Method of processing water applied for industrial purposes

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of obtaining water for an industrial process includes the water purification and removal of suspended in water solid particles by filtration of a small part of the total water volume, which includes: a) water collection; b) water storage; c) processing of water for 7 days by the periodical addition in it of disinfectant substances; d) activation of one and more operations (1)-(5) by means, made with a possibility of obtaining information, which relates to water quality parameters, regulated by the said means for bringing the water quality parameters in their limits: 1) introduction in water of oxidising substances; 2) introduction of coagulants, flocculants or their mixtures; 3) absorption of a part of the water, which contains precipitated particles and obtained in operations (1) and/or (2); 4) filtering the said part of the absorbed water; 5) return of the filtered water and e) application of the processed water in the process downstream of the flow.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to provide the water purification and removal of the suspended solid substances without a necessity to filter the entire volume of the water.

11 cl, 2 dwg, 3 tbl, 6 ex

 

The technical field

The present invention relates to a method and system for treatment of water intended for use in industrial processes, at low cost. The method and system according to the invention provide a water purification and removal of suspended solids without the need of filtering the entire volume of water, but by filtering only a small part, which is up to 200 times less than the flow of filtered traditional filtration systems for water purification.

The level of technology

Water of high microbiological quality with high transparency is a limited resource that is constantly required for processes in many industries. Processing for obtaining such water entails large capital and operating costs, and provide ways to do this are complex and take a number of problems that are currently not solved effectively. Also, these methods consume large amounts of energy and chemicals, and thus cause significant harm to the environment. More specifically, the removal of impurities contained in the water, such as suspended solids, metals, algae and bacteria, among other things, requires the installation of costly and complex filtration systems that provide filtration of the entire volume of the odes, and thus lead to a large energy consumption, high needs for chemicals and materials, and other resources associated with this process.

Water of high microbiological quality required for a number of important processes such as water treatment processes for desalination with reverse osmosis; water purification used in fish farms; processing and water content in the production of drinking water; treatment of liquid waste, or for the mining industry, among others. Water of high microbiological quality and transparency obtained at very low cost by the present invention can also be used in other industrial processes that require high physical-chemical and microbiological water quality.

Desalination

There are several reasons for resorting to improve existing methods of desalination, because this production is growing exponentially and will become important in the future. Of all the world's water, 97% is sea water. Of the remaining 3% of fresh water available, 2.1 per cent is frozen at the poles and only 0.9 percent is available for human consumption is the water that is in rivers, lakes or groundwater. The limited availability of fresh water for the targeted person is a problem, which will increase with global population growth and cultural change. Approximately 40% of the world's population already suffers from problems caused by lack of access to sources of fresh water.

Thus, according to forecasts programme United Nations environment programme (UNEP), approximately 3 million people will experience severe water shortages in the next 50 years. Also, in 1999, UNEP has identified water scarcity as the main problem of the new Millennium, along with global warming. Freshwater spend a greater rate than they are replenished in the environment, and, in addition, pollution and exploitation of groundwater and surface water leads to reduction in the quantity and/or quality of available natural sources. The combination of increasing population, lack of new sources of fresh water and increasing water consumption per capita causes exacerbation of regional tensions among the countries that are located near water sources. All it requires to find a solution to the problem of availability of water, not only to meet the needs of mankind in the future, and to avoid conflicts that can lead to lack of water.

Traditionally, sea water is the most abundant resource on earth, a virtually endless source is salt water, always available for use. Thus, to address global problems related to insufficient supply of fresh water, the best solution is to process sea water to provide fresh water for General consumption. Unlimited access of sea water contained in the oceans has led to research and development of technologies to remove salt from water in a variety of ways and obtaining fresh water. The world's best existing technology to achieve this goal is the process of desalination. Currently, approximately 130 countries around the world implement some types of desalination process, and it is expected that the installed capacity will be doubled by 2015.

The most used methods of desalination are the following two ways.

The use of water evaporation, distillation process, thereby to vaporize only the water molecules, leaving all salts and dissolved minerals. This method is called thermal desalination.

The use of special membranes that allow the process of reverse osmosis, in which water is separated from the salts by the application of pressure to a semi-permeable membrane. This method is called reverse osmosis.

When choosing which method to use energy consumption is an important factor adopted for the I solution. The estimated energy consumption to produce 1 m3water using thermal desalination ranges from 10 to 15 kWh/m3while the method using reverse osmosis technology uses approximately 5 kWh/m3. This is due to the fact that in thermal desalination requires evaporation, so you need more energy for the process of phase transition; thus, thermal desalination is less effective against energy consumption. Existing restrictions are required to improve the overall efficiency of the methods, using technologies that meet the environmental requirements of the public, while minimizing emissions of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and impact on the environment.

As regards the assessment of the above technologies, with 2005 global installed capacity of power plants desalination reverse osmosis exceeded the installed capacity of thermal plants. According to forecasts, by 2015 the global installed capacity will be distributed as follows: 62% - reverse osmosis and 38% thermal desalination. In fact, the world capacity for fresh water by desalination plants using technologies reverse osmosis has increased more than 300% over 6 years.

Reverse osmosis is a SPO is about, when pressure is applied to the flow of water with high salt concentration, through a semi-permeable membrane that allows only water molecules. Because of this, the filtrate coming from the other side of the membrane corresponds to the water of high microbiological quality with low salinity. During operation of desalination plants using reverse osmosis technology, carry out 2 main stages:

1. Pre-treatment water;

2. Stage desalination.

The second stage, corresponding to the process of reverse osmosis as such, have been extensively studied and achieved an efficiency of up to 98% (General Electric HERO Systems).

The first stage of the method of obtaining fresh water by using reverse osmosis relates to the preparation of salt water before passing it through a semipermeable membrane, also called pre-treatment of water. In practice, the main problems of this pre-processing stage associated with the quality of water necessary for the efficient operation of the reverse osmosis membranes. In fact, it is estimated that 51% of the membranes of reverse osmosis fails due to insufficient pre-treatment, either because of poor design or poor performance, while 30% goes down due to not proper dosing of chemicals. Existing methods, is beside the inefficiency due to the high failure rate, have a very high cost, thereby encouraging research to find new ways of solving these problems.

Problems that occur in the membranes depend on the properties of the feedwater, which clogs the filters and membranes located before the pre-treatment and reverse osmosis membranes. These problems are manifested in the reduction of resource and more frequent maintenance and cleaning of the membranes, leading to higher costs for operation and maintenance. Common problems that occur due to insufficient pre-treatment of water, divided into 2 types: damage to membranes and fouling of the membranes.

Damage to the membranes of reverse osmosis mainly caused by oxidation and hydrolysis of the material of the membranes under the action of various compounds in the feed water. Most reverse osmosis membranes cannot withstand the existing concentration of residual chlorine, which usually add in demineralization methods to prevent biological fouling. Membranes are expensive, so you must take all possible precautions to maintain continuous operation and achieve the best possible performance; therefore, it is often necessary to dechlorinate water before passing through the membrane. Ultimately, you should also reg is on the pH of the feedwater for the optimal operation of the membranes. In addition, dissolved oxygen and other oxidizing substances must be removed to prevent damage to the membranes. Gases also affect the proper functioning of the membranes, so that for optimal performance you need to prevent high concentrations. Existing methods of regulation of concentrations of gases and acidifying substances are very expensive and inefficient.

On the other hand, the fouling of the membranes of reverse osmosis for the most part leads to a significant decrease in efficiency, which occurs for various reasons, for example because of the increased pressure, which must be attached to the supplied water to pass through the membrane; increased downtime due to regular maintenance and cleaning to be performed, and the high cost of replacement of consumable materials used in the method. The fouling of the membranes due to three main problems: biological fouling, salt deposition and the formation of colloidal deposits.

Biological fouling is the result of growth of colonies of bacteria or algae on the surface of the membrane. Because you cannot use chlorine, there is a risk of the development of film biomass blocking the passage of water supplied, which reduces the efficiency of the system.

Another important problem that you which indicates clogging of the membrane, is salt deposition, which ultimately causes the blockage. The salt deposition is called the precipitation and formation of deposits is moderately soluble salts on the membrane. In fact, under certain operating conditions, the limits of solubility of some components present in the feed water may be exceeded, causing precipitation. Such components include calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate, calcium sulfate, silicon dioxide, barium sulfate, strontium sulfate and calcium fluoride, among others. In reverse osmosis at the final stage of dissolved salts present in the highest concentrations, and the first signs of scaling. Salt deposition due to precipitation increases due to the concentration gradient at the membrane surface.

Blockage of particles or the formation of colloidal sediments occurs when the feedwater contains a large amount of suspended particles and colloidal substances, and this requires constant washing to clean the membranes. The concentration of particles in water can be measured and expressed in different ways. The most used option is turbidity, which must be maintained at a low level for proper operation. The accumulation of particles on the membrane surface can negatively affect both on the OK feedwater, and the failure rate of the reverse osmosis membranes. The formation of colloidal sediments due to the accumulation of colloidal particles on the membrane surface and the formation of a layer in the form of a peel. The decrease of the flow of the filtrate caused, on the one hand, the formation of a layer of crust, and on the other hand, high concentration of salts on the membrane surface, the cause of which is difficult diffusion of salt ions, which leads to increased osmotic pressure and decreasing momentum of the resulting force. The monitored parameter to prevent the formation of colloidal sediments is the sludge density index (TPI), and manufacturers of membranes is recommended to support IEP to 4. The fouling of the membranes can also occur due to fouling by natural organic matter (DOM). Natural organic matter clogs the membrane or as a result of narrowing the pores associated with the adsorption of natural organic matter on the walls of the pores, or the presence of colloidal organic matter, which acts as a stopper at the entrances to the pores, or formation of a continuous layer of gel that covers the surface of the membrane. This layer causes a significant reduction in efficiency, and therefore, it is necessary to avoid contamination of such a layer at any cost.

Currently, pre-treatment of water prior to beginning the m method of desalinating mainly includes the following stages:

1. Chlorination to reduce organic bacteriological load in the source water,

2. Filtration through a sand filter to reduce turbidity,

3. Acidification to reduce pH and deceleration processes liming,

4. Inhibition of the deposition of calcium and barium using deposition inhibitors,

5. Dechlorination to remove residual chlorine.

6. Providing filters for particles required by the manufacturers of membranes

7. Microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF).

Among the above stages of pre-processing, the cost of filtration stages, using a sand filter or through a more complex stages of filtration such as microfiltration, ultrafiltration or nanofiltration, results in high costs, in addition to other disadvantages. In particular, if the pre-processing does not meet the requirements, the filters become clogged with organic matter, colloidal substances, algae, microorganisms and/or larvae. In addition, the requirements for a filter designed to handle the entire volume of water in the system in order to reduce turbidity and remove particles impose severe restrictions in terms of energy, cost of implementation and commissioning and during operation, in terms of technical maintenance of the air traffic management and replacement filters. In addition, a pretreatment system today are very inefficient and have high value due to the installed devices and objectives continuous operation and maintenance, which are costly and difficult to implement.

In conclusion, it should be noted that the increasing scarcity of fresh water sources has created a worldwide problem of water supply that led to the development and implementation of various desalination technologies. Desalination by reverse osmosis is a promising technology aimed at solving the problem of shortage of fresh water sources, and this technology is expected to have a significant development in the future. However, the provision of cost effective and energy efficient means of pre-processing of supplied water is a major problem for desalination plants using reverse osmosis. There is a need for effective technology that can be implemented at low cost and will provide water of satisfactory quality for use as starting material in the methods of desalination.

Industrial aquaculture

Industrial aquaculture involves the farming of aquatic organisms, plants and animals, which are raw materials, in particular for food, hee is practical and pharmaceutical industries. Aquatic organisms are grown in fresh or seawater, which are mainly cultivated fish, molluscs, crustaceans, seaweeds and microalgae. Due to the growth of industry, the development of new technologies and standards for environmental protection set by the international community, there is a need to minimize the impact on the environment of industrial aquaculture, at the same time maintaining adequate regulation of working conditions. To accomplish this, the cultivation of aquatic organisms, localized in situ in natural water sources such as sea, moved to enterprise, specially built for such purposes.

In addition to the traditional cultivation of such organisms as the source material for the food, pharmaceutical and General manufacturing, aquatic organisms are also used in the energy sector for the generation of energy from renewable non-conventional sources, in particular for the production of biofuel, such as biodiesel from algae.

Regarding biofuels, it should be noted that the basis of global energy production is fossil fuel (oil, gas and coal), which provides approximately 80% of global energy consumption. Biomass, hydropower and other "unconventional" sources of ene the GII, such as solar energy are renewable energy sources. In the last group, accounting for only 2.1% of the foundations of the world production, includes wind energy, solar energy and biofuels, which, in turn, mainly includes biogas, biodiesel and ethanol.

Due to the fact that the sources of fossil and nuclear energy are exhaustible, in the future the need for them may not be provided. Accordingly, the energy policy in developed countries is to consider the introduction of alternative energy. In addition, improper handling of conventional energy sources like oil and coal, among other things, leads to such problems as environmental pollution, increase the amount of greenhouse gases and the depletion of the ozone layer. Therefore, the production of clean, renewable and alternative energy sources is necessary from an economic and environmental point of view. In some countries the use of biofuels mixed with oil fuel, accelerated bulk and efficient production of biodiesel, which can be obtained from vegetable oils, animal fats and algae.

The production of biodiesel from algae requires extensive use of agricultural land. Thus the m it does not affect global food production, as algae can grow in a small space and have very high rates of growth, with increasing biomass twice in 24 hours. Therefore, algae are a source of continuous and inexhaustible energy production, and also absorb carbon dioxide for their growth, which can be extracted from various sources such as thermal power plants.

The main systems used for cultivation of microalgae include:

lake: because algae require sunlight, carbon dioxide and water, they can be grown in lakes and outdoor ponds;

- photobioreactors: photobioreactor is controlled and a closed system including a light source, which being closed requires the addition of carbon dioxide, water and light.

As for the lakes, the cultivation of algae in open ponds has been widely studied. This category of ponds is a natural water bodies (lakes, lagoons, ponds, sea) and artificial ponds or containers. The most widely used systems are large ponds, reservoirs, ponds circulation and shallow ponds with water. One of the main advantages of open ponds is that they are easier to build and maintain than most closed systems. One is about the main limitations of natural outdoor ponds are evaporation losses, the need for large tracts of land, pollution of the pond predators and other competitors and inefficient mechanisms of mixing, which leads to low productivity in terms of biomass.

Thus were created the "pond water"that runs continuously. In such ponds algae, water and nutrients circulate through the pipeline ring type, and stirred with a paddle-wheels to re-suspension of algae in the water, so they are in constant motion and always have access to sunlight. The ponds are shallow due to the needs of the algae in the light, as sunlight penetrates to a limited depth.

Photobioreactors can grow one kind of algae for a long time and are ideal for the production of large quantities of algal biomass. Photobioreactors typically have a diameter of less than or equal to 0.1 m, because larger sizes prevent the admission of light into the deeper zone, as the planting density is very high, in order to achieve a high yield. Photobioreactors require cooling during the daylight hours and temperature control at night. For example, the loss of biomass produced at night, can be reduced by lowering the temperature within the er is their hours.

Method for the production of biodiesel depends on the type of cultured algae, which are selected on the basis of performance and adaptation to environmental conditions. Obtaining biomass of microalgae begin in photobioreactors, served in CO2mainly coming from power plants. Then, before entering the stationary phase of growth, microalgae move from photobioreactors in tanks larger volume in which they continue to evolve and multiply, until reach maximum biomass density. Then the algae is collected through various separation processes with obtaining algal biomass, which is ultimately processed to extract biofuel products.

For cultivation of microalgae requires virtually sterile purified water, because performance is affected by pollution and other undesirable species of algae or microorganisms. Water prepared in accordance with special nutrient medium, depending on system requirements.

Key factors to control the growth rate of algae are:

- light is required for photosynthesis;

- temperature: the ideal temperature range for each type of algae;

Wednesday: the composition of the water are the two which is an important factor for example, salinity;

- pH: usually algae require values from 7 to 9, to obtain the optimal growth rate;

- strain: each type of algae has a different growth rate;

gases: algae requires CO2for the implementation of photosynthesis;

- mixing: in order to avoid sedimentation of the algae and to ensure uniform irradiation of light;

- photoperiod: cycles of light and darkness.

Algae are very little sensitive to salinity, the majority of species grow better in salinity, which is slightly lower than the salinity found in the natural habitat of the algae, and it is produced by dilution of seawater with fresh water.

The production of drinking water

Water industry provides drinking water to residential, commercial and industrial sectors. To provide drinking water, water management basically start its activities by collecting water from natural sources with high microbiological quality and transparency, and this water is then stored in tanks for future use. Water can be stored for a long period of time in the tank without use. The quality of water stored for a long period of time, begins to deteriorate, because the water to breed microorganisms and algae that case is t it unsuitable for human consumption.

As the water becomes unfit for use, it must be treated at the treatment plant drinking water, where it passes through various stages of purification. On-treatment plants add chlorine and other chemicals to get high quality water. The interaction of chlorine with organic compounds present in water can lead to the formation of several side products or disinfection by-products (DBPs). For example, when the reaction of chlorine with ammonia, chloramines are unwanted by-products. In addition, when the reaction of chlorine or chloramines with organic matter form trihalomethanes, which are recognized as carcinogenic compounds. Also, depending on the method of disinfection, can be detected new TTD, such as iodinated trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles, halonitromethanes, haloacetonitriles and nitrosamines. In addition, human exposure to chlorine and organic substances were mentioned as a factor contributing to the possible problems with the respiratory system, including asthma.

Wastewater treatment

Wastewater is treated every day to get clean water used for different purposes. There is a need to provide wastewater treatment for a small amount of sludge and waste, as well as with men is higher amounts of chemicals and energy.

Mining

Mining is an important industry in the world and is closely linked with the economy of each country. In the mining industry requires water for most processes, resources of which are limited and dwindling every day. In some industries, the mining industry developed technology for use of sea water in most of its processes, which only works with this resource.

The fields themselves are usually located at a great distance and height from the shoreline, so it is necessary to transport the water for many miles to deliver on the field. To move large amounts of water build pumping stations, in addition to very long pipeline to pump water from the sea to the fields.

Pumping stations are designs that include high-power pumps, feed the collected seawater to the next pumping station and so on, Pumping stations also include enclosing structures for storage of sea water in case of any problems that may arise prior to pumping stations. Such capacity design sooner or later can create various problems that adversely affect the pumping process, such as biological the second fouling of the walls and internal surfaces of pipes. Biological fouling leads to the destruction of materials, as well as to decrease the cross-sectional area of the pipe, which increases the cost of operation and maintenance. Also, the water quality within the containing structures begins to deteriorate due to the growth of algae, which adversely affects the operation of the plant and leads to various and serious problems such as biofouling.

The industrial processing of liquid waste

In some industries produces liquid waste that may not meet the requirements of irrigation, infiltration or discharge established by local government. Also, in some industries use settling tanks or other storage media, allowing the flow of natural processes in water, such as the release of gases or other substances, which give the water an unpleasant odor or color.

As described above, existing methods and systems of water treatment for industrial applications have high operating costs, require the use of large quantities of chemicals that allow biological fouling, unwanted by-products such as gases and other substances that cause an unpleasant odor or color, and require filtration of the entire volume of water. There is a need to improve is the R methods and water treatment systems for industrial applications, which are low cost and more effective than traditional filtration systems for water purification.

In JP 2011005463 presents A control system introduction of coagulants and flocculants in water treatment plants. This system is based on the use of turbidity sensors that measure the quantity and quality of water prior to the addition of coagulants and flocculants. The system uses a classifier, which measures the amount of flocculant after sedimentation and classifies treated water in accordance with these measurements. According to the turbidity measurements, the control system calculates the rate of introduction of coagulants and flocculants, which is injected with devices designed for that purpose. Calculations dosed number of connections correct according to the function that determines a correction factor in accordance with the turbidity, measured before and after treatment. After sedimentation of the particles perform stage filter, which filter the entire volume of treated water.

Disadvantages JP 2011005463 A are that it does not regulate the content of organic substances or micro-organisms present in the water, because the system does not include the use of disinfectant substances or oxidizing substances. Also, in JP 2011005463 does not provide A reduction containing the ia metals in water and is based on continuous measurement parameters, therefore has a high demand in respect of sensors and other measuring devices. In addition, in JP 2011005463 A necessary filtering of the full volume of water to be treated, which leads to high energy demand and high costs in commissioning and maintenance of the system required for this filter.

Brief description of the invention

In this brief description of the basic principles of the invention in a simplified form, which is also described below in the detailed description. It is not intended that this summary determines necessary or essential features of the claimed subject matter of the invention. This summary does not limit the protection scope of the claimed subject matter.

Method and system created according to the principles of the present invention, provide clean water and removal of suspended solids, metals, algae, bacteria and other components of the water at very low cost and without the necessity of filtering the entire volume of water. Filter only a small part of the total volume of water, up to 200 times less than the flow filtered by traditional filtration systems for water purification. Water treatment can be used for industrial purposes, for example for treatment of water intended as source material for industrial is Rzeszow, or for the treatment of industrial liquid wastes for infiltration, irrigation, reset, and for other purposes.

As for desalination by reverse osmosis, the present invention provides a method and system for pre-treatment and the content of the feedwater, which use less chemicals and consume less power than traditional ways of pre-processing.

With regard to industrial aquaculture, water obtained by the present invention, achieves the properties required for planting algae, using filtration media, providing filtering only part of the total volume of water. In the present invention provide water of high microbiological quality, which is used for inoculation of algae and other microorganisms. The use of treated water, for example, in ponds with water will provide a large reduction in cost, since one of the main problems of this industry is the receiving water for planting. Also, the present invention provides the ability to clear water after cultivation of algae and their collection. Thus, the water can be reused, which provides a sustainable way for the industrial aquaculture.

When using the method and system according to the present image is ateneu for the production of drinking water, contained in the tank water can be stored at very low cost, preventing the growth of microorganisms and algae, which can affect water quality. Thus, drinking water treated in accordance with the method and system of the present invention, it is not necessary to be treated at the treatment plant drinking water. Therefore, the present invention allows to minimize the formation of toxic byproducts, and disinfection by-products (DBPs)formed on the installation of drinking water treatment and reduce the cost of capital investment, the amount of chemical used, the cost of operation and impact on the environment of use drinking water treatment. The present invention allows to maintain the water from a very clean natural sources in the state of high microbiological quality at low cost in an environmentally safe manner, without compromising the quality or the formation of toxic DBPs.

The present invention can be used for treatment of water coming from the treatment facilities for wastewater at very low cost, odor removal and getting very clear water with low turbidity. The amount of waste and sludge significantly reduced compared to traditional wastewater is water, thereby providing a rational method that is safe for the environment.

With regard to the mining industry, the present invention relates to a method and system for treatment of water to prevent biological fouling in pump stations, and thus, reduces the cost of operation and maintenance. The present invention can also be used for treatment of liquid industrial waste coming from different industries, to bring them into compliance with the requirements of irrigation, infiltration or discharge established by local government.

The method and system according to the invention provide an inexpensive process water for use in industrial processes, which, unlike traditional filtration systems for water treatment, provides clean water and remove suspended solids by filtering a small portion of the total volume of water. In one embodiment of the method according to the present invention includes:

a) collecting water with a concentration of total dissolved solids (OCRT) up to 60,000 ppm (parts per million), and

i) if the water collected at the stage (a)has a concentration of total dissolved solids less than or equal to 10000 ppm, the saturation index of Langella should costal shall be less than 3, or

ii) if the water collected at the stage (a)has a concentration of total dissolved solids above 10000 ppm, the saturation index of Stiff-Davis should be less than 3;

b) storing the specified water at least one container, where the specified container has a bottom, made with careful treatment with vehicle suction;

C) during the interval with a duration of 7 days, processing said water in the specified container during this interval is periodically adding disinfectant to the specified water to establish the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of at least 500 mV for the total processing time for the establishment of the AFP, within this interval, which depends on the temperature specified treated water, and:

1) for water having a temperature up to 35°C, specified the total processing time for the establishment of the AFP includes a minimum period of 1 h per °C water temperature;

2) for water having a temperature of more than 35°C, but less than 70°C, specified the total processing time for the establishment of the AFP includes the minimum number of hours calculated by the following equation:

[35 hours]-[(the temperature of water in °C-35)×1 h/°C]=minimum number of hours; or

3) for water having a temperature of 70°C and the and more specified total processing time for the establishment of the AFP includes a minimum period of 1 h;

g) activating, using the agreement, the following operations to clean the specified water and remove suspended solids by only filtering a small portion of the total volume of the specified water in the specified container with the specified tool matching is able to receive information related to water quality parameters, to process the information and issue a decision in accordance with the received information, where the specified water quality parameters include concentrations of iron and manganese, turbidity and thickness of deposited material, and activates one or more operations (1)to(5) to bring the above-mentioned water quality parameters within their limits:

1) introduction to the specified water in the specified container oxidizing substances for regulation in this water concentrations of iron and manganese, and oxidizing substances injected into the specified water in an amount sufficient to maintain concentrations of iron or manganese at a level not higher than 1 ppm and/or prevent it from exceeding;

2) introduction to the specified water in the specified container coagulants, flocculants, or a mixture thereof to adjust the turbidity of the specified water with coagulants, flocculants, or their mixture add the specified water quantity, DOS is enough to prevent exceeding the turbidity of the specified water 5;

3) the suction part of this water containing settled particles and obtained in operations (1) and/or (2)with the aid of the moveable suction means for regulating the thickness of the deposited material so that the thickness of the deposited material does not exceed an average of 100 mm;

4) filtering of this part of this water that is absorbed with the help of a mobile suction means, at least one filtering means; and

5) return the filtered water in the specified container; and

d) the use of the above treated water in the process downstream, where the specified treated water use:

i) as a starting material for the industrial process, and its circulation is carried out in an open cycle; or

ii) for the purpose of diversion, irrigation, infiltration, or a combination thereof.

In one embodiment of the system according to the invention includes:

at least one water supply line (7) at least one container (8);

at least one container (8), comprising a means of receiving the settled particles (17), which is attached to the bottom of the container;

at least one tool (1) coordination, which periodically activates the operations needed to control the water parameters within the limits established by the operator or by means of negotiation;

at least one means (4) introduction of chemical in the substance, which activate using the specified at least one means of reconciliation;

at least one movable tool (5) suction that moves along the bottom of the specified at least one container, sucking the flow of water containing settled particles;

at least one driving means (6), which imparts a motion to the specified at least one rolling means of suction, so that it can move along the bottom of the specified at least one container;

at least one filtering means (3), which provides a filtering stream water containing settled particles;

at least one collector line (15)connecting the specified at least one movable suction means and the specified at least one filtering means;

at least one return line (16) from the specified at least one filter media to the specified at least one container, and

at least one line (18) for supplying water from the specified at least one container at least one process downstream.

In the system the means of reception usually covered with material, including membranes, geomembranes, membranes from geodan, plastic cladding, concrete or concrete floor, or a combination thereof. A means of negotiating ipodnano with the possibility of obtaining information processing this information and activate other operations, such as operations performed by means of the introduction of chemical substances moving by means of suction and filtering means. Means of introduction of chemical substances typically includes injectors, spray guns, manual Intro, dosing by weight, pipelines, or a combination thereof. The driving means drives the movable suction means and generally includes a rail system, cable system, self-propelled system, driving system with manual control, robotic system, with remote control, ship engine, a floating device with a motor, or a combination thereof. Filtering means includes a cartridge type filters, sand filters, microfilters, ultrafilters, nanofilter or both and usually connected with a movable means of suction through the collector lines comprising a flexible hose, a stationary tube, a pipe, or a combination thereof.

The present invention is directed to solving the various problems of environmental pollution that occur in the water treatment process. The inventor of the new technology disclosed in this application, Mr. Fernando Fischmann, has developed many new proposals for water technology, which were quickly adopted around the world. For a short period of time technology image is the reader, related to recreational pure lagoons, included in more than 180 projects around the world. About the inventor and his improvements water technology written more than 2000 articles, as you can see on the website http://press.crystal-lagoons.com/. The inventor has also received important international awards for innovation and entrepreneurship in connection with these improvements, water technology, and he was interviewed mainstream media, including CNN, BBC, FUJI and Bloomberg''s Businessweek.

As the above brief description of the invention and the subsequent detailed description of the invention, contains examples are only illustrative. Accordingly, the above brief description of the invention and further detailed description of the invention should not be considered limiting. Additionally, there may be signs or changes, in addition to those described in this application. For example, certain embodiments may include various combinations of characteristics described in the detailed description of the invention.

Brief description of drawings

In Fig.1 shows a process flowchart showing the processing of water in the embodiment of the invention.

In Fig.2 presents a top view of the design capacity of the water, such as a lagoon, in the embodiment of the invention.

Detailed description of the invention

In the following detailed description of the invention made with reference to the accompanying drawings. In addition to the described embodiments of the invention, it is possible modifications, adaptations and other improvements. For example, there may be substitutions, additions or modifications of the components shown in the drawings, and the methods described in this application can be modified by substituting, reordering, or adding stages in the disclosed methods. Accordingly, further detailed description does not limit the scope of the invention. Although the systems and methods described with the use of the term "comprising", various devices or stages, systems and methods can also "mainly composed of" or "consist of" the various devices or stages, if not specified otherwise.

Definition

In the light of the present description, the following terms or phrases should be understood as follows.

The terms "container" or "host tool" in this application is in General use to describe any large artificial water body, and it covers terms such as artificial lagoons, lakes, ponds, pools, etc.

The term "agent coordination," in General use in this application to describe an automated system that is able to receive the information, process the e and issue a decision in accordance with this processing. In the preferred embodiment of the invention can all carry the operator, but more preferably, by using a computer connected to the sensors.

The term "means of introducing chemical substances in common use in this application to describe a system, which allows for the introduction or dispersing chemicals into the water.

The term "movable suction means in common use in this application to describe a suction device, which is able to move along the surface of the bottom of the container and suck deposited material.

The term "driving the vehicle" in General use in this application to describe the driving device, which allows to ensure the movement by pushing or pulling, of the other device.

The term "filtering means in common use in this application to describe the filtration system, and the term covers such concepts as a filter, a sieve, separator, etc.

As used in this application, the main types of water and their respective concentrations (mg/l) total dissolved solids (OCRT) include drinking water with OCRT≤1500; brackish water with 1500≤OCRT≤10000 and sea water with OCRT>10000.

As used in this application, the term "water of high microbiological quality includes prefer is lnoe the number of aerobic bacteria less than 200 CFU/ml, more preferably, less than 100 CFU/ml and, most preferably, less than 50 CFU/ml

As used in this application, the term "high transparency" includes the preferred value of the turbidity values less than 10 units turbidity (IT), more preferably less than 7 and, most preferably, less than 5.

As used in this application, the term "low level of deposition" includes the preferred IPO less than 6, more preferably less than 5 and most preferably less than 4.

As used in this application, the term "small part"corresponds to the filtered volume of water, including flow up to 200 times smaller than the flow filtered in traditionally linked filtration systems for water purification.

As used in this application, the term "traditionally linked filtration systems for water purification" or "traditionally linked filtration system for water purification" includes a filtration system that provides filtration of the entire volume of water intended for cleaning, from 1 to 6 times per day.

Modes of carrying out the invention

The present invention relates to a method and system for water treatment at low cost. The method and system according to the invention provide a water purification and removal of suspended solids from the water without the need of a filter is the total volume of water. The present invention provides for filtering only a small part of the total volume of water corresponding to the stream up to 200 times smaller than in the case of traditional methods of water treatment. The treated water obtained by the method and system according to the invention can be used for industrial purposes, for example as raw material for industrial processes. The method and system according to the invention can also be used for treatment of liquid waste to make liquid waste suitable for infiltration, irrigation, reset, or other purposes.

Water processed using the method and system according to the invention, can be a drinking water, brackish water or sea water. The method and system include a means of coordination, which allows you to periodically activate the operations required to bring the adjustable parameters in the limits defined by the operator. The present invention uses significantly less chemicals than traditional systems for water purification, as the chemicals are served in accordance with the needs of the system, using the algorithm, depending on water temperature, thus avoiding maintain constant concentrations of chemicals in water, which leads to higher cost perfo the operation.

The system according to the invention typically includes at least one container, at least one means of negotiating at least one means of introducing chemical substances, at least one movable suction means and at least one filtering means. In Fig.1 presents one embodiment of a system according to the invention. The system includes a container (8). The size of the container is not limited in a particular way, however, in many embodiments, the container may have a capacity of at least 15,000 m3or, alternatively, at least 50000 m3. Provided that the container or enclosing means may have a capacity of 1 million m350 million m3500 million m3or more.

The container (8) has a bottom that enables reception of bacteria, algae, suspended solids, metals and other particles settling in water. In the embodiment of the container (8) comprises means (17) for receiving the settled particles or materials from the treated water. Means (17) receiving attached to the bottom of the container (8) and preferably made of non-porous material that can be cleaned. The bottom of the container (8) is usually covered with non-porous material that provides the ability to move the vehicle (5) suction over the entire bottom surface of the container (8) and suction them settled particles, formed in the result is the any transaction, disclosed in this description. Non-porous materials may constitute membranes, geomembranes, plastic cladding, concrete, concrete coating, or combinations thereof. In the preferred embodiment of the invention the bottom of the container (8) is covered with a plastic lining.

The container (8) may include an input line (7) for supplying water into the container (8). Input line (7) provides the ability to replenish the container (8)required due to the evaporation of water for use in industrial process and other water losses.

The system includes at least one tool (1) agreement, which allows you to adjust the required operations depending on the needs of the system (e.g., water quality or purity). Such operations may include activation (13) tools (4) introduction of chemical substances and activation (11) of the rolling means (5) suction. The tool (1) approval may change the flow rate of treated water supplied to industrial process (2), on the basis of information (12), for example, on output or performance. The means of coordination may also receive information (9) relative to the inlet line (7), as well as to obtain information (10) on water quality and thickness of the material deposited at the bottom of the container (8).

The tool (1) approval allows you to add chemicals in the context of Aner (8) only when they really need, while avoiding the need to maintain a constant concentration in water, applying the algorithm, depending on water temperature. Thus, it is possible to greatly reduce the amount of chemicals used, up to 100 times compared to traditional water treatment protocols that can reduce the cost of operation. The tool (1) approval receives information (10)relating to regulated water quality parameters, and may periodically activate the actions needed to bring the specified parameters in the corresponding limits. Information (10), obtained by using (1) approval may be obtained by visual observation, empirical methods, algorithms, based on practical experience with the help of electronic sensors or through a combination of these methods. The tool (1) approval may include one or more specialist, electronic device or any means to obtain information, process this information and activate other operations, and this includes a combination of these means. One example of a means of reconciliation is a computer device such as a personal computer. The tool (1) approval may also include sensors used to receive the Deposit information (10), related to water quality parameters.

Means (4) introduction of chemical substances activate the tool (1) agreement, and it provides an introduction or a metered addition of chemicals (14) into the water. Means (4) introduction of chemical substances includes, but is not limited to, injectors, spray guns, manual Intro, dosing by weight, pipelines and their combinations.

Mobile facility (5) suction moves over the bottom of the container (8), sucking water containing settled particles and materials obtained from any of the operations disclosed herein. The driving means (6) connected with the movable tool (5) suction and provides the ability to move the vehicle (5) suction on the bottom of the container (8). The driving means (6) drives the moving means (5) suction through the use of a system selected from such systems, as the rail system, cable system, the self-propelled driving system with manual control, robotic system, with remote control, a vessel with an engine or a floating device with a motor, or combinations thereof. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the driving means is a vessel with an engine.

Water that is absorbed by a moving means (5) suction, you can podavat is in the filtering means (3). Filtering means (3) receives a stream of water that is absorbed by a moving means (5) suction filters and intake water containing settled particles and materials, thus eliminating the need to filter the entire volume of water (for example, providing filtering only a small part). Filtering means (3) includes, but is not limited to, the filter cartridge type, a sand filter, a microfilter, nanofilter, ultra-filter or combinations thereof. Absorbed water can be fed into the filtering means (3) through manifold line (15)connected to the moving means (5) suction. Collector line (15) can be selected from flexible hoses, rigid hoses, pipes of any material and their combinations. The system may include a return line (16) from the filter means (3) back to the container (8) to return the filtered water.

The system can also include a discharge line (18), which treated water is transported from the container (8) in the industrial process (2). Examples of industrial process include, but are not limited to, reverse osmosis, desalination, evaporation, purification, cultivation of algae, the process of aquaculture, the process of mining and combinations thereof. In the industrial process, you can use the treated water as source material (21) for func is th process or it is possible to use this method for processing residual water (22) for different purposes, for example for maintenance, irrigation, infiltration or discharge of, among other things. Predefined limits parameters depend on the requirements of industrial process (2). Industrial process (2), in turn, can change the limits (12)in order to bring them into line operations.

In Fig.2 shows a top view of the system according to the invention. The container (8) may include a system (7) of the supply pipe, which allows you to refill the container (8), which is required due to evaporation, water use industrial process or other losses of water from the container (8). The container (8) may also include injectors (19)located on the perimeter of the container (8)for the introduction or dosed addition of chemicals into the water. The container (8) may also include skimmers (20) to remove surface oils and particles.

In one embodiment of the system according to the invention includes the following elements:

at least one line (7) water supply at least one container (8);

at least one container (8), comprising a means of receiving the settled particles (17), formed as a result of any of the operations disclosed herein, attached to the bottom of the container;

at least one medium is in (1) coordination, which periodically activates the operations necessary to bring the parameters to their limits;

at least one means (4) introduction of chemical substances, which adds a disinfectant to the water;

at least one movable tool (5) suction that moves along the bottom of the specified at least one container, sucking the flow of water containing settled particles formed as a result of any of the operations disclosed herein;

at least one driving means (6), which imparts a motion to the at least one rolling means of suction, so that it can move along the bottom of the specified at least one container;

at least one filtering means (3)which filters the stream of water containing settled particles; thus eliminate the need to filter the entire volume of water by filtering only a small part;

at least one collector line (15)connecting the specified at least one movable suction means and the specified at least one filtering means;

at least one return line (16) from the specified at least one filter media to the specified at least one container and

at least one outlet line (18) from among asanoha at least one container to the process downstream.

The same system allows you to remove other compounds that are prone to subsidence adding chemicals as mobile facility (5) suction sucks all the settled particles from the bottom of the container (8).

The method of water treatment according to the invention can be performed at low cost, compared to traditional systems for water purification, as in the present invention use less chemicals and consume less energy than traditional systems for water purification. In one aspect, the present method uses significantly less chemicals compared to traditional systems for water purification because it used an algorithm that allows to maintain the ORP of at least 500 mV for a certain period of time, depending on water temperature, which ensures the maintenance of high microbiological quality of water according to the needs of the process in which they use water. This method is realized by means of the system described in this application, which includes a tool (1) approval. A means of negotiating determines when to apply chemicals in the water to cause the adjustable parameters in accordance to their limits, on the basis of information received from the system. Because they use the means of reconciliation, a chemical which substances enter only when they are needed, avoiding the need to maintain a constant concentration of chemical substances in the water. Thus provide a significant reduction in the number of chemical substances up to 100 times in comparison with traditional systems for water purification, which allows to reduce the costs of operation and maintenance.

In another aspect, the method and system according to the invention provide for filtering only a small part of the total volume of water for a certain period of time, unlike traditional filtration systems for water purification, which filter the much larger volume of water for the same period of time. In one embodiment a small part of the total volume of water up to 200 times smaller than the stream processed in traditionally linked centralized filtration systems that provide filtration of the entire volume of water in the same period of time. Filtering means used in the method and system according to the invention operate for more than short periods of time due to the command received from the funds reconciliation; thus, the filtering means has a very small capacity, and capital costs and energy consumption reduced up to 50 times compared to the centralized filter device required in water treatment the traditional is tion methods.

The method and system according to the invention allows to treat the water at a low cost. The method and system enables the removal of metals, bacteria, algae, etc. from the water receiving treated water with low levels of education sediments, determined by the sludge density index (TPI). Thus, the method and system provide a high microbiological quality and transparency of water that can be used for industrial purposes. In one embodiment the method and system according to the invention allows to treat the water, which is used as source material for industrial purposes. The method and system can also be used for treatment of industrial liquid wastes with the aim of preparing them for infiltration, irrigation, reset, or other purposes, using fewer chemicals than traditional systems for water purification and without the necessity of filtering the entire volume of water in conventional water treatment systems.

In one embodiment, the method includes the following stages:

a) collecting water with a concentration of total dissolved solids (OCRT) up to 60,000 ppm, and

i) if the water collected at the stage (a)has a concentration of total dissolved solids less than or equal to 10000 ppm, the saturation index of Langella should be less than 3, or

i) if the water, collected at stage (a)has a concentration of total dissolved solids above 10000 ppm, the saturation index of Stiff-Davis should be less than 3;

b) storing the specified water at least one container, where the specified container has a bottom, made with careful treatment with vehicle suction;

C) during the interval with a duration of 7 days, processing said water in the specified container during this interval is periodically adding disinfectant to the specified water to establish the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of at least 500 mV for the total processing time for the establishment of the AFP, within this interval, which depends on the temperature specified treated water, and:

1) for water having a temperature up to 35°C, specified the total processing time for the establishment of the AFP includes a minimum period of 1 h per °C water temperature;

2) for water having a temperature of more than 35°C, but less than 70°C, specified the total processing time for the establishment of the AFP includes the minimum number of hours calculated by the following equation:

[35 hours]-[(the temperature of water in °C-35)×1 h/°C]=minimum number of hours; or

3) for water having a temperature of 70°C or more specified about the total processing time for the establishment of the AFP includes a minimum period of 1 h;

g) activating, using the agreement, the following operations to clean the specified water and remove suspended solids by only filtering a small portion of the total volume of the specified water in the specified container with the specified tool matching is able to receive information related to water quality parameters, to process the information and issue a decision in accordance with the received information, where the specified water quality parameters include concentrations of iron and manganese, turbidity and thickness of deposited material, and activates one or more operations (1)to(5) to bring the above-mentioned water quality parameters within their limits:

1) introduction to the specified water in the specified container oxidizing substances for regulation in this water concentrations of iron and manganese, and oxidizing substances injected into the specified water in an amount sufficient to maintain concentrations of iron or manganese at a level not higher than 1 ppm and/or prevent it from exceeding;

2) introduction to the specified water in the specified container coagulants, flocculants, or a mixture thereof to adjust the turbidity of the specified water with coagulants, flocculants or a mixture of the type specified in the water in an amount sufficient to prevent exceeding the turbidity of the specified water 5;

3) sasian the e part of this water, containing the settled particles and obtained in operations (1) and/or (2)with the aid of the moveable suction means for regulating the thickness of the deposited material so that the thickness of the deposited material does not exceed an average of 100 mm;

4) filtering of this part of this water that is absorbed with the help of a mobile suction means, at least one filtering means; and

5) return the filtered water in the specified container; and

d) the use of the above treated water in the process downstream, where the specified treated water use:

i) as a starting material for the industrial process, and its circulation is carried out in an open cycle; or

ii) for the purpose of diversion, irrigation, infiltration, or a combination thereof.

Water processed by means of the method according to the invention, can be obtained from a natural source of water such as oceans, groundwater, lakes, rivers, treated water, or combinations thereof. Water can also come from industrial process in which liquid industrial waste is treated in accordance with the method of the invention, so that the treated liquid waste can be used for infiltration, reset, irrigation, or other purposes.

Disinfecting substances injected into the water by using the (4) the introduction of chemicals to maintain the level of the HB ORP of at least 500 mV for a minimum period of time in accordance with the temperature of the water, during periods of 7 days in a row.

Disinfecting agents include, but are not limited to, ozone, biguanide products, algaecide and antibacterial substances, such as compounds of copper; iron salts; alcohols; chlorine and chlorine compounds; peroxides; phenolic compounds; iodophore; Quaternary amines (policestation ammonium compounds) in the main, such as benzalkonium chloride and s-triazine; peracetic acid; compounds of Halogens; compounds with bromine and combinations thereof.

If the water temperature up to 35°C, maintain the ORP of at least 500 mV for a minimum period of 1 hour for each degree Celsius of water temperature. For example, if the water temperature is 25°C, then support the ORP of at least 500 mV for a minimum period of 25 h, which can be distributed over a period of 7 days.

If the water temperature is over 35°C and 70°C, ORP of at least 500 mV is maintained for a minimum number of hours calculated by the following equation:

[35 hours]-[(the temperature of water in °C-35)×1 h/°C]=minimum number of hours

For example, if the water temperature is 50°C, ORP of at least 500 mV is maintained for a minimum period of 20 hours([35]-[50-35]), which can be distributed over a period of 7 days.

Finally, if the water temperature is 70°C or more, the ORP of at least 500 mV is maintained for a minimum period of 1 hour

Oxidizing substances can enter or spraying water for maintenance and/or prevention of excess concentrations of iron and manganese 1 ppm. Suitable oxidizing agents include, but are not limited to, permanganate salts, peroxides; ozone; sodium persulfate; potassium persulfate; the oxidants produced by an electrolytic method, compounds of Halogens or their combinations. Usually oxidizing substances injected into water or spray it with a tool (4) introduction of chemical substances.

The flocculant or coagulant can be entered into the water or spraying it for aggregation, agglomeration, coalescence and/or coagulation of the expected particles in the water, which then settle to the bottom of the container (8). Usually the flocculant or coagulant is injected into the water or spray it with a tool (4) introduction of chemical substances. Suitable flocculants or coagulants include, but are not limited to, polymers, such as cationic polymers and anionic polymers; aluminium salts such as hydrochloride aluminum, alum, and aluminum sulfate; Quaternary ammonium compounds and policestation ammonium compounds; calcium oxide; calcium hydroxide; a sulfate dohwa entogo iron; the ferric chloride; polyacrylamide; sodium aluminate; sodium silicate; natural products, such as chitosan, gelatin, guar gum, alginates, Moringa seeds, derivatives of starch, and combinations thereof. Part of the water which is collected or deposited flakes, is usually a layer of water at the bottom of the container. Cereals form a sediment at the bottom of the container (8), which can then be removed through the rolling means (5) suction, without having to filter all the water container (8), for example, filter only a small part.

Means (4) introduction of chemical substances and moving means (5) suction in the method and system according to the invention periodically activated by means of (1) agreeing to lead the adjustable parameters in accordance to their limits. Means (4) introduction of chemical substances and moving means (5) suction activate in accordance with the needs of the system that enables the use of much smaller quantities of chemical substances in comparison with traditional systems for water purification and filtering a small portion of the total volume of water, up to 200 times smaller compared to traditional filtration systems for water purification, which filter the entire volume of water for the same period of time.

In the method and system disclosed herein, the medium is in (1) approval may receive information (10), related to water quality parameters in their respective limits. Information received by means of negotiation, can be obtained by empirical methods. The tool (1) coordination is also made with the possibility of receiving information, processing this information and activate desired operations in accordance with this information. One example of a means of reconciliation is a computer device such as a personal computer connected to sensors that measure parameters and activate operations in accordance with such information.

The tool (1) approval provides information (13) of the tool (4) the introduction of chemicals relative to the dosing and add appropriate chemicals and instructions for activating means (4) introduction of chemicals to maintain the adjustable parameters within them. The tool (1) approval also supplies information (11) to activate the vehicle (5) suction. The means of coordination can simultaneously activate filtering means (3)to provide filtering flow, movable suction means (5) suction, filtering only a small part of the total volume of water. Mobile facility (5) suction is activated (11) means (1) coordination, to avoid exceeding the thickness osseuse what about the material 100 mm When the method or system used to produce water for the purpose of desalination, mobile facility (5) suction is activated by means of (1) coordination, to avoid exceeding the thickness of deposited material 10 mm Filtering means (3) and moving means (5) suction only work when you want to keep the water parameters within them, for example, only a few hours a day, unlike traditional filtration systems, which operate essentially continuously.

The means of coordination can also get the information about the collected water (9). When the concentration OCRT less than or equal to 10000 ppm, the saturation index of Langelle water should be less than 3. For the present invention, the saturation index of Langelle can be kept below 2 by adjusting the pH by addition of an inhibitor of sediments or through the operation of water softening. When the concentration OCRT is above 10000 ppm, the saturation index of Stiff-Davis should be less than 3. In the present invention, the saturation index of Stiff-Davis can be kept below 2 by adjusting the pH by addition of an inhibitor of sediments or through the operation of water softening. The deposition inhibitors, which are used to maintain the saturation index of Langelle or saturation index of Stiff-Davis below 2 include, but are not on the listed were restricted, connection-based phosphonates, such as phosphonic acid, PBTC (phosphobacteria acid), chromates, zinc polyphosphates, nitrites, silicates, organic chemicals, caustic soda, based polymers of malic acid, sodium polyacrylate, sodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, corrosion inhibitors, such as benzotriazole, and combinations thereof.

The method according to the invention optionally includes a step of dechlorination. This stage dechlorination is necessary if the water detect the amount of residual chlorine, which can interfere with the industrial process. Dechlorination shall be implemented by the addition of chemical substances, including, but not limited to, reducing agents such as sodium bisulfite or sodium metabisulfite, through the use of activated carbon filter or by a combination of these methods.

Examples

In the following examples, the terms in the singular shall include the plural alternatives (at least one). The information presented is illustrative and there are other embodiments that are within the protection scope of the present invention.

Example 1

The method and system of the present invention can be used to pre-stage method of desalination mo is tion of water by reverse osmosis.

Sea water from the ocean, which has a concentration of total dissolved solids of approximately 35000 ppm, collected in the container in accordance with the invention. The container had a volume of approximately 45 million m3when the area of 22000 m2.

The temperature of the water in the container was measured in April and it was approximately 18°C. As described in this application, if the water temperature is 35°C or less, then support the ORP of at least 500 mV for a minimum period of 1 h per °C of water temperature. Using this algorithm, the ORP of at least 500 mV was supported by (18×1) 18 hours during the week. Time was distributed as follows: 9 hours on Monday and 9 hours on Thursday, which amounted to 18 hours to support AFP over a period of 9 h, water was added to the sodium hypochlorite to achieve a concentration of 0.16 ppm.

It was not necessary to implement an additional oxidation process to regulate the concentrations of iron and manganese, as sodium hypochlorite had sufficient redox potential for the oxidation of iron and manganese. Flocculant Crystal Clear®introduced as a flocculant until the value of turbidity 5 THEREIN in a concentration of 0.08 ppm every 24 hours

After sedimentation of bacteria, metals, algae and other solids, is moveable what e means of suction activated before the thickness of the deposited layer of material has reached 10 mm The settled material, which was the product of the operations of the method was sucked with the help of a mobile suction means, which is moved along the bottom of the container. The intake water containing settled particles was then pumped to the filter through a flexible hose, where it was filtered at a flow rate 21 l/C.

After treatment, the water had a pH of 7.96, turbidity of 0.2 HIM, sludge density index 4, the iron concentration of less than 0.04 ppm and manganese concentration less than 0.01 ppm.

Pre-treatment of water for methods of seawater desalination by reverse osmosis is important because the methods of desalination by reverse osmosis require high quality water to avoid clogging and contamination of the membranes. In column 2 the following table 1 shows the water quality parameters required by the manufacturers of membranes. In column 3 of table 1 shows values for the treated water obtained by the method according to the present invention, showing that the value for each parameter is in the range required by manufacturers of membranes.

The amount of chemical substances used in the method and system according to the invention is to provide treated water was significantly less than in conventional technologies pre-treatment. Energy consumption was also lower compared with the traditional what technologies pre-treatment, since in the present invention filter only a small amount of water from the total volume of water within a specified period of time, and is not required microfiltration, ultrafiltration or nanofiltration, which consume a lot of energy.

Example 2

The method and system of the present invention can be used for treatment of water used in commercial aquaculture, including the quality of water produced for planting seaweed.

A reservoir with a surface of 1 ha and a depth of 1.5 m is used as the enclosing means to the water. The water is first treated in the tank and then served in the pond water in which they grow microalgae.

Example 3

The method and system of the present invention can be used for treatment of water content in the production of drinking water.

Collected water from melted snow or water from natural water sources with the required drinking water properties. The collected water contained within the container, including the bottom, is made with thorough cleaning in accordance with the method of the invention. As the water meets the requirements of drinking water, it was not necessary to conduct the treatment at the facility for drinking water, thus, reduced the amount of by-products formed in such condition is the time.

The water temperature in the container was 12°C. the redox potential of at least 500 mV was supported during the (12×1) 12 h for a period of 7 days. The redox potential of 600 mV was maintained for 6 h on Thursday and for 6 h on Friday, thus producing the required 12 hours To maintain a redox potential in water was added sodium bromide to achieve concentrations in the water 0,134 ppm. Additional oxidation step was not required, because sodium bromide had sufficient redox potential for the oxidation of iron and manganese. Before the turbidity reached 5 on IT, water was added flocculant Crystal Clear®obtaining concentration of 0.08 ppm. Adding flocculant was repeated every 48 hours.

The method and system according to the invention has allowed to minimize side products and provided water containing these secondary products of disinfection:

The data in table 2 show that the water that was run using the method and system according to the invention had properties with drinking water and it should not be treated in the plant for drinking water.

Example 4

The method and system of the present invention can be used in the treatment of sewage.

Waste water kept in the tank, including the bottom, covered with a plastic lining to prevent leaks and provide the be careful absorption of deposited material using a movable suction device, which is moved along the bottom of the tank.

As disinfectant substances in water was added to the sodium hypochlorite to achieve a concentration of 0.16 ppm. In the advanced stage of oxidation was not necessary, because the sodium hypochlorite had sufficient redox potential for the oxidation of iron and manganese. Water was added flocculant, Crystal Clear®because the water had high levels of turbidity, 25 IT, before the first treatment. The flocculant was added to the water before reaching the reservoir concentration of 0.09 ppm. Adding flocculant was repeated every 24 hours.

Cart suction activated by using negotiation to ensure the absorption of deposited material on the bottom of the tank. Trolley suction worked for 12 hours on the first day. After the first day, the cart for suction only worked 8 hours a day.

Water quality before and after processing in accordance with the method and system according to the invention are presented in table 3 below.

Example 5

The method and system of the present invention can be used for processing and maintenance of water pumping stations used for many purposes, e.g. in mining. The buffer tank at the pump station contains sea water in case of damage to the pipe or system is m pump or other issues. The quality of the water stored inside the tank begins to deteriorate over time, and microalgae and other microorganisms multiply in the tank, leading to biological fouling of the walls of the tank and pipes, reducing the cross-sectional area and the different problems that adversely affect the flow of water in the tank and pipes. The method according to the present invention is used in the buffer tank for water treatment, is stored in the buffer tank, and the water content while minimizing fouling at low cost.

Example 6

The method and system of the present invention can be used for treatment of industrial liquid wastes, which are formed as by-products of various processes. Industrial liquid waste is generated during mining operations. Liquid waste is treated in the installation, which includes the operation of sedimentation, filtration through sand filters, carbon filters, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis. Under this treatment two products are formed, the filtrate and the rejected product. Then the filtrate is used for irrigation, and rejected products/water are available for the installation of a dissolved air flotation (DAF), which reduce the sulfur content in water with 500 ppm to 1 ppm. After WDP water sent to the pru is s-evaporators.

There was a problem at the facility WDP, when water with a high content of sulfur was achieved evaporation ponds, causing an unpleasant smell in the pond due to the presence of hydrogen sulfide. The hydrogen sulfide in concentrations less than 1 ppm is felt by the smell of rotten eggs, which is unpleasant for the residents of the nearby ponds. The method and system of the present invention used in ponds-evaporators to reduce odours emitted by hydrogen sulfide, through the introduction of sodium bromide as an oxidizer to achieve a concentration in the water 0,134 ppm, and maintaining the redox potential of 600 mV for a period of 20 hours per week.

Although described certain embodiments of the invention, there may be other embodiments. In addition, any of the described stage of the method or steps can be modified in any way, including changing the order of stages and/or to activate or delete stages, without going beyond the sphere of protection of the invention. While the description includes a detailed disclosure of the invention and the related drawings, the protection scope of the invention presents the following claims. In addition, although the description set forth with specific technical characteristics and/or actions, the claims are not limited to the features or actions described above. On the contrary, specific signs and and actions described above are disclosed as illustrative aspects and embodiments of the invention. Various other aspects, embodiments, modifications and equivalents of the features and actions that can assume the average expert in the art after reading the description of this application, are within the essence or scope of the protection claimed invention.

1. The method of providing water for industrial process in which water is cleaned and suspended solid particles are eliminated by filtering a small portion of the total water, including:
a) collecting water with a concentration of total dissolved solids (OCRT) up to 60,000 ppm, and
i) if the water collected at the stage (a)has a concentration of total dissolved solids less than or equal to 10000 ppm, the saturation index of Langella should be less than 3, or
ii) if the water collected at the stage (a)has a concentration of total dissolved solids above 10000 ppm, the saturation index of Stiff-Davis should be less than 3;
b) storing the specified water at least one container, where the specified container has a bottom, made with careful treatment with vehicle suction;
C) during the interval with a duration of 7 days processing said water in the specified is ontainer during this interval is periodically adding disinfectant to the specified water to establish the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of at least 500 mV for General the processing time for setting the ORP within this interval, which depends on the temperature specified treated water, and:
1) for water having a temperature up to 35°C, specified the total processing time for the establishment of the AFP includes a minimum period of 1 h per °C water temperature;
2) for water having a temperature of more than 35°C, but less than 70°C, specified the total processing time for the establishment of the AFP includes the minimum number of hours calculated by the following equation:
[35 hours] - [(the temperature of water in °C - 35) × 1 h/°C] = minimum number of hours; or
3) for water having a temperature of 70°C or more specified total processing time for the establishment of the AFP includes a minimum period of 1 h;
d) activation means approval of the following operations to clean the specified water and remove suspended solids by only filtering a small portion of the total volume of the specified water in the specified container with the specified tool matching is able to receive information related to water quality parameters, to process the information and issue a decision in accordance with the received information, where the specified water quality parameters include concentrations of iron and manganese, turbidity and the thickness of the deposited material and activates one or more operations (1)-(5 to bring the above-mentioned water quality parameters within their limits:
1) introduction to the specified water in the specified container oxidizing substances for regulation in this water concentrations of iron and manganese, and oxidizing substances injected into the specified water in an amount sufficient to maintain concentrations of iron or manganese at a level not higher than 1 ppm and/or prevent it from exceeding;
2) introduction to the specified water in the specified container coagulants, flocculants, or a mixture thereof to adjust the turbidity of the specified water with coagulants, flocculants or a mixture of the type specified in the water in an amount sufficient to prevent exceeding the turbidity of the specified water 5;
3) the suction part of this water containing settled particles and obtained in operations (1) and/or (2) with the aid of the moveable suction means for regulating the thickness of the deposited material so that the thickness of the deposited material does not exceed an average of 100 mm;
4) filtering of this part of this water that is absorbed with the help of a mobile suction means at least one filtering means; and
5) return the filtered water in the specified container; and
d) the use of the above treated water in the process downstream, where the specified treated water use:
i) as a starting material for the industrial process and its circulation is carried out in an open cycle; Il the
ii) for the purpose of diversion, irrigation, infiltration, or a combination thereof.

2. The method according to p. 1, in which the saturation index of Langelle or saturation index of Stiff-Davis support below 2 using the operation selected from pH adjustment, addition of inhibitors of the sediments or the water softening operation.

3. The method according to p. 2, in which the deposition inhibitors include phosphonic acid, phosphorothionate acid (PBTC), chromates, zinc polyphosphates, nitrites, silicates, organic chemicals, caustic soda, based polymers of malic acid, sodium polyacrylate, sodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, benzotriazole or a combination thereof.

4. The method according to p. 1, in which the collected water can be a residual liquid from the industrial process or water collected from a natural water source, and/or treated water.

5. The method according to p. 1, in which disinfectants include ozone, biguanide products, compounds with bromine, compounds of Halogens or their combination.

6. The method according to p. 1, in which the information received by means of negotiation, receive empirical methods.

7. The method according to p. 1, in which oxidizing agents include compounds with halogen; permanganate salt; peroxides; ozone; sodium persulfate; potassium persulfate; oxidizing substances, obtained the electrolytic method, or a combination of both.

8. The method according to p. 1, in which the flocculants or coagulants include polymers, cationic polymers, anionic polymers; aluminum salts; Quaternary ammonium compounds and policestation ammonium compounds; calcium oxide; calcium hydroxide; a sulfate ferrous iron; ferric chloride; polyacrylamide; sodium aluminate; sodium silicate; chitosan; gelatin; guar gum; alginates; Moringa seeds, derivatives of starch; or a combination thereof.

9. The method according to p. 1, further comprising a stage dechlorination specified water in the specified container, if the specified water detect residual chlorine and dechlorination stage involves the use of a filter of active carbon or the use of chemicals, including sodium bisulfite, sodium metabisulfite, or a combination thereof.

10. The method according to p. 1, which indicated the total processing time for the establishment of the AFP is not continuous in the interval a duration of 7 days.

11. The method according to p. 1, in which:
1) for water having a temperature up to 35°C, specified the total processing time for the establishment of the AFP includes an approximate period of 1 h per °C water temperature;
2) for water having a temperature of more than 35°C, but less than 70°C, specified the total processing time for the establishment of the AFP includes approximate the number of hours calculated according to the following equation:
[35 hours] - [(the temperature of water in °C - 35) × 1 h/°C] = the number of hours, or
3) for water having a temperature of 70°C or more specified total processing time for the establishment of the AFP includes an approximate period of 1 h



 

Same patents:

FIELD: food industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention includes a settlement chamber, a vessel for acceptance of floating fat mass, an auger enclosed within a perforated housing, and two vessels connected with the latter: one for collection of dehydrated wastes and the other -for collection of liquid. The control unit is connected to the sensors monitoring the level of wastewater and sediment in the settlement chamber and the level of liquid in the liquid collection vessel. In the lower part of the settlement chamber a brush with a drive is installed. The chamber has an opening wall connected to the drive and is equipped with horizontally oriented perforated partitions. The system is additionally equipped with a waste collection vessel, a chamber for coagulant solution preparation, a chamber for mixing water being treated with the coagulant solution and, having an automated doser and a flotator. The coagulant solution preparation chamber, the mixing chamber, the floating fat mass receptacle vessel, the flotator, the waste collection vessel and the dehydrated waste collection vessel are equipped with liquid level sensors. The settlement chamber is equipped with sediment level sensors with pressure sensors installed in the auger and in the settlement chamber. The system pipelines are equipped with water flow rate and pH sensors. All the sensors are connected to the control unit.

EFFECT: high quality of preliminary treatment of wastewaters and automation.

1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of treating natural water includes oxidation, neutralisation and two-step filtration. Oxidation with simultaneous transfer of impurities into a dissolved state is carried out with carbonic acid solution obtained from saturating raw water with carbon dioxide. Neutralisation of the formed compounds is carried out with calcium hydroxide solution with concentration of 1-1.3 g/l, followed by removal of the precipitate first in a settling tank and on a filter with a neutral charge, and then on a filter with a weakly basic charge.

EFFECT: invention enables to remove iron and manganese compounds, bicarbonates of alkali-earth metals, silicic acid and salts thereof and organic impurities from water, simplifies the water treatment technique and lowers the content of impurities to values which do not exceed the maximum allowable concentration.

3 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to treatment of contaminated water. This method comprises bringing of water in contact with at least one adsorbent powder in zone (2) of preliminary interaction with mixing. Then, follow flocculation with weighted flakes and deposition. Mix of sediment, ballast and adsorbent powder is removed from sedimentation zone bottom (5). Said mix is fed into hydraulic cyclone (11) to displace hydrocyclone (11) top product containing the mix of sediment and adsorbent powder into transition zone (14). Mix of sediment and adsorbent powder are returned from transition zone (14) to zone (2) of preliminary interaction. Process incorporates the step whereat at least one index of adsorbent powder in preliminary interaction zone (2) is obtained. Suspension of green adsorbent powder in water is fed upstream of zone (2) when concentration of said powder in this zone is lower than preset threshold value and the step of acidification of said sorbent.

EFFECT: production of water suitable for drinking.

14 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technologies of purification of water from natural springs for their further application as initial water for obtaining vapour in processes of steam or vapour-oxygen conversion of hydrocarbon gases (synthesis-gas production). Installation for preparation of desalinated water contains successively connected heat exchanger for heating initial water, unit of preliminary clarification, unit of ultrafiltration, unit of ultraviolet decontamination, unit of filters with filtration degree not more than 5 mcm and unit of two-step reverse osmosis.

EFFECT: invention ensures increase of service term of ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis membranes, water decontamination.

5 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of sewage purification from cyanide-ions includes its processing with sulfate of bivalent iron in quantity 293 wt.p to 100 wt.p. CN-ions in presence in water of sorbent in form of fibrillated cellulose fibres, which contain in wt %: not less than 54% of fibres with length not more 0.63 mm and not less than 94% of fibres with length not more than 1.23 mm, with formation of reaction product in form of insoluble particles of iron cyanide. Reaction product is obtained in form of composite material, which consists of cellulose fibres with sorbed on them iron cyanide particles. Product of processing is discharged from water with application of pressured flotation.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to simplify process of purification, reduce iron sulfate consumption, increase purification degree and provide possibility of carrying out purification in continuous mode.

2 cl, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to treatment of waste water containing organic contaminants in industry, agriculture and household conditions. The waste water treatment method involves treatment of the initial waste water with a coagulant and flocculant, separation thereof into sludge and clarified waste water. Further, the clarified waste water is treated with nanostructured boehmite until achieving a given degree of purity of the clarified waste water and then separated into purified waste water and a solid residue. The solid residue, which contains contaminated nanostructured boehmite, is collected and regenerated, while undergoing supercritical aqueous oxidation. The regenerated nanostructured boehmite is collected for subsequent recycling.

EFFECT: method enables recycling of treated waste water and nanostructured boehmite.

12 cl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in small-size continuous purification plants for precipitating phosphorus from waste water, particularly household waste water. An apparatus, which is connected to the small-size purification plant, has a pumping tank (1), a discharge pump (2) for draining the pumping tank, a chemical reservoir (6) and a dosing pump (5) for the chemical coagulant which is meant for feeding the chemical coagulant from the chemical reservoir (6) into the waste water discharged from the pumping tank (1), wherein separation of the formed residue of chemical substance from water released from said purification plant takes place in the settling reservoir (12) of the small-size purification plant. The apparatus can entirely be placed inside the settling reservoir (12) of the small-size purification plant. The dosing pump (5) is configured to pump the chemical coagulant into a stream generated by the discharge pump (2) during the entire or almost entire operating cycle of the discharge pump (2).

EFFECT: invention provides complete mixing of treated water and reactant, increases the efficiency of precipitating phosphorus and enables to control the amount of chemical coagulant depending on fluctuations of the flow of waste water for efficient and simple precipitation of phosphorus.

11 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in production of extra-pure quartz concentrate which is one of the main sources of contamination by fluorine, chlorine and salts containing fluorine and chlorine. The method is realised via reactant treatment in two steps. The first step involves neutralisation of acidic waste water with 23% NH4OH with separation of the SiO2 precipitate and formation of NH4F solution. At the second step, said solution is treated with 20% lime milk. The formed CaF2 precipitate and previously separated SiO2 precipitate are washed, dehydrated and removed from the process as end products. The 7-8% NH4OH solution obtained after separating the CaF2 precipitate and flush water are returned to the first step for reactant treatment of waste water to prepare the starting NH4OH solution. The 7-8% NH4OH solution formed at the second step is concentrated by evaporation to 23% and returned to the first reactant treatment step. The condensate obtained during evaporation is directed for preparation of 20% lime milk, washing the SiO2 precipitate and into recycling cycle of the main production.

EFFECT: invention enables to cut the volume of discharge of industrial wastes into the environment, prevents formation of non-recyclable sludge and also reduces consumption of fresh water during production and enables to obtain high-quality products used in different industries.

3 cl, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to treatment of underground water from gases dissolved therein and can be used in water treatment. Source water containing hydrogen sulphide and impurities is fed through a pipe 1. The water is then fed into a floatation plant 3, having at least two chambers. At the first floatation step, a hydrogen sulphide neutraliser is fed through a nozzle 2 and at the second step, a chemical which facilitates precipitation of sulphates and sulphides is added. The treated water enters a settling tank 4, from where it is fed into a contact flocculator 6, having a gravel filling. The contact flocculator 6 is connected to the settling tank 4 through a nozzle 5, needed for feeding a flocculant.

EFFECT: group of inventions improves quality of treatment, simplifies and reduces the cost and labour input.

9 cl, 3 dwg, 3 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: set of intention relates to water treatment and may be used in various industries. First, chlorinated coagulant is subjected to electrochemical treatment at membrane or diaphragm electrolysis unit 3 with insoluble electrodes to produce high-basic coagulant and gaseous chlorine. High-basic coagulant is mixed with water flow fed into settler 4 for coagulation and flocculation of undissolved suspensions and mechanical impurities. Gaseous chlorine withdrawn from electrolysis unit is fed into chlorine proportioner 6 to make bleaching water. Said water is fed for decontamination in cleaned water flow between said settler 4 and mechanical filter 8.

EFFECT: higher quality of purification.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl

FIELD: biotechnology.

SUBSTANCE: carrier material for biomass for filtration of oil-contaminated waste waters is proposed. The carrier comprises a filtering material with immobilised cells of oil-oxidising microorganism Rhodotorula sp. VKM Y-2993D with the titer of cells - 106 CFU/cm3. The filtering material is used as basalt fibre STBFconst preliminary modified with cationic starch - oxyamil OPV-1.

EFFECT: proposed carrier material has a high retention capacity of suspended particles and oil products and is used for filling the filters for cleaning oil-contaminated waste waters.

1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: filtering chuck consists of successively connected: unit of supply of water to be purified, which includes casing with radial slots and is equipped with fastening device; filtering unit, made in form of hollow cylinder, with meshes placed on its base and provided with mixture of granulated adsorbing components and layer of nonwoven filtering fabric; unit of purified water output, made in form of funnel with blunt angle and opening in the middle. Filtering unit contains upper polymer container, which adjoins from internal side mesh in the upper part of filtering unit, containing granulated inorganic fluorine-containing material, after which along liquid flow placed is polymeric container, which contains inorganic calcium-containing composite. Both cylinders are hermetically fastened on internal wall of hollow cylinder and made with openings along liquid flow. Mixture of granulated adsorbing components contains granulated catalytic charge based on natural zeolite, covered with manganese dioxide, and magnesium-containing ion-exchanging material.

EFFECT: effective water purification and its enrichment with necessary calcium, magnesium and fluorine ions.

6 cl, 1 dwg, 3 ex

Water disinfectant // 2533583

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to means of purifying and disinfecting different types of water. Described is a disinfectant which contains a first polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride component, a second alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride component and water, wherein content of the components in the solution is selected in the following amounts, wt %: first component 7-34.5, second component 1.75-6.9, water - the balance.

EFFECT: disinfection of drinking water.

3 tbl

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to use of wind energy for demineralisation of saline water. A wind-driven demineraliser includes vertical cylindrical housing 1, cover plate 2 from above, and bottom 3. In the centre of the housing there installed is pipe 4 having flange 5 from above, and fixed from below in movable disc 6 with bearing plate 7, the cylindrical part 8 of which is arranged in hole 9 of fixed disc 10 attached to bottom 3. Pipe 4 throughout its height is filled from inside with a heat-accumulating substance with a phase transition. Above movable disc 6 there fixed on pipe 4 is a contact device of a rotary mass exchange unit, which consists of shells 11 with holes, which are attached to pipe 4, cylinders 14 and turbulators 15. Under cover plate 2 there fixed on pipe 4 is round shell 17 interconnected through pipeline 18 and valve 19 to a saline water feed system. Outside housing 1 there fixed is tank 24 with shield 25, which is connected to a demineralised water collection system. Vertical tubes 26 connected to atmosphere are attached to tank 24 from above.

EFFECT: invention allows simplifying a demineraliser design, improving air supply and increasing demineralised water heating.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the neutralisation of explosive and inflammable wastes of cellulose nitrates and can be used in the chemical industry. The method includes collection of sewage waters, containing cellulose nitrates, extraction of the cellulose nitrates from them and their further neutralisation. The neutralisation of wastes of the cellulose nitrates is carried out directly in a sludge-collector or a settling pond by processing of a deposit of the cellulose nitrates preliminarily buried under a multilayered drainage ground with slaked lime, placed in the form of a reagent layer above the deposit level. Additional buffer sand drainage layers, not less than 0.4 m thick, are placed between the deposit and the reagent layer and above it. The upper buffer sand layer after the formation is moistened with water, and the ground located above it represents alternately placed layers of ground, sand and fertile soil, with each layer being not thinner than 0.5 m.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to simplify the method of neutralising industrial wastes of cellulose nitrates, to ensure environmental and technological safety of the process.

6 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl

Skimming device // 2533157

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to hydraulic engineering, in particular to devices intended for separation of immiscible liquids and may be used at treatment of waste water polluted with grease, oil and other substances. The device comprises a continuous tape mounted at the driving and tension drums with axes. The drum axes are placed at the common frame fixed onboard of the ship. The tension drum made of magnet material is placed at water surface. In order to place the upper part of the continuous tape horizontally the tension drum is made of larger diameter than the driving drum. An electric motor, a reducing gear, a clutch coupling and separator are fixed on-board of the ship. A scraper for recovered oil gathering to the magnetic separator is placed at the continuous tape near the driving drum.

EFFECT: improving efficiency of oil gathering.

1 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to sewage disposal plants. Proposed device comprises cylindrical housing 1 with cover 5 and bottom 6 incorporating the process activator 4. Housing top part accommodates effluent feed pipe and fouled extractant discharge pipe while housing bottom is provided with purified water discharge pipe and pure extractant feed pipe. Process activator is composed of inert nozzle made up of cylindrical ring with two hemispherical surface secured thereto in opposition so that diametral planes of hemispheres are aligned with top and bottom bases of cylindrical ring. Peaks of said hemispherical surfaces are located at ring axis and directed toward each other.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of water treatment.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water treatment. This plant comprises, at least, one elongated vertical chamber (11) for primary processing. Said chamber comprises fluid inlet (14) arranged at top part of chamber (11) to allow fluid to flow downward via chamber (11). Besides, it has device (20 or 24) to feed sterilizing agent, for example ozone or air enriched in ozone, into chamber (11) bottom section and its further displacement as bubbles through fluid flowing downward through chamber (11). Device (16) for removal of wastes is arranged at chamber (11) top section. UV lamp (29) for fluid processing is arranged in separate chamber (12) connected with primary processing chamber (11), or inside the latter. Several chambers (11) and (12) can be used for multilevel fluid processing.

EFFECT: efficient fluid treatment.

25 cl, 90 dwg

Deaerator // 2532956

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to thermal deaeration of liquid and can be used for removal of non-condensing gases, mainly oxygen and free carbonic acid from feed water of a steam-turbine plant. A deaerator for feed water of the turbine plant includes storage tank 1 with non-condensing gas exhaust branch pipe, column 2 in the form of a water-jet ejector, a water supply device made in the form of centrifugal atomisers 3 fixed on pipelines 4, and steam supply header 5. Cone-shaped mist eliminator 7 is installed in storage tank 1 at the outlet of column 2. Each of centrifugal atomisers 3 includes a hollow body with a nozzle and a central core. The atomiser body includes a coaxial bushing rigidly attached to it with a nozzle fixed in its lower part.

EFFECT: invention allows reducing hydraulic resistance and increasing liquid atomisation degree.

2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of obtaining polycarbonate at the boundary of phase separation and following electrolysis of sodium chloride-containing technological spent water, which includes the following stages: a) obtaining phosgene by interaction of chlorine with carbon monoxide; b) interaction of phosgene obtained at stage a) with at least one bisphenol in presence of, at least, one base, at least, one catalyst with basic character and, at least, one organic solvent with formation of polycarbonate and solution, which contains alkali metal chloride, c) separation and processing polycarbonate obtained at stage b), d) separation of solution, containing alkali metal chloride, which remains at stage c), from remains of solvent and remains of catalyst first of all by distillation with water steam and processing with adsorbents, first of all activated coal, e) electrochemical oxidation of, at least, part of stage d) solution, containing alkali metal chloride, with formation of chlorine, alkali and if necessary hydrogen, characterised by the fact that in separation of solution, realised at stage d) before its processing with adsorbents, value of solution pH is set at level 8 or lower and f) at least, part of obtained at stage e) chlorine is returned to stage a) and/or g) at least, part of obtained at stage e) alkali is returned to stage b) of polycarbonate synthesis.

EFFECT: simplification of technology, connected with possibility of supplying solution to electrolysis without purification, possibility of using components, separated from wastes, in the process.

14 cl, 4 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fluid treatment. Proposed method comprises the following jobs. At first step, mobile cleaning module is connected to fluid feed circuit by appropriate connectors. At second step, fluid is withdrawn at least partially or completely from fluid circuit. Then, said fluid is heated or cooled to preset temperature. Thereafter, it is forced through filter unit. Physical and/or chemical properties of said fluid are defined upstream and/or downstream of said filter unit. At final step, said fluid is forced back into mobile device fluid circuit. Proposed module comprises at least one point of connection to at least one connection point of mobile device, temperature control element and at least one instrument to measure at least one physical and/or chemical parameter of the fluid. Filter unit is connected to at least one connection point via pipeline system.

EFFECT: efficient cleaning of fluids.

17 cl, 8 dwg

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