Turbopump set

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: set comprises two pumps connected by shafts using a splint joint. A turbine wheel is fixed on the first shaft. On the shaft of the second pump there is an unloading piston of an automatic axial force unloading device limited by a radial seal in the peripheral part and having at both sides cavities of high and low pressure. The shaft of one pump with a support end rests against the support end of the second pump shaft. The second pump comprises an auger installed upstream its centrifugal impeller. The high pressure cavity is connected to the outlet of this pump via a pressure controller, comprising a throttle and a control stem contacting with the end of the shaft of this pump. The low pressure cavity is connected to the cavity between the auger and the impeller of this pump.

EFFECT: improved cavitation characteristics of one of pumps.

3 cl, 5 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of engineering, namely the region of shoulder machines, and can be used in the field of rocketry, turbopump units (TNA) liquid propellant rocket engines (LPRE) and nuclear rocket engines (YARD).

When creating TNA important issue is the provision of unloading poles of the rotor from the action of axial forces, as in pumps and turbines TNA axial forces can reach several tens of kN. For unloading from axial forces are automatic unloading device. The design of the devices of the axial discharge of the rotors may be different. The most often used design automatic unloading device with unloading piston, performed separately or combined with the main drive of the impeller and limited radial unregulated seal in the peripheral part of the impeller and automatically regulating the axial gap of the hub of the impeller. The cavity after regulating the axial slit is connected to the input cavity of the impeller discharge holes formed in the hub of the primary disk of the impeller.

Known design turbopump Assembly, consisting of two pumps - oxidant and fuel, the shafts of which are connected by a flat spring or clutch and turbine mounted on the shaft of one of the pumps, each pump will the NENO automatic unloading device (Dmitrenko, A. I. Development of design turbopump assemblies rocket engine developed in kbkha // Scientific-technical jubilee collection. KB of Federal - IPF Voronezh, 2001. - S. 308-314).

This design turbopump Assembly with automatic discharge of each pump is typical for TNA rocket engine with afterburning. The disadvantage of this design is the presence of high leakage of the working fluid in the automatic unloading devices, reducing the efficiency of each of the pumps, thus reducing the total efficiency of the turbopump Assembly. In addition, leakage of the working fluid flowing through the discharge openings into the input cavity of the impeller, worsen anticavitation quality pump.

Known turbopump Assembly - TNA by RF patent for the invention №2459118, IPC F04D 13/04 was investigated, publ. 20.12.2012 (prototype).

This TNA contains two pumps: the first and the second connected with the use of the spline shaft and mounted on the shafts of centrifugal impellers of pumps mounted on the first shaft, the turbine wheel mounted on the shaft of the second pump discharge piston automatic unloading of the axial force, the limited radial seal in the peripheral part of the piston and having on both sides of the cavity, respectively, high and low pressure, sarcophogi the nick of the pump with the outer ring, mounted in the housing with an axial gap, the bearing of the second pump with axial emphasis placed in the housing with a gap on the end face of the outer ring of the bearing, the shaft of one of the pump to its base end rests on the supporting end of the shaft of the second pump.

The disadvantage of the prototype is that the bypass heated fuel at the entrance to the centrifugal impeller leads to deterioration of anticavitation characteristics of the pump, the disruption of its work and, as consequence, to decrease in the reliability of TNA.

The objective of the invention is to improve the reliability TNA.

Achieved technical result: improvement of the anticavitation characteristics of one of the pumps.

The solution of the stated problem is achieved in the turbopump unit containing two pumps: the first and the second connected with the use of the spline shaft and mounted on the shafts of centrifugal impellers of pumps mounted on the first shaft, the turbine wheel mounted on the shaft of the second pump discharge piston automatic unloading of the axial force, the limited radial seal in the peripheral part of the piston and having on both sides of the cavity, respectively, high and low pressure, the bearing of the pump with an outer ring mounted in the housing with an axial gap, haricots pnic second pump with axial stop, accommodated in the housing with a gap on the end face of the outer ring of the bearing, the shaft of one of the pump to its base end rests on the supporting end of the shaft of the second pump, because, according to the invention, the second pump comprises a screw set in front of the centrifugal impeller and the second pump cavity high pressure is connected to the output of the pump through a pressure regulator having an inductor and a control rod in contact with the shaft end of the pump and the low pressure cavity is connected to the cavity between the auger and the impeller of the pump.

Between the supporting shaft ends can be installed slotted spring.

The outer rings of ball bearings limiting axial movement of the rotors of the pumps, can rely on the elastic ring.

The invention is illustrated in Fig.1...4, where:

- Fig.1 shows a General view,

- Fig.2 and 3 suggested turbopump Assembly,

- Fig.4 - the design of the pressure regulator.

Turbopump Assembly (Fig.1...4) is composed of the first pump 1 (pump oxidizer), the second pump 2 (pump 2 fuel), the turbine 3. Pumps 1 and 2 are, respectively, the shafts 4 and 5. On the shafts 4 and 5 pumps 1 and 2 installed centrifugal impellers 6 and 7. From the entrance of the impellers 6 and 7 of the pumps 4 and 5 cavity high pressure separated from the cavities of low pressure is of the front seals 8 and 9. Torque from the shaft 5 of the first pump 3 oxidizer 3 to the shaft 6 of the second pump 4 is transmitted through the spline 10, for example, spline coupling, the shafts 4 and 5 pumps 1 and 2 rely on each other for supporting the ends 11 and 12. Instead of a splined coupling for torque transmission can be used slotted spring (Fig.2).

On the shaft 6 of the first pump 4 is installed impeller 13 of the turbine 3. On the shaft 5 of the second pump 2 (fuel) is made automatic unloading of the axial force 14 included in the discharge axial forces, containing the discharge piston 15, the low pressure cavity 16 and the cavity of the high-pressure 17 is limited radial seal 18 in the peripheral part of the unloading piston 15. In addition, in the system of regulation of the axial force includes a pressure regulator 19 containing the inlet port 20 and outlet fitting 21 (Fig.4). The output fitting 21 is connected with the cavity of the high pressure 17 and inlet port 20 is connected by a channel 22 with a cavity 23 at the outlet of the second pump 5.

TNA comprises a support 24 of the first pump 2, the limiting axial movement of the shaft 4, and a support 25 limiting the movement of the shaft 5, which are installed in buildings with gaps.

Clearances for supports 24 of the first pump are δ1and δ2on the ends of the outer ring.

Clearances for bearings 25 of the second pump 3, limiting the axial displacement is giving the rotor, amount δ3and δ4on the ends of the outer ring.

When the turbopump Assembly of the unit must be running conditions δ13and δ24providing the offloading device axial forces the opportunity to work for the axial discharge of the shafts 4 and 5 both pumps 1 and 2.

In the variant shown in Fig.3, in the bearings of the rotor are installed axial springs 26 and 27, an effort aimed at establishing contact between the shafts to run turbopump Assembly, the springs rest on the sleeve 28 and 29, which can serve as limiters axial movement of the shafts 4 and 5 pumps 1 and 2.

In this case, the side faces of the outer rings of the bearings 24 of the first pump 1, the limiting axial movement of the rotor, a gap δ5and δ6. On the ends of the outer ring support 24 of the second pump 2, limiting the axial displacement of the rotor, a gap δ7and δ8. When assembling the turbopump Assembly with springs in the bearings 23 and 24 must be running conditions δ57and δ68providing the machine unloading axial forces the opportunity to work for the axial discharge of the rotors of both pumps. In addition, the installation of the springs allows to eliminate the clearances in the bearings (ball bearings) and to increase their durability.

The second pump 2 has mounted on the shaft 5 screw 30 screw 30, the mouth is oflen before centrifugal impeller 7, and between them a cavity 31. The cavity 31 and the low pressure cavity 16 are communicated to the channels 32 to reset the leak of one of the components of the fuel (in the specific example - fuel) at the entrance to the centrifugal impeller 7. Because the pressure in the cavity 31 is considerably higher than the pressure at the inlet to the second pump 3 prototype, this will prevent the development of cavitation in the second pump 3.

In Fig.1 shows the design of the TNA with the spline coupler 10 in the form of a splined coupling 33, Fig.2 - in the form of a slotted spring 34, which has its ends 35 and 36 rests on the shafts 4 and 5.

In Fig.4 shows the design of the pressure regulator 19. The pressure regulator 19 includes a housing 37, which is installed inside the throttle 38, containing the saddle 39, valve 40 with the rod 41 and the push rod 42. The rod 41 is connected with the piston 43, on which is installed a spring 44. The housing 37 has a cap 45, the inlet port 20 and outlet fitting 21. The push rod 36 is in contact with the end face 46 of the shaft 5 and is constantly drawn in to it by the spring 44.

WORK TNA

Prior to beginning work turbopump Assembly made according to Fig.1, the shaft (rotor) pumps may be located in any position without a stop at the end of the shaft or spring. At the beginning of the operation of the unit by choosing the diameters of the seals of the rotor exception of the rear seal impeller of one of the pumps and automatic unloading device of one rotor of the pump is in is offset from the rotor in the direction towards each other, in the process, ensures constant contact between shaft directly or through a flat spring. Compensation unbalanced axial forces on the rotor is one automatic unloading device. The condition δ13and δ24must be maintained in all operating modes, including taking into account power and temperature deformations of the structure. During the operation of the automatic handling device leakage component from the discharge cavity through the discharge openings in the main disk of the impeller received in the inlet part of the impeller, reducing energy and cavitation characteristics of the pump, especially at cryogenic components (stream after discharge hole has a higher temperature, getting into the main cooler flow, he does not have time with him to mix, resulting in increased local temperature of the working fluid, which causes a local increase in the temperature of the saturated vapor and the early emergence of cavitation cavities). As in the proposed turbopump Assembly automatic axial unloading of the rotor is made in only one of the pumps, the efficiency and cavitation characteristics of the second pump 2 will improve, which will lead to improve the overall efficiency of turbopump Assembly./p>

In turbopump Assembly according to Fig.2 to minimize the axial size of the unit, minimizing the mutual influence of the rotors of the pumps at each other between the shafts of the pumps installed slotted spring, which serves to transmit torque from one shaft to another.

In turbopump Assembly, made according to Fig.3, to ensure contact between the shafts of the pumps in all operating modes, including startup and shutdown, in which the hydraulic force is insufficient for the mutual pressing of the rotors, bearings mounted axial spring force which is directed towards each other. Springs can rely on the sleeve, which can be used as limiting axial movement of the rotor. The sleeve and the spring can be designed as a single part. The condition δ57and δ68must be maintained at all operating modes, including taking into account power and temperature deformations of the structure.

The use of the invention provides increased efficiency turbopump Assembly comprising two pumps 1 and 2 and the turbine 3, due to the use of only one of the pumps (specifically in the second pump 2) automatic unloading devices for performing axial unloading shaft (rotor) of both pumps. Increase efficiency TNA achieved a decrease is receiving leakage of the working fluid in the pump, where applied machine unloading axial forces.

For the first pump operating on oxygen, the exception of the automatic device of the axial unloading increases the reliability of the TNA due to the exceptions tend to fire in the oxygen places of possible frictional contact of the rotor and the stator of the axial elements of the regulatory cracks automatic unloading device. In addition, elimination of leaks coming through the discharge openings into the input cavity of the impeller, improves anti-cavitation quality of the first pump.

When working turbopump Assembly of magnitude of the diameters of the seals in both the pump and the turbine is chosen so as to ensure continuous contact between the rotors of the pumps on their backs due to the action of forces caused by pressure fluctuations in the flowing parts of pumps and turbines. The transmission of torque from one shaft to another is carried out using the spline. Splined connection can be performed directly in the shafts of pumps, and using spline coupling or spline springs.

Regulation of axial forces on the shafts 4 and 5 TNA is carried out as follows. With increasing axial forces from the turbine 3 and the first pump 1 shaft 5 is moved to the right and presses on the push rod 36 (Fig.4), causing the valve 34 waste is t from the seat 33 and the gap between them increases. The pressure of the fuel component in the output fitting 21 is increased and, therefore, increases the pressure in the cavity of the high-pressure 17. The force acting on the discharge piston 15 to the left increases and compensates for the increase of the axial force acting from left to right). A small part of the fuel component from the cavity 23 through the channel 20 enters the cavity of the high-pressure 17. The leakage component of the fuel passing through the radial seal 18 to the low pressure cavity 16 through the channel 32, is discharged into the cavity 31 is relatively high compared to the pressure at the inlet to the second pump 2)without affecting its anti-cavitation properties. The pressure increase is the most radical means to prevent cavitation.

When reducing the axial force control system axial force works in the reverse sequence, i.e. reduces the pressure in the cavity of the high-pressure 17.

In order to ensure the operability of the turbopump unit startup and shutdown, when the pressure in the cavities are small, in the design of the pumps is provided by elastic elements, which are based on bearing outer ring limiting the axial movement of the rotors of the pumps. Elastic elements provide continuous contact of the supporting ends of the shafts prior to beginning work TNA and all it's modes, when the counter force is f is provided by hydraulic forces.

Turbopump Assembly LRE created using the present invention has a higher efficiency and reliability by eliminating the automatic unloading device in one of the pumps. In addition to the turbopump units LRE invention can be used in the units of General purpose, using a few pumps and require unloading of the rotor from the action of axial forces.

A positive result is an improved anti-cavitation properties of one of the pumps.

1. Turbopump Assembly containing two pumps: the first and the second connected with the use of the spline shaft and mounted on the shafts of centrifugal impellers of pumps mounted on the first shaft, the turbine wheel mounted on the shaft of the second pump discharge piston automatic unloading of the axial force, the limited radial seal in the peripheral part of the piston and having on both sides of the cavity, respectively, high and low pressure, the bearing of the pump with an outer ring mounted in the housing with an axial gap, the bearing of the second pump with axial emphasis placed in the housing with a gap on the end face of the outer ring of the ball bearing, with the one pump shaft to its base end rests on the supporting torical second pump, characterized in that the second pump comprises a screw set in front of the centrifugal impeller and the second pump cavity high pressure is connected to the output of the pump through a pressure regulator having an inductor and a control rod in contact with the shaft end of the pump and the low pressure cavity is connected to the cavity between the auger and the impeller of the pump.

2. Turbopump Assembly under item 1, characterized in that between the support shaft ends mounted slotted spring.

3. Turbopump Assembly under item 1, characterized in that the outer rings of ball bearings limiting axial movement of the rotors of the pumps rely on the elastic ring.



 

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SUBSTANCE: turbine assembly of the unit includes a working medium - steam supply housing, a nozzle block with inclined nozzles, a turbine having a shaft with a runner, and a waste steam outlet housing located downstream of the turbine in the steam flow direction. The steam supply housing is equipped with a header including an axisymmetrical annular cover having the shape of a flattened fragment of a tore or a toroid. The turbine runner us made at least of one disc with blades. Blades are convex-concave as to width and have radial height comprising (0.05÷0.25) of the disc radius. The blade thickness is variable in the direction of steam flow with maximum in the middle part of the blade chord width. The chord width of the blade in the projection to a conditional chord plane attaching inlet and outlet side edges of the blade does not exceed radial height of the blade. The nozzles are made in the disc in the amount of 8÷15, located radially at equal distance with their longitudinal axes from the turbine axis and equally spaced in a conditional circumferential direction at equal angles determined in the range of (24÷45)°. Total number of blades exceeds by 2.6÷34.4 times the number of nozzles.

EFFECT: increasing service life, improving reliability and operating efficiency of a turbine assembly at simultaneous reduction of material consumption and improving compactness of the assembly.

9 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: turbo-pump unit includes a turbine assembly with working medium inlet and outlet housings, a nozzle block and a single-stage turbine. The unit includes a pump assembly with a screw centrifugal impeller. The working medium supply housing is equipped with a manifold including an axisymmetrical tight annular cover. The large part of the cover has the shape of a longitudinally flattened fragment of a tore or a toroid. Turbine runner blades are convex-and-concave as to width, radial height of 0.05÷0.25 of the turbine runner disc radius. The blade thickness is accepted as variable in the direction of working medium flow vector with maximum in the middle part of the blade chord width. The chord width of the blade in the projection to a conditional chord plane attaching inlet and outlet side edges of the blade does not exceed radial height of the blade. The inter-blade channel is of a confuser-and-diffuser type in the direction of the steam flow vector with maximum constriction of flow cross sectional area determined in zone of maximum thickness of blades. Total number of turbine runner blades exceeds by 2.6÷34.4 times the number of nozzles in the nozzle block.

EFFECT: increasing service life of a unit, improving reliability and pumping effectiveness, compactness and efficiency at simultaneous reduction of material consumption.

19 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: shipbuilding, rocketry, aircraft, chemical and other industries.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic machine building and it can be used in industries where stringent requirements to reliability, cavitation, and variable characteristics at minimum mass of construction are placed. Proposed turbopump contains sliding bearings lubricated by handled liquid, axial vortex stage with conical bushing of screw and additional channels with restrictors connecting pressure and intake parts. To reduce overall dimensions and increase reliability, hydraulic balancing device and rear bearing are combined. Pulsations are reduced owing to division of liquid and gas-phase leaks and their removal along separate pipelines. Relief holes are made in turbine disk to reduce axial force at non-standard conditions.

EFFECT: improved reliability and stability of turbopump set within wide range of changes of flow rate of handled liquid, improved cavitation characteristics, reduced weight and overall dimensions.

3 cl, 1 dwg

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