Flying collector for atmospheric water
SUBSTANCE: flying collector for atmospheric water includes main fabric canvas, boundary toroidal balloon attached to it, rope bracing of attachment to lifting aerostat and captive cable. Main fabric canvas of collector is made as surface of rotation with increasing generatrix inclination to plane perpendicular to axis of rotation when approaching to this axis. Interior of boundary toroidal balloon and lifting aerostat is connected by fabric tube with valve. stiffness of structure is provided by boundary toroidal balloon supercharged with gas from lifting aerostats.
EFFECT: portable and quick-deployable device can be used in liftable and high-mountain parts of renewable energy and fresh water sources.
The invention relates to the field of renewable energy and fresh water and collections of atmospheric moisture.
Known terrestrial collections precipitation - reservoir http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/ that are used for irrigation and supply of fresh water. In addition, when the water discharge from the reservoir through a turbine with a generator we can get electricity.
The disadvantages are:
- on the flat artificial reservoirs impossible to raise high the water level to provide a high pressure on the turbine. Therefore, to obtain a large capacity, it is necessary to use large turbines. Even the reservoir occupy large areas, fill in with valuable land and roads. In the mountains (where there may be large differences) are not suitable locations for reservoirs and very expensive construction work;
the water in the reservoir is polluted with organic and solid impurities and requires treatment prior to consumption by the inhabitants.
In the patent RU 2407914C1 “Method and apparatus renewable production of electricity and clean water” (ed. Bibikow A. C. prior. 18.09.2009) it is proposed to raise the collection of precipitation using tethered balloons at the level of the clouds (3-4 km). This will allow a maximum water pressure (up to 300-400 ATM, as in modern diesel engines and steam that the bins!), that will allow you to get significant power with a compact high-speed turbines and generators and expensive almost distilled water. However, this patent describes the design of such flight collection.
The present invention is the maximum ease of collection when the maximum area of precipitation, minimum accumulation of water to reduce the required lifting force of the balloon, convenient remote fold it for easy and safe lifting and lowering device.
This is achieved by a special form of a fabric collector, the inflatable device to expand and collapse it in the raised condition.
To implement the invention using special varieties of cloth surfaces of rotation, ensuring minimal water retention in the collection, and filling deploys device the lifting gas from the balloon.
Figure 1 shows the device in working condition, and in Fig. 2 in assembled form.
The collection consists of a base fabric cloth 1 in the form of surfaces of revolution of a special form. Forming this surface has increased to the axis of rotation an angle to the plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation. To the outer edge of the blade attached an inflated torus cylinder 2 with sbresny valve 3. The insides tore the ball is it 2 and a lifting balloon 4 fabric connected by a pipe 5 with a shutoff valve 6. Near the axis of rotation of the main fabric 1 is connected with a discharge pipe 7. Outside collection covered cable harness 8 associated with tethered cable 9 and the harness 10 of the lifting balloon 4.
Collection of folded (Fig. 2) with a deflated corovim cylinder 2 and is blocked by the valve 6 is lifted by the balloon 4. Folded view of the collection significantly reduces wind (including wind) load when lifting. After rising to the desired height the valve 6 is opened and the gas from the balloon 4 puffs tore the cylinder 2, while spreading out the main fabric 1 and giving the necessary rigidity.
Atmospheric moisture falls on the main deck and flows to the Central discharge pipe 7. To the thickness of the layer of water that accumulate to the vent pipe was not significantly increased, it is necessary to increase the water velocity in the layer closer to the axis and discharge pipe. This is achieved by the special form of the main canvas: an increase in the slope of the generatrix of the surface of rotation of the main blade to the plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation, when approaching this axis. This form also reduces the lateral aerodynamic (wind) load compilation (compared, for example, conical). Particular cases of this form are catenoid, pseudosphere.
When the shutter overlaps the valve 6 and opens the discharge valve 3 tore the tank. Gas is C tore cylinder is discharged, he loses rigidity and the collection develops.
For filling tore cylinder can be used for more lifting the ball with a high pressure gas, other than gas mainly lifting the ball.
The main fabric can also be made of triangular or polygonal curved blanks-sectors of aerotone that when the connection between approximately describe the smooth form of flight collection. Very suitable for all surfaces of the collector to cause superhydrophobic coating to increase the speed of runoff water and guarantee mariliana drops of water weight collection. As the valve 6 can be used simple and easy pinch device on the fabric tube.
The technical result of the invention is in a given area of collecting atmospheric moisture minimum weight design with a minimum accumulation of water. This significantly reduces the required lifting force, the size and cost of the lift of the balloon. The design also ensures minimal aerodynamic resistance crosswinds during the ascent and descent (folded). The shape of the main blade in working condition also significantly reduces this resistance in comparison with a conical shape.
The collection can also be used in the high mountains as the hour is ü mobile source of energy and water, because of the ease it can be delivered to a great height without a special construction of roads and does not require a powerful attachment to the rocks.
Flight collection of atmospheric water containing the main fabric cloth collection, attached to the boundary torus cylinder, cable tie fastening to lifting the balloon and tie the rope, characterized in that the main fabric canvas collection made in the form of surfaces of revolution with an increasing inclination of the generatrix to the plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation when approaching this axis, and the inside of the boundary torus of the container and lifting balloon tied a cloth tube with valve.
SUBSTANCE: method to produce electric energy includes installation of two non-polarised electrodes in a zone of continuous water flow in a sea or river at a distance from each other and from the bottom. Current-collecting lines are connected to the electrodes to transfer a difference of values of natural electric field potentials between the electrodes to a coastal station of electric energy collection. At the station they sum up the difference of potentials from all such pairs of electrodes, convert into AC and send to consumers.
EFFECT: provision of the possibility to produce electric energy by simple means.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering and may be used in construction of hydraulic power plants in any area. The method includes construction of a cascade of water reservoirs with small capacity that are built at side river affluents, in area folds or in ravines, aside from the main river bed. Water reservoirs and their dams are arranged at one or both sides of the river at such distance from each other so that water horizons of each subsequent water reservoir of the cascade, starting from the river head, are lower than the bottom of the previous one. All water reservoirs of the cascade are connected to each other by discharge water conduits, water intakes of which are arranged in the lowest points of the dam of the previous water reservoir, and the end, with a hydraulic turbines or hydraulic turbines, for instance, active, cone and generators, on the dam or shores of the subsequent water reservoir, with drainage of water in it from the turbines. The first water intake of the HPP cascade is made, for instance, as a side one from the main river bed.
EFFECT: invention provides for river protection as an HPP is constructed on it in its original form, reduced adverse effects from water reservoirs, preserved ecology of the area, where the HPP is being built, provides for the possibility to obtain high HPP capacities from the river without accumulation of high amount of water in water reservoirs, and elimination of domino effect in damage of one or several dams of the HPP cascade.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: hydro-electric pontoon power plant includes anchored floating shell and vane wheels 6 linked to electric generators. Shell is made in the form of two parallel pontoons 7 attached rigidly to each other with wheels 6 mounted between them. Each pontoon 7 has parallelogram cross-section in longitudinal direction. Gap between pontoons 7 is limited in the front and rear ends by shields 10 and 2 connected rigidly to pontoons 7. At the top, pontoons 7 are rigidly connected by two cross-ties 9 and 3 I the form of stripes adjoining shields 10 and 2. Rectangular gap is formed between stripes 9 and 3 and pontoons 7. Equal angles 5 are positioned vertically in each corner of that rectangle, with their bottom ends connected rigidly to side surfaces of pontoons 7. Top ends protrude above pontoons 7. Cap 4 is mounted above wheels 6.
EFFECT: possible application of plant both in summer and in winter.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a lower reach 1, an upper reach 2, a water conduit 3, a turbogenerator 4 and surfaces 5. Surfaces 5 are made as capable of receiving atmospheric moisture from the air flow and delivering it to the upper reach. Besides, surfaces 5 are raised to the height above the dew point for these atmospheric conditions. To support the surfaces 5, balloons or airships 6 are used.
EFFECT: expansion of functional capabilities and increased specific capacity of HPP by using maximum possible difference of heights between upper and lower reaches from height of actual condensation of atmospheric moisture in a cloud to ground level.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: bottom hydraulic power plant comprises turbines, made in the form of screws 6, installed in a river flow and lowered to its bottom, for instance, from a bridge rack 1 or from a float base, a current generator 15 and its drive. The outer circuit of each turbine represents a cylindrical shell, on the outer side with a coupling 8, for instance, of spindle type, which connects the augers 6, if there are more than one of them, into blocks that may close the entire clear section of the river, if required. Each turbine in the block or the entire block are fixed in bearings on a movable frame 3 that moves preferably in the vertical plane.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to simplify design and to increase its reliability, development of a hydraulic power plant with submerged turbines, which may take maximum of energy potential from a river during the year.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: conversion method of falling water energy to electric energy involves a water turbine and an electric generator, which are connected to each other. The following is arranged along the bed of a mountain river flowing on the mountain slope: horizontal and vertical water passages connected to each other and filled with water flow. Water turbine is arranged inside lower part of a vertical water passage. Water turbine is connected through a special device to electric generator. Electric generator is connected through wires to a consumer of the same energy.
EFFECT: creation of a hydraulic power plant of a new generation, which do not disturb ecological situation of the environment.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device to convert energy of spent water into electric energy comprises a vertical forward-flow channel in the form of a pipe with a hydraulic generator connected to a load in the lower part, in which there is a hydraulic generator screw with blades. The device additionally includes an expanding reservoir, equipped with washing waves, lower and upper air nozzles, providing for accordingly supply of ascending air flow, which additionally rotates the screw blades, and its bleeding. The screw blades have a cone-shaped section, which prevents accumulation of deposits in areas of connection with the shaft. There is a control system, which accumulates and redistributed the produced energy.
EFFECT: increased operational reliability and provision of stable operation.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: hydraulic turbine comprises horizontal shaft 4 with curved vanes 5 fitted thereon. Half of said vanes does not interact with flow because they are located inside large seat 2 while vanes interacting with flow have their bulge directed upward. Wall 6 of larger seat 2 opposite shaft 4 changes into flange 8 varying flow direction 12 toward the side opposite the wall of tube 1. This prevents depositions effluents sediments nearby shaft 4 while peripheral part of vanes 5 is self-cleaned due to centrifugal force, its configuration and that of seat 2.
EFFECT: reliable operation.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: vacuum hydraulic plant comprises a tight chamber 25, where pressure is pulled below atmospheric one, and where water is delivered. In the tight chamber 25 on one rope 17 there are tight cylinders 19 and 9 as capable in their balanced position to displace or charge water volume and spin hydraulic turbines 4 and 21. Hydraulic turbines 4 and 21 with power generators 5 and 20 are installed in an injection and drain pipelines 3 and 22 and installed above a water reservoir 30. For filtration of water at the ends of pipelines 3 and 22 there are meshy filters 23 and 29 arranged. For desalination of sea water or production of steam with its further condensation the tight chamber 25 via the pipeline with the gate valve is connected to a high-pressure ejector. One end of the ejector is connected with a fresh water load via a heat load. The other end of the ejector is serially connected with a source of high-pressure. At the inlet and outlet of the tight chamber 25 there are valves 28 and 24 installed.
EFFECT: invention provides for capability of desalination, filtration, heating or cooling of water.
4 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: hydroelectric power plant includes water intake located outside bed of river, main capacity, pressure waterway and waterway of turbines. Along the whole bed of river there arranged is n regulating water reservoirs for water collection, each of which is equipped with a filling channel connected to the river bed and made in upper place as to level and dam with the height of up to upper level, which is made in lower place as to level. Discharge pipeline interconnected with river bed and equipped with a gate valve is installed at lower point of each regulating water reservoir. The main capacity is made in the form of the main water reservoir located below regulating water reservoirs in the section with high level difference and equipped with filling channel connected to the river bed, and dam with height of up to upper level, which are made in upper and lower places respectively as to water level. Pressure waterway is installed downstream as to level of the main water reservoir and made in the form of pressure pipelines with length of not less than 12-15 km depending on river water level difference in order to obtain the required head, which leave the main water reservoir. Pressure pipelines consist of winter pressure pipeline for minimum water flow rate and n summer pressure pipelines for maximum water flow rate. Pressure pipelines are connected to turbine waterway. Hydroelectric power plant also includes compensation water body located at the head level of turbine waterway, which is connected to waterway of turbines and equipped with pump group.
EFFECT: increasing operating efficiency of hydroelectric power plant.
FIELD: mobile generator plants.
SUBSTANCE: proposed generator plant has frame that mounts power unit, foot-operated air pump, and compressed-air cylinders whose air lines communicate with generator plant. Control panel is electrically connected to output of electric generator vertically installed on generator plant housing and mechanically coupled with exciter and power unit made in the form of vertical-shaft pneumostatic motor. The latter has sealed case with inlet, outlet, and safety valves closed with cover that accommodates vertical rotor mounted in case and cover bearings and made in the form of shaft with two power drives attached thereto by means of U-shaped frames. Power drives are installed on either side of vertical shaft and spaced 180 deg. apart in horizontal plane. Each of them has a number of similar members symmetrically mounted one on top of other, their quantity being dependent of desired power. Each member is essentially rhombic plate made of light-mass and high-strength metal whose longitudinal axis is longest diagonal parallel to that of other power drive. Through ducts are provided on front ends of rhomb and L-shaped blind ducts, on its rear butt-ends. All these ducts are closed with covers kinematically coupled with drive cylinder piston. Compressed air fed to sealed housing opens covers, and unbalanced forces are built up on each member which set power unit in rotary motion. Air evacuation from sealed housing closes covers with the result that no forces are built up on drive members.
EFFECT: enhanced power output and torque.
2 cl, 21 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device is designed for converting kinetic energy of free flow of water into electric energy. Proposed microhydroelectric station contains hydraulic turbine with horizontal axle of rotation connected with submersed sealed electric generator. Station is provided with carrying frame consisting of sections on ends of which shields are installed to form confuser at inlet of water flow, and diffuser at outlet. Slow speed generator is used as electric generator whose shaft is directly connected with shaft of hydraulic turbine consisting of separate sections mounted on bearing supports. Each section contains one or more blade propulsors displaced through equal angle relative to each other. Each propulsor has two blades pointed in opposite directions being essentially NASA section modified by provision of cavity on lower plane, maximum depth of which being from 10 to 14% of maximum height of section and installed on posts secured on shaft of hydraulic turbine for fixed displacement of blades in radial and angular directions.
EFFECT: reduced cost of manufacture and mounting.
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device is designed for converting kinetic energy of small and medium rivers into elastic energy. Proposed hydraulic unit contains hydraulic turbine installed on frame with bearings on its shaft, generator mechanically coupled with hydraulic turbine, stream shaper and device in form of plates to protect hydraulic unit from floating debris. Hydraulic unit has intermediate vertically and horizontally installed shafts with bearings interconnected by conical gears. Vertical shaft is arranged in well built near bank and communicating with river by channel made under level of maximum possible thickness of ice cover. Part of horizontal shaft connected with hydraulic turbine is arranged in said channel. Upper end of vertical shaft is connected with generator through ground horizontal shaft and step-up reduction unit. Stream shaper is made in form of flaps installed on shaft for turning to direct water stream of river to its central part between which turnable gate is installed for contacting with one of flaps to direct water stream to right-hand or left-hand side of hydraulic turbine.
EFFECT: provision of reliable operation all year round.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: plant is designed for generating electric energy and pumping of water. Proposed device contains floating base in form of catamaran with channel between housing of catamaran in which water wheel with blades on its outer surface is mounted, and electric generator mechanically coupled with shaft of water wheel. Diameter of water wheel is less than its length. End faces of water wheel are covered, and front profile of water wheel blades is made to logarithmic spiral. Moreover, plant is furnished with water pump, and drive of electric generator is made in form of step-up harmonic gearing whose flexible gear is coupled with end face of water pump. Output shaft of step-up gearing is aligned with shafts of water wheel and electric generator, being coupled with water pump by step-up belt drive. Drive sheave of step-up belt drive is installed on shaft of electric generator. Controllable clutches are installed on shafts of belt drive.
EFFECT: improved reliability and enlarged operating capabilities of plant.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: machines or engines for liquids.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises converter for converting flow power into kinetic energy of rotation and hydraulic turbines connected in series. The hydraulic turbine is made of hollow load-bearing shaft-cylinder with conical deflectors on the bases. The semi-cylindrical blades are secured to the shaft-cylinder along the generatrix of the cylinder or at an angle to the generatrix. The load-bearing shaft-cylinder is inscribed into the inner ends of the semi-cylindrical blades, and their outer ends tightened by means of rings define multi-blade cylinder provided with variable buoyancy that is controlled by ballast in the hollow section of the shaft-cylinder. The hydraulic turbine can be submerged into water completely or partially and interposed between the bearings and connected with the actuating mechanism through flexible links, clutches, and gearings. The actuating mechanism comprise one or several massive inertia flywheels made of disk or drum or cylinder connected through clutches and gears with the consumer.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
3 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed hydraulic turbine generators are designed for creating stationary and portable hydraulic plants of modular type. Generators have rotor with central shaft non-rotating around horizontal axis or vertical axis (as version) on which chain drive gears are rigidly fitted, each being coupled through independent chain drive with planet pinion members arranged radially and uniformly around central shaft. Each member has blade reduction gear consisting of gear of chain drive and of large and small cylindrical gears, the latter being coaxial and rigidly coupled with gear of chain drive of blade reduction gear, and large cylindrical gear is rigidly secured on axle of blade installed horizontally for generator (or vertically, as version). Each blade rests by ends of its axle for rotation on brackets secured on hubs by bases. Hubs are installed on both ends of shaft for rotation and tops of brackets at both ends of central shaft are connected by ring rims being drive wheels connected with energy converters by flexible drive.
EFFECT: provision of effective and reliable operation.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: conversion of river stream energy into electric power.
SUBSTANCE: proposed plant has base in the form of catamaran that mounts current generators and their drive, current parameters stabilizing system, turbine capable of running in fully submerged condition, and its hoist. Turbine is made in the form of belt conveyer installed on edge at certain angle to river stream. Blades made of flexible material are secured throughout entire width and length of belt. Each blade is made in the form of bucket capable of folding and resting on belt during transfer from working to idle side of conveyer, and it has pocket on external surface for automatic raising of blade by river stream during transfer from idle to working position. Turbine hoist has rocker arm for turbine suspension hinged on one end to catamaran and on other end, to turbine frame that mounts generator-drive bevel gear so that longitudinal axes of hoist rocker-arm hinges and longitudinal axis of bevel-gear driven pinion are disposed on same line. In addition, hydroelectric power plant is equipped with device enabling variation of turbine angle of installation to water flow.
EFFECT: enhanced power capacity.
1 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device is designed for converting kinetic energy of water flow into and thermal energy. Proposed station contains dam, conduit system, hydraulic turbines and electric generators. It includes at least one swirl heat generator whose injection branch pipe is furnished with water pressure transmitter and is connected with conduit system through adapter provided with water pressure regulator made, for instance, in form of shutter whose drive is connected with water pressure transmitter.
EFFECT: possibility of generation heat energy for consumers in addition to electric energy.
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for converting kinetic energy of water flow of small rivers and tides. Proposed hydraulic turbine has housing and wheel with helical blade provided with flange in form of cylindrical spiral secured on blade for changing outreach of flange.
EFFECT: increased transmission of flow to wheel, reduced losses for friction against stationary housing, increased efficiency of turbine.
FIELD: hydraulic power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for creating stationary and transportable modular hydraulic plants and setting up unit hydraulic power stations. Proposed water-wheel generator has body, shaft with central bevel gear, planet pinion members, each containing blade and shaft with bevel gears on ends, one end of shaft being coupled with central gear. Central bevel gear is rigidly secured on one of ends of central shaft non-rotating around its axis and arranged vertically. Planet pinion members are arranged around central radially and uniformly. Shaft of each planet pinion member with bevel gears on its ends is made single-section, and bevel gear belonging to said shaft and pointed to side of blade of said planet pinion member engages with bevel secured rigidly and coaxially to smaller spur gear of blade reduction gear. Larger spur gear engages with smaller one, and it is secured on axle of blade installed vertically. Each blade rests by ends of its axle for rotation of brackets mounted by bases on cylindrical housing installed for rotation coaxially relative to central shaft, and tops of brackets at both ends of central shaft are connected by ring rims. Upper rim, being drive wheel, is coupled with energy converters. Central shaft rests by both ends with locking on framework provided with pontoon devices. Invention makes it possible to use river current energy with maximum efficiency at no adverse effect on environment caused by submersion of river flood lands caused by building of dams, energy of ocean currents, energy of tides and ebbs owing to use of blades with two points of support. Versions of design of water-wheel generators are provided in description.
EFFECT: simple design, high adaptability to manufacture and servicing of water-wheel generator.
5 cl, 5 dwg