Electrical machine

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to electric engineering and may be used predominantly for electrical machine constructions, and namely for AC electronic motors and synchronous generator with excitation from permanent magnets. The suggested electrical machine comprises a stator with laminated slots, multiphase armature winding and rotor with slots where permanent magnets are placed thus forming a system with alternating poles, at that active length L of the rotor is selected equal to (2.8-3.1)τ, where τ is polar pitch of the rotor.

EFFECT: improvement of power and dynamic performance of the electrical machine due to increase efficiency of active material usage.

1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of electrical engineering and mainly can be used in the construction of electric machines, namely brushless motors and synchronous generators with excitation from permanent magnets.

Known magneto-electric motors and generators (Special electrical machines. Ed. by A. I. Martinova. - M.: Energoizdat, 1982, S. 251-254, 301-310), which contain a stator with a multiphase anchor winding and the rotor of the inductor, the magnetic flux which is generated by the permanent magnets.

The disadvantages of these known magneto-electric machines are relatively low dynamic and energetic performance, due to the difference of the volume of the inductor from the optimal value, providing a minimum mass and moment of inertia of the rotor when specified mechanical and external characteristics.

Known magnetoelectric machine (Adolescen N. P., Grashchenkov C. I., Ovchinnikov, I. E. and other Controlled brushless DC. - P.: Energoizdat, 1984, S. 35-40), which contain a stator with a multiphase anchor winding and the rotor-inductor with a fixed permanent magnets made with the smallest possible diameter.

The disadvantage of this known technical solution is a significant technological difficulties made the possible long rotor-coil with a small diameter, with a given mechanical rigidity. In addition, the limitation of the length of the rotor-inductor order to achieve the specified mechanical stiffness will lead to the restriction of its magnetic flux and increase the engine speed, which reduces the service life of the drives.

The closest in technical essence to the present invention is a known brushless motor (SU 1830174 A3, 1993), which contains a slotted laminated stator with a multiphase anchor winding with the magnetic sections and the rotor with grooves in which are placed permanent magnets forming alternating-pole system, and an active length L of the rotor and the diameter D of the rotor is selected from empirical relationships L/D=(3,2-3,6)(1,1+0,1 p)/p for p≤4, or L/D=(4,8-5,4)/p when p>4, where p is the number of pairs of poles.

These ratios were obtained by the inventors, which is the closest analogue, empirically and allowed to choose the ratio of active length L of the rotor and the diameter D of the rotor, which provides in comparison with the above analogues more efficient use of active materials by reducing the mass and volume of the rotor while maintaining a given mechanical characteristics of the electric machine.

However, further research of the authors of the present invention, which includes one of the authors of CL is Ichigo analogue, showed that increasing the efficiency of the active materials of the electric machine through a rational choice of the parameters characterizing the rotor design, have not been exhausted in the construction of the nearest equivalent.

Therefore, the disadvantages of the nearest analogue is not high enough dynamic and energetic performance, which is due to insufficiently rational choice of the volume of the rotor, which does not allow the minimum mass and moment of inertia of the rotor when specified mechanical and external characteristics.

The present invention is to improve the energy and dynamic characteristics of electric machines by improving the efficiency of active materials.

The problem is solved, according to the present invention, so that the electric machine, comprising, in accordance with the closest analogue to the groove laminated stator with a multiphase anchor winding and a rotor with grooves in which are placed permanent magnets forming alternating-pole system differs from the closest analogue of the fact that the active length L of the rotor is chosen equal to (2,8-3,1)τ, where τ is the pole division of the rotor.

The active length L of the rotor is equal to from 2.8 to 3.1 magnitude pole division τ rotor, allows to improve the energy and the dynamic range is their characteristics electrical machines by increasing the efficiency of the use of active materials, because it provides an increase in the number of turns of the phase anchor winding for a given length of magnet wire that defines the specified anchor resistance of the winding, by minimizing the average length of its orbit. By increasing the number of turns of the anchor winding phases is increased magnetomotive force of the armature of the motor, or the electromotive force of the armature of the generator, which is ensured by increasing the efficiency of active materials.

Specified the required ratio between the amount of the active length L of the rotor and the pole is dividing τ of the rotor obtained by the authors of the present invention empirically. In the case of selecting the active length L of the rotor outside of the specified range of values not provided a significant decrease in the average length of a coil and, thus, a substantial increase in the number of turns of the anchor winding phase, which prevents the achievement of the technical result.

The drawing shows a cross-section of the inventive electric machine, where 1 is the stator, 2 - magnetic core of the stator, 3 - armature winding, 4 - rotor 5 - permanent magnets and 6 magnetic poles.

An electric machine includes a stator 1 with the magnetic core 2 of the stator made of laminated electrical steel. In the slots of the magnetic core 2 of the stator laid corneometry 3. The electric machine also includes a rotor 4 mounted inside the stator 1 and containing permanent magnets 5 and the soft magnetic poles 6 and the permanent magnets 5 adjacent to the magnetic poles 6 its poles with the same magnetization.

In the case of using the electric machine as a motor flowing in the armature winding 3 electric current creates a magnetic core 2 of the stator 1 magnetic flux, which, through the air gap between the stator 1 and the rotor 4 interacts with the magnetic flux of permanent magnets 5, causing rotation of the rotor 4.

In the case of using the electric machine as a generator resulting from rotation of the rotor 4 alternating magnetic flux generated by the permanent magnets 5, induces in the armature winding 3 electromotive force.

To illustrate the efficiency of the active material through the present invention, consider an example in which we compare the two motor with the same number p of pairs of poles. Let the first electric motor provided with a rotor having a diameter of D1and the active length L1=3τ1(according to the present invention), where τ1pole division of the rotor of the first motor, τ1=πD1/(2p), and the second electric motor provided with a rotor having D 2=0,85 D1and the active length L2=6τ1.

As is known, the values of the starting torque and the angular speed under ideal no-load operation of the motor, respectively, are determined by the expressions MP=CMU/RFand ΩX=-U/SEwhereMand CEthe coefficients of time and electromotive force, respectively, WithM=CE=KAboutwFF; U - supply voltage; RFthe resistance of the phase winding of the stator, RF=ρlwwF/q;About- winding ratio; wF- number of turns in the winding phase; f is the magnetic flux in the air gap for a couple of poles; ρ is the specific resistance of the winding wire; q - section winding wire; lw- the average length of a coil winding, lw=2D(L/D+πKw/(2p)); D - diameter of the rotor; Kw- coefficient depending on a winding structure.

From the above expressions it follows that to obtain the same values of the starting torque and the angular speed under ideal no-load operation of the first and second electric motors need the condition wF1F1=wF2F2(1)where wF1and wF2the number of coils in the winding phases of the first and second motors, respectively; f1and f2magnetic fluxes in the air gap for a couple of poles of the first and second electro is the motors, respectively.

Magnetic poles of the first and second motors are determined by the expressions f1=BS1and f2=BS2, where B is the magnetic induction in the air gap, adopted the same for both motors; S1and S2square poles first and second motors, respectively,S1=L1t1=3t12and S2=L2τ2=6τ1τ2where τ2pole division of the rotor of the second electric motor.

Since τ2=πD2/(2p) and D2=0,85 D1thenS2=6t1t2=6t1πD2/(2p)=5,1t12

Then the average length of the coil windings of the first and second motors have values of lw1=2L1+2τ1=6τ1+2τ1=8τ1and lw2=2L2+2τ2=12τ1+1,7 τ1=13,7 τ1,, respectively.

As a result, the number of turns in the winding f is s first electric motor is equal to w F1=qRF/(ρlw1)=qRF/(8τ1ρ), and the number of turns in the winding phase of the second electric motor is equal to wF2=qRF/(ρlw2)=qRF/(13,7 τ1ρ).

Therefore,wF1F1=qRF/(8t1ρ)BS1=3t12BqRF(8t1ρ)=the 0.375t1BqRF/ρ, awF2F2=qRF/(13,7t1ρ)BS2=5,1t12BqRF(13,7t1ρ)=0,372t1BqRF/ρ.

Thus, condition (1) is almost done and the values of starting torque MPand angular frequency ΩXrotation when IDA is flax idle first and second motors are practically identical.

However, the volume of the rotors of the first and second electric motors is equal toV1=πL1D12/4andV2=πL2D22/4=2πL1(0,85D1)2/4=1,445V1respectively.

Therefore, the first electric motor at a much lower active length L1=3τ1rotor, selected in accordance with the present invention, and slightly larger its diameter D1compared with the second motor, the rotor of which has a diameter of D2=0,85 D1and the active length L2=6τ1, characterized by the displacement of the rotor of the V1with a value of approximately 1.5 times less than the amount of rotor V2second motor. This energetic and dynamic characteristics of the first and second electric motors are almost the same.

Thus, the present invention provides improved energy and dynamic Hara, the characteristics of electrical machines by improving the efficiency of active materials.

Electrical machine containing groove laminated stator with a multiphase anchor winding and a rotor with grooves in which are placed permanent magnets forming alternating-pole system, characterized in that the active length L of the rotor is chosen equal to (2,8-3,1)τ, where τ is the pole division of the rotor.



 

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