Device for anaerobic and aerobic treatment of concentrated organic liquids
SUBSTANCE: device consists of a vertical sealed housing. In the housing there is a cavity with an anaerobic zone provided with means of gas-dynamic stirring, and a cavity with an aerobic zone provided with gas means of gas-dynamic stirring and aeration, one above the other separated by a horizontal partition. The workspace of the zones is filled with the immobilising and is equipped with pipes for input and output of liquid and discharge of gaseous products with the ability to recycle them. The immobilising cap is made in the form of a combination of hollow vertical rods filled with low-boiling liquid. The outer surface of each of the rods at least in the anaerobic zone is provided with finning.
EFFECT: increasing cleaning efficiency with the possibility of adjusting the degree of removal of contaminants in the anaerobic and aerobic zones depending on the type of liquid, energy security of manufacturing and requirements to depth of cleaning.
The proposed device relates to the field of environmental technology, mainly facilities for preparation for disposal bespattering manure, litter on farms, livestock, poultry complexes, facilities for sludge and other waste mechanobiology treatment of domestic and related industrial wastewater.
In particular, the device can be used when cleaning fugato, the supernatant fluids of the leachate generated during the mechanical separation into fractions bespattering manure, litter, sediment and sludge treatment facilities, as well as for direct wastewater processing industry of agriculture.
Known devices of similar purpose. According to German patent No. 3228782, CL CO2F 11/04, combined apparatus for anaerobic and aerobic treatment of concentrated substrates monoblock design with placed coaxially anaerobic zone (outside) and aerobic aerated zone (inside). Source waters are concentrated sequential aerobic and anaerobic treatment with biogas and purified stable liquid - effluent suitable for subsequent deep cleaning prior to discharge into the reservoir and/or reuse.
The merger of the two percent who saw in one case significantly reduces capital costs, allows you to effectively use the heat capacity of the aerobic process to maintain the required temperature of the anaerobic process.
The main disadvantage of this device is a small retention time of the biomass, which leads to its partial premature removal and to reduce thereby the specific productivity of the apparatus. Another disadvantage is the presence of a significant radial temperature gradient of biomass in the anaerobic zone, which leads to the worsening of conditions for conducting thermosensitive anaerobic process and, as a consequence, leads to a fall in biogas yield and stress on the aerobic level, which in turn leads to higher energy consumption or reduce the quality of cleaning.
To some extent, these drawbacks are eliminated in A. S. No. 1301790, CL CO2F 3/00. To increase the length of stay of biomass in the aerobic and anaerobic zones in the apparatus of the coaxial type, means are provided for implementing a multi-way movement of biomass on a spiral trajectory; however, several conditions improve internal and external heat and mass transfer. However, the inability to achieve significant age and biomass concentration, eliminating the uneven heating of the anaerobic zone does not allow to achieve high speed processing is the initial substrate.
A common shortcoming considered analogues is the inability to operate devices in the anaerobic-aerobic treatment for substrates.
The closest in technical essence of the present invention is the device according to the United Kingdom patent No. 2276617, CL CO2F 3/00.
The device prototype is a vertically oriented device, separated by a horizontal partition into anaerobic and aerobic zones. Each of the zones has output connections for gas, as well as connections to sum up the source and discharge of the treated liquid. The internal cavity zones filled by immobilization of anaerobic and aerobic microflora, according to the patent, these funds can be a granular material in the pore space by the movement of gas-liquid flow. Mixing in the anaerobic zone is biogas. Mixing in aerobic zone is aerating agent is air, oxygen gas, oxygen. When the oxygen concentration of 0.5-5.0 mg/l, contact time from 5 to 30 min and the ratio of circulation flow in the aerobic zone from 2 to 30 times and residence time in the anaerobic zone 8-48 hour mass transfer system "liquid - biomass (biofilm) - gaseous products of metabolism" is carried out throughout the volume of the device d is quite high uniformity and speed, which can significantly reduce the volume of the apparatus and to carry out its operation in flow-through mode. Another advantage of the prototype in comparison with devices analogues is compact, relatively simple construction, the possibility of maneuvering liquid and gas flows, and the creation of multiple (from 2 to 30) units on the basis of standardized aerobic-anaerobic module. The device can operate as anaerobic-aerobic and aerobic-anaerobic conditions. Specified in the patent standard series has a height of 2-30 m and a diameter of 1-20 m
The main drawback of the prototype are:
- lack of uniformity (homogeneity) of the temperature field in the anaerobic zone, which can cause a decrease in the intensity of anaerobic fermentation in the temperature fluctuations of the source fluid and/or the environment;
- the need for specific design solutions for loading and unloading immobilizing material (unloading hatches, valves), the duration and complexity of these procedures.
The task of the invention is to remedy these disadvantages.
Through the introduction of a unified design element is a two-phase thermosyphon is achieved the required temperature stability of the anaerobic process. While useful use is : biological heat allocated with the introduction of paired aerobic process. The main problem arising from the operation surface of the heat exchange elements, namely the contamination of the heat exchange surface organic material, is eliminated in this case due to the effect of bioregenerative surface due to the metabolic activity of the respective groups of bacteria that use organic contamination in food quality. The necessary surface heat and mass transfer is achieved through the introduction of longitudinal fins with characteristics due to operational (the presence of critical speed) and constructive (technology) restrictions.
The actual specific surface immobilization can be 50-100 m2/m3and more. Building the solution in the form of a single Assembly thermosyphons with baffle ensures fast installation design, and its extraction from the body of the device.
The figure 2 presents the variation of temperature of the working environment (the treated fluid, substrate) heat and mass transfer along the surface of the device for the anaerobic-aerobic treatment of concentrated organic liquids. In the absence of isothermal teplovozov in unheated space anaerobic zone at the expense of heat in the environment temperature is ur reduced the value of
Performance designs "heat exchange surface - immobilsarda surface is confirmed by several studies. So study The performance of a heat exchanger type anaerobic biofilm reactor" by Escalera C. R., Uchida S. Water Science technology, V. 24, No. 5, it was found that when the wall temperature of the heat exchanger anaerobic bioreactor 25-37°C and the temperature of the primary flow 5-15°C, the removal efficiency of organic pollutants is 70-98%.
The technical result is achieved in that the device for anaerobic and aerobic treatment of concentrated organic liquid consists of a vertical casing, which houses divided by a horizontal partition wall cavity with anaerobic zone, equipped with gas mixing, aerobic area, equipped with gas mixing and aeration. Workspace areas filled immobilsarda nozzle and provided with sockets for input and output of fluid and exhaust of gaseous products with the possibility of recycling. Immobilsarda nozzle is made in the form of a set of bare vertical rods filled with boiling liquid, and the outer surface of the rod at least in the anaerobic zone is equipped with a fin.
Principal structural process diagram of a device for anaerobic and aerobic obrabotkastilizovannaya organic liquids are presented in figure 1. The apparatus consists of a vertical hermetic casing 1, provided with a cover 2 and partition 3. Partition 3 divides the housing 1 4 anaerobic and aerobic 5 zone. Anaerobic zone 4 is equipped with nozzles 6 and 7 for the supply and discharge of the fluid and the pipe 8 leads biogas. Aerobic zone 5 is equipped with nozzles 9 and 10 for the supply and discharge of the fluid and the pipe 11 to the discharge of gaseous products of metabolism. Inside the aerobic and anaerobic zones are disposed vertically oriented heat and mass transfer elements thermosyphons 12 connected through the wall 3 and the fastening elements into a single legkoizvlekaemye Assembly 13. Each thermosyphon, at least in the anaerobic zone 4, provided with outer ribs 14 of the upright type. Inside the sealed cavity of thermosyphon 12 provides boiling liquid, such as freon, which by condensation - evaporation forms a film 15. In turn on the surface of the ribs 14 and pipes, thermosyphons 12 is formed biofilm, which, coming into biodynamic exchange with the purified environment, absorbs from her organic and mineral components, oxygen (aerobic zone) and allocates it the products of metabolism - biogas (anaerobic zone), carbon dioxide (aerobic zone), the excess biomass. Part of the active microflora is located in free space and also is actively involved in mass transfer processes. Aerobic zone 5 provided with aeration means 17. Provides maneuvering fluid flows through a distribution device 18. If necessary, the apparatus is equipped with advanced tools pre-treatment of the substrate, for example reactors aerobic, anoxic or anaerobic hydrolysis 19, mechanical thickeners 20. Anaerobic unit is equipped with a gas 21 and the compressor 22. Aerobic unit is equipped with a blower 23. Biogas for mixing is fed to the gas distribution device 24. The outer surface of the apparatus is supplied with insulation 25.
In anaerobic-aerobic mode, the device operates as follows. Source of waste liquid generated after processing of the substrate, for example, bespattering manure, in the hydrolysis reactor 19 and the mechanical thickener 20 enters the anaerobic zone 4 of the sealed enclosure 1 through the pipe 6 and interacts with biofilm placed on the surface of the ribs 14 and the body of thermo siphon 12. As a result of biochemical reactions is cleaned fluid from organic contaminants, most of which (90%) goes into biogas discharged through pipe 8, and the biofilm (not more than 3%), which, upon reaching a certain age are barred from the surface, made with purified liquid and the Department what is the gravitational method. The fluid flow is distributed along the surface of the Assembly 13 in a manner to ensure uniform contact of the liquid with the biofilm. The biogas collected in the top portion of the apparatus with the lid 2. During processing of the substrate with a moisture content of less than 99% in the anaerobic zone 4 through the gas distribution device 24 is fed biogas compressor 22 from the storage 21. Partially purified liquid or an additional stream of the original waste liquid is directed into the aerobic zone 5 of the housing 1, separated by a partition 3 from the anaerobic zone 4, through a distribution device 18 and the nozzle 9. The processing is performed with activated sludge and partially aerobic biofilm. The bulk of the dirt enters the aerobic biomass, which is in part shall be made with the purified liquid in the gravity separation apparatus of known construction (not shown). Aerobic conditions are created aeration means 17, for example Filtrona plate of known type. Gaseous products of metabolism are excreted through the pipe 11.
Released during aerobic biochemical reactions thermal energy through the surface of thermosyphon 12 is transmitted boiling liquid, which is under the forces of gravity flows from the condensing zone of the apparatus in the form of a film 15. In the heat supply fluid boils, the resulting pair is low density comes in the condensation zone, where transfer thermal energy anaerobic biomass (biofilm) 16. Formed during diplomatically the condensate flows in the lower (evaporative) zone, and the process is repeated. A distribution device 18 provides recycling aerobic and anaerobic flows, and, if necessary, the translation mode of operation of the anaerobic-aerobic aerobic anaerobic mode.
The proposed device allows the processing liquid (Fugate, filtrates, nadosadocnuu liquid) with a high concentration of organic pollutants (up to 5-60 g/l for COD and cleaning efficiency (COD) over 90%, and the degree of contaminant removal in anaerobic and aerobic zones can be adjusted depending on the type of fluid, the energy supply for production and requirements for deep cleaning.
When the maintenance cover 2 of the apparatus is removed, and the Assembly 13 can be removed from the hull 1 by means of known lifting equipment.
Device for anaerobic and aerobic treatment of concentrated organic liquids consisting of vertical sealed enclosure, which houses divided by a horizontal partition wall cavity with anaerobic zone, equipped with gas mixing, aerobic area, equipped with gas-dynamic re is eshiwani and aeration, and workspace areas filled immobilsarda nozzle and provided with sockets for input and output of fluid and exhaust of gaseous products with the possibility of their recycling, characterized in that immobilsarda nozzle is made in the form of a set of hollow vertical rods filled with boiling liquid, and the outer surface of the rod at least in the anaerobic zone is equipped with fins.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to field of biotechnology. Acidic leaching liquid is obtained by enrichment of leaching aerobic sulphur-acidifying microorganisms by their cultivation in water-containing initial material, which contains polyphosphate-accumulating microorganisms, subjected to action of anaerobic conditions. Processing of solid material which contains heavy metals and phosphates is performed with leaching liquid, with release of heavy metals and phosphates from said solid material and absorption of released phosphates by polyphosphate-accumulating microorganisms. Enriched with phosphorus biomass is separated. Also claimed is microbial composition, obtained by enrichment of leaching aerobic sulphur-oxidising microorganisms in water-containing initial material, containing polyphosphate-accumulating microorganisms, subjected to action of anaerobic conditions. Initial material is cultivated with addition of source of oxidised sulphur in aerobic conditions at temperature from 15 to 37°C until pH value 4.0 or lower is achieved. Obtained phosphorus-enriched biomass is applied as nutrition source for plants.
EFFECT: claimed is method of selective extraction of phosphorus in form of biomass from solid materials, which contain heavy metals and phosphates.
13 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for biological purification of ammonium-containing waste water, including at temperature of 7-25°C. The waste water is fed into an aeration tank (3) in which ammonium contained in the waste water is converted at a given oxygen concentration to elementary nitrogen. The formed excess sludge is fed for fermentation (13) which is accompanied by gas release. The sludge is then fed for drying, and the muddy water separated from the sludge, which contains 500-2000 mg/l nitrogen at 25-39°C, is fed into a deammonification reservoir (18), where nitrogen compounds contained in the muddy water are converted to elementary nitrogen. The excess sludge formed in the reservoir (18) is fed into an aeration tank (3), in which oxygen concentration is maintained below 1.0 mg/l. The ammonium contained in the waste water is first converted by anaerobically oxidising bacteria to nitrite. The ammonium and nitrite are then converted to elementary nitrogen by aerobically oxidising bacteria (ANAMMOX), particularly planctomycetes. Before feeding for fermentation, the excess sludge formed during deammonification in the aeration tank (3) is divided into a heavy phase containing anaerobically ammonium oxidising bacteria (ANAMMOX) and a light phase. The sludge heavy phase is fed into the aeration tank (3) and the light phase in form of excess sludge is fed for fermentation (13).
EFFECT: method provides energy-efficient biological purification of cold waste water containing ammonium with low content of organic carbon.
22 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of recycling of organic substrates having no value as a starting material for making commodity products, especially organic fertilisers. For implementing the method, the starting substrate is subjected sequentially to the anaerobic processing with obtaining biogas, the aerobic processing with obtaining easily precipitating biosludge and the oxygen-containing gas, the separation into fractions with obtaining a liquid and a solid fraction, followed by thermal recycling of the solid fraction to obtain ash content and gaseous products. The biosludge thermal energy is used to control temperature mode of the anaerobic processing after its contact with the gaseous products of thermal recycling. The thermal recycling is carried out in the mode of gasification using oxygen-containing gas and to obtain gaseous products in the form of the generator gas. The temperature mode of the anaerobic processing and humidity of the solid fraction is controlled by the thermal energy of the biosludge liquid fraction. The biosludge liquid fraction is then sequentially subjected to additional anaerobic processing and stripping. The resulting ammonia water is used for preparing organic fertilisers.
EFFECT: method provides increase in energy efficiency of the recycling process, reduction of the cost, and improving the operational performance of the main anaerobic process.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to treatment of industrial effluents. Treatment of effluents containing organic compounds comprises pre-treatment step whereat effluents 11 with organic compounds are fed into oxygen-free tank 1. Compounds 12 containing nitrogen and phosphorus are added thereto to execute anaerobic biological treatment. Treated water is fed into tank 2 for anaerobic biological treatment. At second step, water is fed into tank 3 for anaerobic biological treatment to discharge thus treated water through solid-liquid phase separator as reprocessed water. At third step, reprocessed water is fed to separator 4 of membrane separation by reverse osmosis to divided pre-processed water into water 16 forced through reverse osmosis membrane and concentrated brine 17. At least a portion of concentrated brine 17 is forced back into oxygen-free tank 1.
EFFECT: lower costs.
12 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: device includes subsequently connected to each other downstream of organic substance the first mechanical thickener, aerobic bioreactor, the inlet of which is connected to the residual part of the first mechanical thickener, anaerobic bioreactor and the second mechanical thickener. The device contains mechanical mixer for organic manure preparation. Anaerobic bioreactor is made in the form of anaerobic biofilter, the second mechanical thickener is located between the aerobic and anaerobic bioreactors. Its residual part is connected to the mechanical mixer, and above-residual parts of the first and the second mechanical thickeners are connected to the inlet of anaerobic biofilter. The device contains the first electric power generator actuated by internal-combustion engine equipped with steam-generating utilisation unit, the second electric power generator actuated by steam-piston machine, heat pump plant and heat producing unit. Note that the outlet of anaerobic bioreactor is by liquid flow connected to the main evaporator of the heat pump plant, the outlet by biogas - to the internal-combustion engine, and condenser of the heat pump plant, steam-generating utilisation unit, steam-piston machine and heat producing unit are interconnected via steam-condensing circuit with formation of closed thermo-dynamic cycle.
EFFECT: improvement of initial substrate organic substance processing efficiency together with more complete use of bio-energy potential.
4 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of processing organic substrates with humidity 95-97% with concentration of organic substance not less than 20 g/l. Such substrates are represented by semi-liquid and liquid manure, formed in the process of self- floating manure removal, primary precipitation and condensed active sludge from constructions of mechanical-biological purification of household sewages (at city purification constructions) and discharges after processing of agricultural production. Apparatus consists of anaerobic section with descending ceiling and immobilising regular nozzle with zones of biomass clarification and condensing with mixing device, located in lower part of section. Clarification zone is hydraulically connected with input of anaerobic biofilter. Anaerobic biofilter is located coaxially inside anaerobic section case with common gas part. Immobilising regular nozzle is made in form of assemblage of rods with possibility of rotation. Anaerobic section is coaxially placed into aerobic section case, whose output has hydraulic connection with anaerobic section.
EFFECT: intensification of combined aerobic-anaerobic process, increase of energy efficiency of methane generation process and improvement of mass and size characteristics of device.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to recycling concentrated organic substrates. Sources of such substrates can be agro-industrial enterprises - livestock and poultry production companies (liquid manure, droppings) and processing companies. The substrates can also be deposits from local waste water treatment plants, distillery dreg, surplus activated sludge and deposits from city waste water treatment plants. The initial substrate is subjected to preliminary aerobic treatment to obtain a hydrolysed and heated intermediate substrate and oxygen-containing gaseous products; the intermediate substrate is subjected to anaerobic treatment to obtain biogas and a treated substrate (effluent) and the effluent is divided into fractions. The liquid fraction is subjected to further aerobic treatment; the liberated heat energy is used to stabilise temperature conditions of preliminary aerobic treatment; the oxygen-containing gaseous products are fed into the aerated volume of the liquid fraction, and the thickened fraction is used to produce fertiliser.
EFFECT: high efficiency of aerobic/anaerobic treatment of organic substrates.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of biological purification of household-fecal sewages and can be applied in community facilities for purification of municipal and industrial sewages. Method includes collation of water, settling, averaging its expenditure, processing sewages with communities of hydrobionts from bacteria to zooplankton, afterpurification of water and following disinfection of purified sewages. Air is supplied to stages of bioreactor of multi-sludge system of sewage purification by program, preliminarily formed on the basis of specified values of indicators: content of dissolved oxygen, suspensions, pH, Eh, oxidability and content of nitrogen ammonium and nitrate, which are updated daily. Value of Eh medium in wire-brush nozzle by impulse supply of air in bubblers is supported at level +50…+120 mV at the stage of denitrification and introduction of anammox process, and not less than +300 mV at stage of nitrification termination. Recirculation flow of nitrificated discharge return is assigned by ratio (N-NH4 +)"вх"/10. Discharge pH value at the stage of nitrification termination is supported not less than 7. Carrying out of suspensions from stages of sewage afterpurification is not allowed to be over 3 mg/l, with N-NH4 + concentration being not higher than 0.4 mg/l.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase stability of operation of purifying stations and regulate their exploitation.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to biotechnology. Disclosed are methods of oxidising ammonia and hard to get organic waste water substance in aerobic-anoxic conditions. A two- or single-reactor process scheme is used. In case of a two-reactor scheme, at the first step, waste water is discharged into a partial nitrification reactor at temperature of 25-30°C, dissolved oxygen concentration of 0.05-0.4 mg/l, pH 7.5-8.1, sludge dose of 2.5-4 g/l, sludge age of 5-35 days, where partial oxidation of ammonium to nitrite takes place. Therefore, the ratio of concentration of nitrite oxygen to concentration of ammonium nitrogen in the treated water ranges from 1.1 to 1.6. At the second step, the treated water enters a second reactor for simultaneous autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrification at temperature of 20-28°C, pH 7.5-8.5, sludge dose of 1.5-2.5 g/l. Attached biomass of active sludge is additionally used. Active sludge is formed from sludge of the receiving river of the treated water or sludge from treatment facilities during operation of the denitrification reactor in the presence of treated water. In a single-reactor scheme, nitrification and denitrification processes are carried out in a single reactor with active sludge biomass attached to carrier material, at temperature of 20-28°C, dissolved oxygen concentration of 0.16-0.25 mg/l, pH 7.5-8.5, hydraulic dwell time of 2.5-7 days, nitrogen load of 0.1-0.5 kg·M/(m3·day). The active sludge used is formed from sludge from Moscow river or sludge from treatment facilities during operation of the simultaneous nitrification and denitrification reactor in the presence of treated water.
EFFECT: methods enable to remove nitrogen from waste water with high concentration of ammonia and impoverished with easy to get organic substance.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention may be used for biological cleaning of industrial and household effluents. Proposed plant comprises housing 1 consisting of two parts. Housing top part is shaped to cylinder or truncated cone, or truncated pyramid with degressive angle of inclination to change in bottom section as a cone or pyramid with degressive angle of inclination. Housing 1 doubles as second settling section 11. Housing 1 accommodates bafflement chamber 2, water anaerobic treatment chamber 4, water aerobic treatment chamber 7 and chamber 10 including second settling section 11. Said water anaerobic treatment chamber 4 includes first settling section 5 with thin layer settling unit 6. Said water aerobic treatment chamber 7 is equipped with aeration system 9 and carriers 8 for immobilisation of microorganisms Chambers 2 and 4 are separated by perforated baffle 17 while baffle 18 is arranged between chamber 7 and 10. Outlet of initial effluents feed pipeline 3 is provided with impingement baffle 22 shaped to ring.
EFFECT: complete cycle of high-quality of cleaning, compact design, higher stability and mobility in operation.
13 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: portable water treatment system comprises at least one subsystem including flocculation system, chlorination system and bio-sand filtering system. Proposed system can comprise multiple water treatment intercommunicated subsystems. Filter system can comprise bio-sand mini-filter or compacted block filter. Flocculation system can include tank bottom section to settle the particles in settler and bucket for removal of settles particles. Water treatment system can incorporate a manual pump or bellow.
EFFECT: invention provides a water treatment system with simplified design and does not require electricity or other energy sources may be used in conjunction with the existing water treatment device or separately and is easy to maintain.
20 cl, 49 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to treatment of effluents. Initial effluent flows via pipe 1 into primary settler 2 to be clarified. From said settler 2, water is fed to aeration tank 3 composed by intermediate settler with activated sludge for deep purification of water from contaminants. Then, effluent flows through thin-bed bio-filter 4 with biofilm arranged at its walls to add to filtration of effluent. From bio-filter 4, it flows into secondary settler 5 to settle activated sludge and suspended particles. This sediment is fed back into aeration tank 3 via pipe 10. Note here that this sediment is subjected to treatment by constant electric field of intensity of 2 kV/m. Moreover, it is treated by plates 11 supplied by constant voltage source 12. From settler 5, effluent flows to filter 6 for final removal of suspended particles. Cleaned and decontaminated effluent in discharge pipe 7 is subjected to treatment by constant electric field of intensity of 2 kV/m. Moreover, it is treated by plates 8 supplied by constant voltage source 9. Excess activated sludge from secondary settler 5 and primary settler 2 sediment are removed from the plant via pipe 13.
EFFECT: high-intensity treatment, lower power input, decreased area of treatment plants.
7 cl, 1 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water engineering, particularly, to water treatment systems. Tricking filter comprises casing, waste water feed system, sprayer and bed. Said casing is composed of rectangular unit with dual bottom. upper bottom composed by fire grate and lower solid bottom with reinforced concrete walls and cover. Besides it comprises waste water dispensing tanks, waste being fed thereto via waste water feed system intake branch pipe. Note here that the height of bottom-to-bottom space should be at least 0.6 m. Trickling filter drainage should be made up of reinforced concrete plates to be laid on concrete supports. Note also that total area of opening for water flows into drainage system should make at least 5÷8% of trickling filter surface area. Water velocity therein should make at least 0.6 m/s. Note that waste water feed system comprises branched system of pipelines with sprayers equally spaced apart above filter bed. Note that lower bottom inclination to collection chutes makes at least 0.01 while lengthwise inclination of said chutes equals 0.005. Filter walls are made of prefabricated reinforced concrete and tower above bed surface for 0.5 m to decrease wind influence on water distribution over filter surface. Filter bed represents crushed stone and gravel.
EFFECT: higher reliability and efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: in equilising tank of purifying device sewage is supplied and then pumped into activation reservoir. From activation reservoir waters after purification are supplied into secondary sedimentation tank, and from it, after sedimentation of remaining silt, into output hole. If the level of sewage waters in equilising tank decreases lower than established minimal level process of activation is automatically stopped, and excess of slit is pumped from activation reservoir. As a result of the following increase of the level of sewage waters in equilising tank above the established level, pumping of slit is stopped, and process of activation is resumed.
EFFECT: possibility of exploitation in case of uneven inflow of sewage waters with preservation of high purification ability.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be applied in devices of portioned biochemical purification of sewages in house of year-round residence. In order to realise the method active sludge is subjected to aeration with supply into it of nutrient solution, which contains source of nitrogen, source of phosphorus and source of organic substance. Concentration of organic substance is, at least, in fact, equivalent to load of organic substance, required for active sludge of purification device, i.e. biological oxygen requirement of sewages, supplied into claimed device. Ratio of biological oxygen requirement for seven days - BRO7 to content of phosphorus and nitrogen by weight in nutrient solution constitutes about 20-40:0.5-2:5-20, in preferable variant - about 30-35:0.8-1.5:8-10. Nutrient solution is supplied one time every 1-168 h. Nutrient solution is concentrated with respect to nitrogen and phosphorus in such a way, that concentration of said nutrient substances, per unit of volume, is approximately 10-500 ones higher, and with respect to content of organic substance approximately 500-2000 times higher, than in sewages, subjected to purification.
EFFECT: method ensures support of activated condition of sludge during durative non-working periods of device for domestic sewage purification.
11 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of treating waste water, formed when processing biomass to liquid biofuel, where the process of processing biomass to liquid biofuel involves obtaining synthesis gas from biomass, and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to convert said synthesis gas to liquid hydrocarbons, wherein a cobalt catalyst is used, wherein waste water containing alcohol-contaminated waste water, formed when processing biomass to liquid biofuel, is purified in a common waste water treatment process, involving a biological treatment process together with waste water formed when producing cellulose and/or paper, with which is integrated the process of processing biomass to liquid biofuel, wherein the alcohol-contaminated wastes are diluted with waste water from said process of producing cellulose and/or paper before the biological treatment process. The invention also relates to an integrated apparatus and a method of integrating the process of processing biomass into liquid biofuel with a process of producing cellulose and/or paper.
EFFECT: high degree of waste water treatment.
24 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to biological treatment of domestic sewage effluents. Effluents are fed from collector 1 into anaerobic digester 2. Contaminated biogas is fed from methane fermentation chamber 6 into inlet branch pipe 38 and is forced by pump 11 in discharge branch pipe 39. Contaminants are fed into appropriate collector 45. Processed biogas is fed into chlorella generator 12. Pure methane is collected in collector 12. Chlorella and thiobacteria are forced via branch pipe 16 into dynamic disintegrator 15. Mix of heavy and standard water is fed via hydraulic gate 19 into rectifier 20 to produce heavy and standard water. Heavy water is directed from heat exchanger 28 into circulation circuit 31 of reactor 32. Portion of the mix of standard and tritiated water is directed into extra rectifier 35. Tritiated water is separated from standard water and directed into collector.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of treatment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of treating waste water with sludge. The system for extracting struvite comprises: a first clarifier for obtaining first sludge and a stream of organic wastes from waste water; a bioreactor for fermentation of organic wastes in the stream of waste water for obtaining fermented sludge and a first thickener for thickening the fermented sludge; wherein the bioreactor and the first thickener together form easily biodegradable carbon-containing compounds from organic wastes in the stream of waste water; an aerotank for reaction of carbon-containing compounds from the first thickener with solid materials suspended in the mixed liquid, wherein the aerotank is connected with a second clarifier, at the output of which activated sludge is obtained; a separator connected with the first thickener and the second clarifier for obtaining a stream rich in phosphorus and magnesium, and a separate stream depleted of phosphorus and magnesium; an enzymolysis reactor connected to the separator for decomposition of the stream depleted of phosphorus and magnesium, together with the fermented sludge; dehydration apparatus connected to the enzymolysis reactor for obtaining sludge depleted of phosphorus and magnesium but rich in ammonia; and a struvite reactor for reaction of sludge rich in ammonia and the stream rich in phosphorus and magnesium to form struvite rich in ammonia, phosphorus and magnesium.
EFFECT: invention enables to reduce undesirable formation of struvite in an anaerobic bioreactor.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to biochemical oxidation of effluents at municipal aeration stations. Proposed plant comprises cylindrical tank accommodating cylindrical chamber of biochemical treatment. Cassettes with fibrous polymer elements for attached biomass are arranged over the chamber height. Afterpurification chamber equipped with immersed spillway is arranged inside cylindrical chamber of biochemical treatment to adjoin its wall. Proposed plant is provided also with effluents feed, distribution and discharge systems and aeration system. Water discharge is performed at constant flow rate at the plant bottom irrespective of water feed to plant maintained at constant level by means of air-operated gate connected with flow rate meter.
EFFECT: lower power consumption, averaged concentration of contaminants, stable operation at irregular flow rates of effluents, higher concentration of active sludge.
5 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: disclosed is use of sludge formed during lime treatment and coagulation of raw water at a water treatment plant of a thermal power plant and having the chemical composition CaCO3 + MgO + Mg(OH)2 + Fe(OH)3 + SiO2 + Al(OH)3, as a sorbent for biological treatment of industrial waste water. The sludge is used in amount ranging from 300 to 900 mg/dm3 of the total volume of waste water.
EFFECT: invention increases the effect of dephosphatisation of waste water and deamination, and reduces biological oxygen demand and concentration of suspended substances.
4 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: municipal economy; industrial enterprises; sewage purification.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the methods of biological purification of sewage in bioreactors and may be used in the water drain systems of municipal economies and the industrial enterprises at purification of sewage. The sewage is treated in a bioreactor with membranous separation of water and an active sludge. Conduct a periodic regeneration of the separator. The membrane contains oxidation catalysts in the form of a combination of metals with variable valence, for example - manganese or cobalt oxides. The technical effect is intensification of processes of a biological purification of sewage, an increase of duration of a filtration service life of the membranous separator and reliability of its operation.
EFFECT: the invention ensures intensification of processes of the biological purification of sewage, increased duration of a filtration service life of the membranous separator and reliability of its operation.
1 tbl, 2 ex