C, after which hydrocarbon gas is continuously supplied and gaseous pyrolysis products are withdrawn. When pyrolysis process is stopped, product is cooled in common with catalyst. Distinguishing feature of invention is that inert gas and catalyst are introduced through jet atomizer into reactor provided with heaters disposed above and below disk mounted therein. Catalyst is supplied to atomizer through measuring device into settling chamber shaped as reverted barrel with cross-section in the form of rotated disk sector, wherein dust-like catalyst precipitates onto upper surface of the disk in a 1-3-mm layer during the time of activated disk rotation drive. Then, hydrocarbon gas is supplied from the heated lower side of the disk surface. Gaseous pyrolysis products are withdrawn from nipples disposed in upper part of reactor and settling chamber. When pyrolysis process is ended, disk rotation drive is actuated and solid pyrolysis products are removed by the aid of scraper into cooled pyrolysis product intake tank, into which inert gas is also fed. End of pyrolysis process is determined from reduced concentration of hydrogen and pyrolysis products withdrawn from reactor. Stirring of gas medium in the reactor is accomplished by rotation of disk provided with blades attached to its lower surface.
EFFECT: improved quality of product.
3 cl, 4 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: chemical industry; production of fullerenes and other carbonic nanomaterials.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of production of fullerenes and other carbonic nanomaterials. The process provides for incineration of the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon fuel, which contains the component being the aromatic molecule containing two or three six-membered kernels, two either three five-membered kernels or one six-membered kernel and one five-membered kernel; and withdrawal of the condensable products produced at incineration of the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon fuel. The polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon fuels contain the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which include the significant amount of indene, methylnaphthalenes or their mixtures. The technical result of the invention is improvement of the synthesis of fullerenes and carbonic nanomaterials, possibility to use the cheap hydrocarbon fuel (for example - the fractions of the oil distillate and the tar distillate), the increased degree of the carbon fractional conversion.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the improved process of the synthesis of the fullerenes and the carbonic nanomaterials, the opportunity to use the cheap hydrocarbon fuel - the fractions of the oil distillate and the tar distillate, the increased degree of the carbon fractional conversion.
33 cl, 1 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of obtaining ultra-thin carbon fibers and can be used as filler material, added to tar and similar materials. Fiber contains fiber-like material, including tubular grapheme sheets, placed one upon another perpendicular to the axis of the ultra-thin carbon fiber, in which the tubular grapheme sheets have polygonal cross-sections perpendicular to the axis of the carbon fibers, where the maximum diameter of the cross-sections is between 15-100 nm, the coefficient of proportionality is not more than 105, and the value ID/IG of the ultra-thin carbon fiber is according to Raman spectroscopy, not more than 0.1. Ultra-thin carbon fiber can improve, even in small quantities to the matrix, physical properties, such as electrical, mechanical and heat properties of the matrix, without destroying the initial properties of the matrix.
EFFECT: improving the electrical, mechanical and heat properties of the matrix, without destroying the initial properties of the matrix.
12 cl, 11 dwg, 1 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: in lower part of reactor disk connected to rotation drive is installed, above which settling chamber open at the bottom is located, in which catalyst is sprayed in the form of powdered nickel-based alloy. Initial product - carbureted hydrogen gas - is continuously supplied to reactor and heated up to 600-1,150°C, and gaseous products of pyrolysis are also continuously discharged. Finished product and catalyst are cooled down. Prior reactor putting into operation, sticky film is installed under settling chamber on disk, and spraying device is switched on. After catalyst supply has been stopped, film is cut in pieces, and amount of catalyst settled on unit of film area is determined, by results of which uniformity of powdered catalyst supply is controlled. Settling of powdered catalyst is realised when disk and rotation drive are switched off and pressure is reduced.
EFFECT: obtainment of maximum efficiency and quality of fibrous carbonic structures at different sizes of powdered catalyst particles.
4 cl, 5 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of carbonic fibrous materials by catalystic pyrolysis. Receiving method is in reactor location into catalyst in the form of powdered alloy on the basis of aluminium and it is fed carbureted hydrogen gas. Gas feeding and withdrawal of pyrolysis light-end product is going on continuously. Carbureted hydrogen gas is preliminary heated in reactor till the temperature which is lower the pyrolysis beginning. Catalyst on nonmetallic bottom layer is heated higher the temperature of pyrolysis beginning by inductive method with alternating voltage with frequency 20 kHz. Finished product with catalyst is cooled.
EFFECT: receiving of nanoproduct without formation of freak carbon-base material on heated non-catalytic surfaces.
4 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: external diametre of carbon fibres is 15-100 nm. The fibrous structure includes a knot whereto said carbon fibres are connected so that the specified carbon fibres come out from the knot made from growing carbon fibres with size 1.3 times exceeding external diametre of carbon fibres. Once added to hard materials, such as resin, ceramics, metal, carbon fibrous structures taken even in small amount improve physical properties of materials, including electric, mechanical, or thermal properties, not mentioning other material properties.
EFFECT: improved thermal properties.
3 cl, 10 dwg, 4 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: production processes.
SUBSTANCE: method involves drawing of carbon fibre through solution with further heat treatment in flow-through gas medium. As solution there used is either solution containing pre-synthesised thin multi-layered carbon nanotubes functionalised with hydroxylic and carboxylic groups in dimethyl formamide or in dimethyl acetamide or in dimethyl sulfoxide with concentration of 0.1-10 g/l, or catalytic solution containing medium for forming embryos for growing nanotubes at heat treatment, and as catalytic solution there used is water solution Co(NO3)2 with concentration of 0.25 mol/l. As gas medium there used is medium containing gaseous hydrocarbon - methane, and heat treatment is performed by keeping it in reactor at temperature of 800-1000°C during 10-30 minutes.
EFFECT: increasing resistance to fibres being drawn from binding material.
4 cl, 5 ex, 6 dwg