SUBSTANCE: drainage-humidification system comprises a supply 1 and a discharge 2 closed irrigation pipelines interconnected with water distribution executive unit. The water distribution executive unit consists of a vertical pipe 3 mounted on the supply pipeline 1 and the working chamber 4 of pressure with separation from it by the membrane 5 with the rod 6. The water distribution executive unit, the valve gear 19, the container 24 with the float 23, and the rotary valve 44 with the control pipeline are located in series. The cavity 11 of the chamber 4 is connected via the hydraulic pipeline 64 provided with a valve 65, with the switch 27, the shank of which is fixed pivotally with one end of the lever 50 to the rod 22. Movement of the upper lever 50 is limited by the upper stop 58, and the lower lever 51 - by the lower stop 59 above and below the threshold level in the storage container 24. The valve gear 19 is made in the form of a cylinder and has a double piston 20 which is pivotally coupled to the rod 22 of the float actuator. The valve gear 19 is connected to the supply irrigation pipeline 1 through the control pipeline 34 to the valve 35 and is respectively connected to the manifold 42 with drains-humidifiers 43. The storage container 24 with a siphon 28 communicates through the rotary valve 44 to the control pipelines 31, 34, respectively, with valves 32, 35 and with the supply pipeline 1.
EFFECT: system enables to create closed automated systems in land reclamation, to save water resources, to obtain the necessary productivity of agricultural products with the effective use of land.
6 cl, 3 dwg
The invention relates to agriculture, namely, devices for water-air soil reclamation, and may find application in drainage-humidification systems.
A device for dispensing a liquid containing tank outlet pipe located at the bottom of the tank, and a vertical inlet pipe, is installed on the valve, forming a working cavity with a drain hole that is connected through a tube with nozzle, sealed regulatory capacity with drain tube and the air tube, the upper end of which is communicated with the atmosphere, and the bottom is in the tank, and the second float rigidly connected with the valve installed with the possibility of overlapping the drain of the working cavity (USSR Author's certificate No. 1041997, CL G05D 7/01, G05D 9/02, 1983).
A disadvantage of the known device is unreliable in conditions when it is necessary in manual mode to get a certain amount of water in the adjustment capacity and track visually this level. Accordingly, the time of discharge capacity is difficult to reconcile with the time of its content. Cumulative capacity installed at the highest point above the bottom of the tank and leads to a significant effort to control the valve. These efforts reduce the reliability of the actuation device, and trace the educational, the reliability of its operation. Additionally, there is no implementation of usage, in order to significantly improve the water-air regime of soil due to fluctuations in the top of capillary fringe, and decreases C. the yield of agricultural crops. It is ineffective to prevent waterlogging of the soil during rainy periods, it can not affect the metabolism in the system soil-plant. The device has the ability to delay the process of oscillations dresselhouse tube with replaceable diaphragm. As the spool with the possibility of overlap of the drain hole.
The closest in purpose to the present invention is a drainage-hydration system that includes a closed manifold, drain-humidifiers, the degassing device, which is made in the form of a slide mechanism with a drive, a container with a float, time relay connected to the collector and the tank (USSR Author's certificate No. 794111, CL E02B 11/00, 1981).
However, such drainage and watering system has the ability to delay the process of oscillations of the pumping station, as the stem of the valve through controlled relay drive that limited supply and cost of electricity. In addition, in practice the operation is energy-intensive costs do not always justify the efficiency to obtain high C. agricultural crops. This is when flow control system is not taken into account the adjustment to the value of volume depletion capacitance in accordance with time emptying it in each specific case, when the porosity of soils different in their mechanical composition of the structure, i.e. it is not possible to change the setpoint control within the specified limits.
The purpose of the invention is to improve efficiency by increasing the reliability and reducing operating costs.
This objective is achieved in that the drain-hydration system that includes a closed manifold, drain-humidifiers, the degassing device, which is made in the form of a spool mechanism with the drive and capacity to float, time relay, the system is made in the form of consecutive water distribution Executive body, which introduced the vertical pipe with a diaphragm actuator, valve mechanism in the form of two pistons and the rotary valve with the control pipe, and podobrannaya cavity vertical pipe provided with a calibrated orifice, in interaction with the atmosphere outside of the vertical pipe. Check, that the body of the dispenser associated with Bolotnikova mechanism and float actuator means pivotally connected with them and pinned with a possibility of vertical movement by means of levers, the latter is rigidly fixed with float rod, and a drain pipe spool mechanism communicated through the check valve with the inlet of EOS is relatively pipeline. In addition, in order to reduce the impact of hydrostatic pressure on the locking body of the latter is in the form of a plate, and namebrand cavity chamber is connected with a vertical pipe and communicated via the control pipe, fitted with a valve, with diverter, the shank of which is secured at one end of a lever articulated to a rod of the float actuator that is restricted from vertical movement of the upper and lower stops above and below the limit level in the storage capacitor, and the switch is fixed by means mounted in the upper part of the tank bracket, cumulative installed capacity siphon associated with rotary valve with actuator, one end which fixed capacity-counter, and the other opposed.
The proposed drainage hydration system aims to eliminate these drawbacks due to its design, which allows to maintain the water pressure, which takes place in a closed irrigation pipeline through the distribution of Executive authority in the form of the control chamber of the diaphragm is installed in vertical pipe. Therefore, the set of all elements of the modular system makes it possible to improve reliability, eliminate the cost of electricity to operate such a system is s. It should be noted that this communication is associated with a transition in the mode of actuation of the locking body, the accumulation tank with float actuator, siphon and other control elements of drainage and watering systems you can create a consistent closed-loop control system of water-air regime of soil due to rational fluctuations in the upper layer of the soil, which accelerates the metabolism in the system soil-plant, and get clean agricultural products. In addition, the link associated with the transition processes in these modes, provides the necessary conditions of the water-air regime of soil, reduces operating costs, there is a hydraulic automation of irrigation and irrigation water saving by eliminating reset when you disconnect system for the reconstruction and efforts to hydraulically offloaded as a stop valve, and the control of the accumulation tank with float actuator and the rotary valve through the control pipeline valves-regulators.
The effectiveness of the proposed system is determined by the adjustable valve mechanism due to the time of drawdown of storage capacity, allowing for swivel crane their connection, the ability to move the locking member up or down, and float the drive line is i.i.d. with respect to the bounding blocks.
The system has a linear arrangement, due to the binding gated irrigation pipe in the well and the relationship with the private collector drains-humidifiers. The system can be disabled at any time only by the closure of the valve-regulator to any of the elements of the device on a modular system.
In Fig.1 shows a modular drainage-hydration system, top view; Fig.2 - General view of drainage and watering system of Fig.3 - section a-a in Fig.2 and cross-section B-B.
Drainage-hydration system contains the inlet 1 and outlet 2 pipelines, interconnected water distribution Executive body, consisting of a set of vertical pipe 3 and the working chamber 4 of the pressure with the separation from her diaphragm 5 with the rod 6. The pipe 3 has a calibrated hole 7 is connected with the atmosphere, and fixed to the chassis 8, the saddle which has a valve 9, overlying the outlet opening 10 of the housing saddle 8, indicating the discharge pipe 2. This namebrand cavity 11 of the chamber 4 is communicated with inlet 12 and the rod 6 is passed through the guides 13 of the casing 8 and the cover 14 in the upper part of the chamber 4. The rod 6 is connected through a hinge 15 with the lever 16, which hinge 17 is connected to the stem 18 of the valve mechanism 19. Slide mechanism 19 is executed in the form of a cylinder, in which can move a double piston 20 with the possibility of reciprocating movement, and the design of the articulated lever mechanism through the lever 21 is rigidly connected with the rod 22 connected to the float 23. The float 23 is placed inside the tank 24, which is fixed to the vertical supports 25. In addition, the rod 22 is connected to an articulated parallelogram mechanism. Articulated parallelogram mechanism in the upper part has a bracket 26 to secure linkage with the switch 27 and the siphon 28, to the outlet branch of which is fixed a valve controller 29. At the bottom of the storage tank 24 has inlet with a pipe 30 connected to the conduit 31 to the valve 32 and the outlet is equipped with a valve 33.
Slide mechanism 19 hydraulic connection in the initial part of it is fed from the inlet penstock 1 (possibly from another pressure source through line 34 and valve 35 connected to the inlet pipe 36 and valve mechanism 19, and the outlet 37 is connected with the drain tube 38 and through the check valve 39 (it is possible that it is spring-loaded) with a partition 40 is connected with the inlet pressure pipe 1. The second outlet 41 is connected closed manifold 42 that is connected to the system drains-humidifiers 43.
Managing the pipeline is od hydraulic connection 34, respectively, passes through the rotary valve 44 with the clutch features a swivel lever 45, one end of which is pivotally attached to the storage tank 46 with the valve 47, the other the counterweight 48. The moment of load 47 is significantly greater than the torque from the hollow vessel, the drive 46. The lower knee siphon 28 is a drain, and the curved end 49 it is placed coaxially over capacity-storage device 46.
When the ratio of the moments of the original position (normal) counterweight 48 is lower, and the empty capacity of the memory 46 of the upper, while the rotary valve 44, which is connected with the control pipe 34 hydraulic connection is in the open position. When changing positions of the counterweight 48 and capacity-drive 45 (when filled with water) valve 44 is closed.
Articulated parallelogram mechanism consists of the top 50 and bottom 51 of the levers, one end of which is pivotally connected with the rod 22, and the other upper with an on / off switch 27. Dip switch 27 (upper) is made in the form of a cylindrical housing 52, in which are radial holes 53, 54. Within the cylindrical body 52 posted by rotary tube, made in the form of the valve 55, which acts as a shank 56 is attached to the lever 50, and the movement of the upper lever 50 is limited to the top 58 of the stop, and the lower arm 51 is lower 59 emphasis. The valve 55 has an axial about the opening 60, and the chamfer 61 (the groove)located in one of the clipping plane with the specified radial holes.
Namebrand the cavity of the chamber 4 is connected by a hydraulic pipe 62 with the valve 63 from the supply line 1, a hydraulic pipe 64 with the valve 65 and the switch 27.
The combination of an articulated parallelogram mechanism with the rod 22 and the mounting bracket 26 avoids distortions in the vertical movement of the float and lever body of the valve mechanism 19, as well as the Executive body of the valve 9.
Drainage-hydration system works as follows.
When mounting the system on a closed inlet pipe 1 in the well (Fig.1) attach the housing 8 water distribution Executive body with a vertical pipe 3 and the working chamber 4. Set the set value of the differential between the bottom of the storage tank 23 and the depth of the inlet pipe 1. In the mounted position fix other elements of the device. In the storage capacitor 24 with no water, and the float 23 is at the lower position in which the movement of the lever 51 is limited by the stop 59. The supply line is not yet filled with water to a specified pressure mode.
When the supply of water to the supply line 1, the system is in Polo is the situation, when the hole 10 of the seat in the housing 8 is preloaded disc valve 9, and a double piston 20 is located in the cylindrical housing in the lower position so that the inlet pipe 32 is provided on one side of the valve 19, the pressure in the chamber 4 of the membrane actuator is increased. The membrane 5 and bend it down into the chamber 4 in the cavity 11 which greatly increases the water pressure acting on the diaphragm 5. The air from the vertical pipe 3 through the opening 7 being released into the atmosphere. The force from the membrane 5 is transmitted through the rod 6 to the valve 9, as a young man 3 is released from the air (gas), providing tight shut-off Poppet valve 9 and enabling the creation of the pressure regime in the pipeline 1. As the filling pipe 1 there is an increase in pressure therein, while at the same time water flows into the piping 63 within the cylindrical body 52 of the switch 27 closed by a valve 55. In this case, when the pressure of the water in the pipe 1, the water flows through the pipe 33 through the cavity of the spool mechanism 19 into the reservoir 42 and then drains-humidifiers 43. Leaving the drain-humidifiers 43, moisture in the capillary system of the soil penetrates to the surface harder, forcing carbon dioxide into the leaves of C. agricultural plants that intensifies photosynthesis. In the mode of discharge of moisture is the upper boundary of the capillary fringe in the drawing is shown by a dotted line.
At the same time when you open the valve, the knob 35 on the pipe 34 rotary valve 44 is opened, as a result, the capacity of the counterweight 46 is in its upper position, and the counterweight 48 is at the bottom. The holding tank 24 reaches the water, includes a float 23 with the rod 18, and when reaching the maximum level in the tank 24, the float 23 stops and takes extreme upper position in which the lever 50 is limited by the upper stop 58. The lead pipe is filled with water. In this case, the incoming water through the pipe 64 in the switch 27 through the flats 61 and the hole 53 begins to pour into the atmosphere, reducing the water pressure regulator diaphragm 5, so that the weight of the rod 6 with the valve 9 in the housing 8 will be reduced. Simultaneously, the water in the tank 24, which peaked hood siphon 28, begins to flow in the right branch and fills bent knee 49, i.e., the siphon 28 is fully charged, and water is served in the capacity of the storage device 24, and an increase in the level of water in it increases torque over time from the weight of the counterweight 48, the lever 45 is rotated, which contributes to the closure of the drain hole in the rotary valve 44 and to prevent admission of water into the container 24, i.e. the inflow of water into the tank 24 is stopped, and the water from it is removed by siphon 28. In addition, simultaneously with the filling capacity of 24(the upper position of the float 23) dual piston 20 valve mechanism 19 will move up, open output pipe 41 connected to the collector 42 and associated with drains-humidifiers 43 and inlet pipe 36 will block, and output nozzles 41 and 37 will be connected through the cylinder chamber of the valve 19.
Due to the fact that water transit flows into the discharge pipe 2 when you open the valve 9, the pressure in the supply line 1 falls, there is a leak of water from the drain tube 38, the check valve 39 is lowered by a partition wall 40 and the water is discharged into the pipeline 1. Next, the suction of moisture from the soil through the drain 43 of the collector 42.
But due to the fact that the float 23 and rod 22 will go down in the tank and be balanced by the forces of the weight of the rod 18 with the piston 20 and the weight of the rod 6 with the actuator in the form of a membrane 5 and the valve 9, the time of discharge suction of moisture from the soil and the upper boundary of the capillary fringe falls to the settlement, and the soil is sucked in air. It should be noted the positive effect of the vacuum created at the point of discharge of water in the supply line 1, and a check valve in the form of a ball 38 serves to reduce water hammer when closing the holes in the tube 38, and to obstruct the rapid flow of water when the pressure regime of the pipe 1 from the side of the bottom of the piston 20. The pressure on the piston will be missing.
The action of the proportional part of the overall system at this end, and is RichEdit a new cycle of operation. The total weight of the float and other elements of the system devices is selected by the calculation, and their dimensions are different.
The time of suction of moisture depends on the total connection diaphragm actuator, switch, valve and emptying the tank with a siphon connected with the rotary valve.
Communication can be implemented by setting (adjustable) valves-regulators to control the piping and valve in the exhaust branch of the siphon.
After the end of the valve-regulator 35 is blocked and the diversion of water from the pipeline 1 stops off water at the main water intake. After a specified time determined by the schedule of water-air regime of soil, the system is ready for a new cycle. The piston valve will again be in operation at an open valve 35 and the pressure in the pipe 1 will be increased relative to the specified values.
The proposed drainage and watering system is vast in comparison with the known system scope, since the presence of a set of data elements, the process passes water and suction it out of the drain allows you to create a system of automatic control processes, providing the soil with fertilizers and micronutrients in a wider range specified time depending on the composition of the soil, which affects the metabolism in the system soil-plant for various existing soils, depending on zoning.
The proposed system of regulation of water-air regime allows you to create closed hydraulic automated drainage and watering systems in land reclamation, allows to obtain the required yield of agricultural products with the effective use of such land.
1. Drainage-hydration system that includes a closed manifold, drain-humidifiers, the degassing device, which is made in the form of a spool mechanism with the drive and capacity to float, time relay, characterized in that the system is made in the form of successive and interconnected water distribution Executive body, which introduced the vertical pipe with a diaphragm actuator, valve mechanism in the form of two pistons, a container with float and swivel faucet with managing the pipeline.
2. The system under item 1, characterized in that podobrannaya cavity vertical pipe provided with a calibrated orifice, in interaction with the atmosphere outside of the vertical pipe.
3. The system under item 1, characterized in that the shut-off body of the dispenser associated with Bolotnikova mechanism and float actuator means pivotally connected and fixed with the possibility of vertical movement of the rod with the lever, the latter is s rigidly attached to the float rod.
4. The system under item 1, characterized in that the outlet pipe spool mechanism communicated through the check valve with the inlet of the irrigation pipeline.
5. The system under item 1, characterized in that in order to reduce the impact of hydrostatic pressure on the locking body of the latter is in the form of a plate, and namebrand cavity chamber is connected with a vertical pipe and communicated via the control pipe, fitted with a valve, with diverter, the shank of which is secured at one end of the lever with the rod of the float actuator, which is limited to the upper and lower stops above and below the limit level in the storage capacitor, and the switch is fixed by means mounted in the upper part of the tank bracket.
6. The system under item 1, characterized in that the storage tank has a siphon connected with the rotary valve with the actuator in the form of a pivoted lever, one end of which is fixed capacity-counter, and the other opposed.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of hydraulic engineering, in particular, to methods for determination of water losses from irrigation ditches. The method consists in arrangement of an insulated compartment in a ditch, comprising two polymer water impermeable links, which for the time of determination of filtration losses are closed into slots on the bottom of the ditch at the distance of 30÷50 m, with subsequent hydraulic insulation of joint areas. Maintenance of polymer water impermeable links in the stable position is carried out with the help of a metal polymer rope pulled into open holes in the upper part of links and fixed to coastal anchors. To reduce impact in process of measurements of external factors, on top between water impermeable links there is a tent pulled from light impermeable polymer film. Measurement of water level in the compartment is carried out in special pockets fixed at the outer side to links and communicating with an insulated compartment with the help of three rows of holes in upper, middle and lower parts. For measurement of water level each pocket is equipped with a portable needle level metre (point-gauge) with a vernier scale division price of 0.1 mm, which is fixed on the metal stand, installed in the upper part of the slope above the measured water level.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of measurement of water losses for filtration from channels with anti-filtration lining.
4 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of ecology, environment protection and rational nature management and can be used for purification of river water, climate regulation in drought and also contributes to creation of a reserve of fresh water for the economic and social needs of the population. The essence of the technical solution is that the water reservoirs with the depth of 2.5-3 m, the width of 120-150 m, the length of 250-280 m, the surface area of water of 3-3.5 ha are formed in interstream areas on the river banks at a distance of 150-200 m from the mainstream. The water reservoirs are connected to the river bed by input and take-out channels. At the bottom of the water reservoirs the zeolite-containing clay - irlites are placed with the layer of 10-15 cm.
EFFECT: method enables to reduce the level of pollution of river waters, to create optimal climatic conditions for human living, flora and fauna, the sustainable development of coastal ecosystems and the whole lowland interfluvial landscapes, while simultaneously providing reserve of ecologically clean fresh water for domestic, household and other needs of the population.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ecology and soil science. The method of assessment of degradation degree of industrial landscape in chemical contamination provides the analytical determination of the total number of the chemical pollutant element, the quantity of chemical pollutant element being in the mobile form in soil of the industrial landscape, and, separately, geographically conjugated unpolluted landscape. A procedure of assessment of pollution of the landscape is proposed, consisting of three stages: normalisation of industrial landscape pollution and geographically conjugated unpolluted landscape; determination of the ratio of pollution standard of industrial landscape and the pollution standard of geographically conjugated unpolluted landscape; determination of the degree of degradation of industrial landscape on the ratio of pollution standards under the proposed nonlinear scale of degradation degree of industrial landscape.
EFFECT: proposed method in practical use enables to improve the reliability of detection of degradation degree of industrial landscape in case of chemical pollution.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: weed plants are preliminarily mowed in discharge canal to water level and is left to dry. After drying reed and rush plants are selected. Selected plants are used as sorbent. Filtering cassette net of cassette-holding device is filled with sorbent. Sorbent-containing device is fixed in discharge canal bed in monolithic manner and drainage outflow is passed through it. Plant mowing and replacement of filtering cassette are carried out when rice plant passes from one vegetation stage into another.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve reclamation state of soil and ecological situation on rice fields due to reduction of suffusion and removal of nutrients from soil.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a supply 1 and a transit 2 channels, coupled with a water-receiving chamber, a draining pipeline with a flat gate in its inlet part and a dirt-collecting lattice 9. At the inlet of the water-receiving chamber there is a wall face. The wall face is made on top with a hollow pipe 8, having air outlet holes 10, connected by flexible hoses 12 with perforated tubes 13, separated on a garbage protection device in the form of the lattice 9. Perforated pipes are fixed on the lattice 9 at the side of the flat gate that closes the inlet hole of the draining pipeline. Perforated pipes 13 are connected to a source of compressed air supplied momentarily with a compressor 14, connected with a time relay 16, along an air duct 15 into a hollow pipe 8.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of operation of a device on channels with high inclinations and prevented clogging of a lattice.
3 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proportionate water separator includes a supply channel 1 and a drain channel 2, where an elastic partition 3 is installed, equipped along the external contour with a rigid belt in the form of a movable shell 4, fixed on top to a flow divider in the form of a vertical plate 5 as capable of interaction with it along the drain channel axis. The bottom of the drain channel is coupled with the bottom of the supply channel in the form of a drop. The supply channel is coupled with a distribution chamber 6 expanded in plan of rectangular cross section. The distribution chamber 6 by its other end is installed on top onto boards of the drain channel in the form of a cantilever part with a gap in a coupling unit relative to the bottom of the drain channel and with coverage of the upper part of the throughput section to the specified channel. On the opposite wall of the drain channel board there is a vertical wall 7 of the chamber 6 fixed rigidly. The bottom of the distribution chamber 6 is equipped with a board - a threshold 9 in front of a vertical plate 5, facing the flow with reverse inclination. The flow divider is made as composite of the vertical plate 5 with a central hole installed on the horizontal axis, a movable shell 4, capable of horizontal-reciprocal displacement along the axis of the drain channel within the limits of the working position along width of the cantilever part of the chamber. At the same time the ratio of the length to the width of the board - the threshold makes at least 1 with the angle of inclination 10…15° relative to the bottom of the distribution chamber.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of water separation by reduction of forces for displacement and control of speed structure of a flow in a water separation zone.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and land reclamation. The method includes division of sloping areas to at least two levels, performing the preparatory works associated with digging and displacement the soil to create the limited amounts on the areas of different levels. And on the sloping and divided to sections areas the diking is made with the creation of the reservoir for moisture collection located upward the irrigated areas. Then in spring period of thawing of soil to the depth of 0.5-0.8 height of topsoil the water is released from the reservoir into the lower irrigated diked areas with its uniform distribution on the irrigated areas. The moisture collection in the reservoirs located at a higher level is carried out throughout the year with use of underwater channels and trays made in the soil.
EFFECT: method provides long-term conservation of water and physical soil properties when used effectively.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: water meter comprises a measuring device made by crosspieces in the form of beams 1. At the ends of the beams 1 there are frames 2 fixed in the form of a spillway with belts inside, having a form of a shield of a metering spillway with a thin wall 3, and the height of the shield is equal to the height of cut in a rift 7. Frames are fixed to crosspieces at diametrically opposite sides. Beams 1 by means of an axis of rotation 4 installed on boards of a canal, are connected to a reduction gear 5 with a metering device 6. Frames are attached to ends of beams along a generatrix relative to rotation of its axis along a longitudinal cut of the rift in vertical and circular direction along the flow. In the middle and lower part of a spillway rift 7 there is a washing window 8 with a spring loaded plate 9 with a visor 12, arranged as bent to the bottom of the canal.
EFFECT: invention provides for the possibility to measure water flow in narrow canals between their streamlined walls.
2 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: structure comprises a chamber placed between a supply channel 1 and a drain channel, and the bottom of the chamber is arranged below the bottom of the supply channel at the elevation of the drain channel bottom. The chamber is divided into galleries with a wall 3, parallel to the axis of the drain channel, with a horizontal shelf with a visor in the upper part, directed towards the supply channel. The bottom of the supply channel is made with a slant at the sharp angle to the horizon. In the end of the supply channel 1 there is a vertical wall 9 installed, as well as a jet-directing system. The jet-directing system is made in the form of vertical longitudinal walls 10, ends of which are aligned along the bottom of the inclined section parallel to each other and at the angle 10-15° to the axis of the closed gallery. The walls of the bottom of the inclined section under a separating shelf are arranged with reducing height. In the end of the separating shelf there is a vertical plate installed with a gap to the bottom of the drain channel with a hinged joint 13 and with a spring, which is connected to the separating shelf. A protective visor 15 is fixed to the side wall of the gallery above the horizontal separating shelf.
EFFECT: higher efficiency in operation due to reduced water head upstream a unit with wave structure of a flow.
5 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: water discharge - a water flow stabiliser comprises a supply (3) and a transit (4) channels, a control gate and a bottom water-receiving gallery (1), having a water-receiving hole (7) in the upper part, and this hole is covered with a vibration grid (8), and in the bottom part there is a separating wall (9), coupled with the bottom of the transit channel. The bottom water-receiving gallery is connected with a discharge pipe (5) by means of a water discharge hole. The water discharge - the water flow stabiliser is also equipped with a jet-directing system in the form of separating plates (13) curvilinear in cross section, which are installed oppositely to the supply channel into galleries into a row, aligned in series along the length of the gallery hole. The upper edges of the plates are attached at the bottom to the grid, the ends of the rods (10) of which are bent down and rest against the separating wall, coupled with the bottom of the transit channel with the possibility to create self-excited oscillations of the grid. The gallery is arranged with permanent height along its entire length and a bottom (2) arranged as inclined. The gallery is divided along the length into sections with a transverse ledge (14) and a flat plate (15), attached by the base of the ledge and the edge of the plate at the bottom to the separating wall with partial coverage along the height of the throughput section of the gallery with gaps to the bottom of the gallery. The gallery of the bottom is equipped with a concave transverse plate (16) between the ledge and the flat plate in the form of a zigzag-shaped water conduit that narrows along the length of the gallery towards its end part.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of operation by stabilisation of water discharge water flow due to change of hydraulic resistances with wave structure of a flow and efficient cleaning of water from drifts and debris.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of land reclamation and can be used for draining soils in heavy-textured soils, as well as in regulation of the water level in upper pools of bulkhead structures in irrigation and drainage-humidification channels. The system comprises an inlet 1 and an outlet 28 drains, a storage container 2 and a chamber 3 connected by the pipe 4. The chamber 3 is placed in an inspection manhole 5, in which a siphon is mounted. A float 18 is placed in an additional chamber 20 and is provided with a load 19 with a variable mass. The system comprises a three-port articulation linkage, the first port 8 of which is pivotally connected to the first horizontal axis of rotation 7. A shutter 6 is connected to the axis of rotation 7 with the ability of rotation and fixing the shutter in the end positions by means of clamps on the output head of the chamber 3 which is connected to the inlet pipe. The second port is made in the form of a rod 9 mounted on the second horizontal axis of rotation 11 and connected to a lever 10. The lever 10 is pivotally connected to a rod 12 rigidly connected to the float 18. The rod 9 by a lever 13 with a slider 14 is connected to a rack 15, on which a limiter 16 is secured using a retaining screw 17. In the bottom of the additional chamber 20 there is an inlet 23 with the located valve 24 connected to a float sensor 25. The inspection manhole 5 is equipped with a siphon made in the form of a vertically mounted cylindrical nozzle 29 connected to the outlet 28 drain, and a cap 30 located above it. The combination of the articulation linkage with the floating drive mounted on the wall of the chamber (well) with control elements enables to avoid imbalances by moving the shutter 6 on the axis 7, and the operation of the siphon also enables to adjust automatically water discharge to the outlet drain with the stable flow rate.
EFFECT: system is reliable and stable in operation, it has continuous monitoring of the water level and eliminates an emergency.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining industry, and namely to development of flooded mineral deposits, as well as it can be used at unwatering of foundations and in hydraulic engineering. In order to protect an open pit against underground water influx, the main horizontal drain wells 4 are constructed normally to open pit 2 side 1. At least two opposite lying additional side horizontal drain wells are constructed out of each main horizontal drain well 4. Out of points 5, 6, 7 on the main horizontal drain wells 4 there constructed to one side in the direction of adjacent wells 4 to the right are additional side horizontal drain wells 8, 9, 10. Out of the same points 5, 6, 7 on adjacent wells 4 there constructed to the left are additional side horizontal drain wells 11, 12, 13. All the additional side horizontal drain wells are constructed till their mutual intersection and formation of a closed drain circuit. All wells are constructed at the bottom of the drained water-bearing horizon.
EFFECT: providing increase of entrapment degree of breakthrough of underground water to open pit sides and reducing drilling volumes of the main horizontal drain wells owing to enlarging distance between them.
1 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: system comprises a feeding drain line 1, a collecting container 2 connected to an inspection pit 3 by the pipe 4, and a vertical overflow wall 5 with an opening 6. The vertical overflow wall 5 is fastened to the bottom 7 and rigidly embedded in the side walls of the pit 3. The overflow wall 5 is provided with a horizontal shelf 8 directed towards the pipe 4. The inspection pit 3 is communicated with a chamber 9 which has a broken inner wall 10 with an opening for the inlet pipe 12. The lower central part of the broken wall 10 between the chamber 9 and the pit 3 is made as an opening 13 and comprises a seat with a valve 14 on the hinge 15 and the float drive. The chamber 9 is hydraulically connected by the siphon 22 and the vertical pipe 23 to the outlet drain line 24. The siphon 22 is separated from the float drive by the cantilever partition 20 and has a charging tube 25. The relationship in the operation of the inspection pit, the chamber with the float drive, the siphon and other construction elements enables to increase the reliability and accuracy in the work of the construction.
EFFECT: efficient periodic washing from suspended sediments of the construction and the drain line to the source of the collector.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: controller comprises a drainage well 1, a locking element 3 mounted on the inlet head of the drain pipe, a float 11 with a rod 14, and a pipe 28 of the discharging collector 29. The locking element 3 is provided with an L-shaped lever 4 which is pivotally attached to the rod 5 connected to the lever of the float actuator 10, pivotally connected with one end to the side of the well. The float 11 and the locking element 12 of the pipe 28 are pivotally connected by the rods 14, 15 to the middle part of the lever 10 with the ability of their vertical movement, respectively, to the opposite when changing the position of the locking element 3 at the inlet head of the drain. The float 11 is located in the chamber 16 which is placed inside the well 1.
EFFECT: improving reliability and accuracy of work by maintaining the water level in the well, flexible and differentiated regulation of preset levels on the command area.
4 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: it can be used in nonchernozem belt, as well as industrial, municipal, township and other territories and can be used in the design, construction and maintenance of drainage systems and the use of drained soils. The method comprises carrying out land clearance operations and construction of a closed collector and sparse parallel drains. The construction breakdown of the drains attached to the collector is carried out, followed by shrinkage of soil of humus horizon - the arable layer on the pathway of drain by the bulldozer with an angled blade. The trenching with depth of not less than 1.1 m with a given slope is carried out. The bottom of the trench is levelled and the pipe is placed on it, wrapped with protective filter material. The drain pipe at least 20 cm above its crown is padded with water-permeable loosely cohesive sabulous-sandy soil of binomial deposits cut from the trench shoulders. The filling of the trench is carried out, which has the width of not less than 0.5 m, to plough pan of the arable layer by its ploughing also with water-permeable loosely cohesive sabulous-sandy soil by monohull hinged brush-and-bog plough PBN-100A with mould and hanging cutter. The levelling layer of soil is carried out excavated during the digging of the trench, in depressions construction band of drain and reclamation of shrinked soil layer on the construction band with a bulldozer with angled blade. Planning of the soil surface and ploughing the soil is carried out. For sustainable spilling the water-permeable loosely cohesive sabulous-sandy soil in the loosened area of cohesive poorly water-permeable soil, as well as the slit behind the drive rod and the rack of the ripper and plough pan of the moving ploughshare and fixed feet pad of the ripper the continuous deep cross loosening of soil is carried out with vibration ripper in the period when the level of soil water stand id not higher than the bottom of the trench of drain to a depth of not less than 30 cm less than the minimum depth of the drain location. Deep loosening of soil is carried out in two mutually perpendicular directions at an angle of 45 degrees to the drain direction.
EFFECT: reliable hydrological effect of subsurface drainage in the course of its operation is provided, creation of optimised mineral soil with improved soil, water and environmental properties of the root layer, and ecological and economic efficiency of drainage of these soils is increased.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering, namely, to water intake facilities, and may be used to take water from underground sources with shallow ground waters. The method to erect a horizontal underground water intake of combined design, comprising a water receiver and a water collecting well, consists in the fact that the main water receiver is made in the form of an open tray 1, covered on top with a metal net 2, above which they lay gabion mats 3 in longitudinal rows with drainage devices. Gabion mats 3 are made of light fascines, perforated pipes and a metal net. On top of gabion mats 3 along the tray they lay flexible mats 6, made of a drainage filler, which is made of tight rows of light fascines wrapped into a geonet. In the end of the water receiving tray 1 they arrange a water collecting well 9, equipped with a water intake pipeline 10. The proposed method may most efficiently be used in coastal and other water-bearing soil massifs with depth of occurrence of discharge-free level of ground waters of up to 7-10 m for water supply of rural settlements, small towns and villages.
EFFECT: invention provides for efficiency of operation of a water-intake structure.
2 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to protection of ground waters from contaminants and can be used for trapping of contaminated flows from accumulators to exposed waterways. Proposed method consists in construction of several trapping wells drilled at a distance from end sections of accumulator directed towards ground flow, that is, at outlet of maximum filtrate volume in zone of higher output gradients of the head. Set of wells is arranged with increase in diameter and depth from well set edges to the centre. Pit in plan on terrain features minimum width, pit length being directed towards ground flow.
EFFECT: efficient trapping and diversion of more concentrated filtrate.
2 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: regulator comprises a body 1, made in the form of a nozzle of rectangular cross section, into the ends of which drainage pipes 2 are inserted into the ends of which at both sides. Inside the body 1 on the horizontal axis of rotation 4 there is a valve 3 installed. The valve 3 is made in the form of a cover 7 equipped with a large float 8 with a canopy 9. The body 1 is equipped with a cross rod with a roller 11, via which a flexible thread 10 is thrown, which connects the valve 3 with a bottom lower gate 12. The gate 12 is balanced additionally with a float of smaller size 14, rigidly connected with the lower part of the gate at the side of the supply drain. Side walls of the body 1 have cantilever longitudinal stops-limiters 5 and inclined stops-limiters 6 at the angle 30…45°, between which there is the valve 3, the large float 8 and canopy 9. In the initial position the valve 3 with the large float 8 and the canopy 9 lie on stops-limiters 5 in the horizontal position, and the lower bottom gate 12 is closed due to its retention in the vertical position via a flexible thread 10.
EFFECT: improved operating properties of a regulator by provision of discharge of deposits from the pipe bottom from under moving parts during actuation of stop organs.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: evaporation pond of drainage flow is connected by water regulating facilities to the supply channel 1 and is divided into sections 4, 5, arranged in cascade. On the shore of the evaporation pond a wind-directing system is located, which comprises the main partitions 7 arranged radially to the shores of the evaporation pond, and the additional partitions 8 mounted between the main ones at the right angle to the shores. The partitions 7, 8 of the wind-directing system consist of panel structures, which are sheets of durable material fastened together, mounted vertically with the supports and guying with anchorage. Along the shoreline of the pond-evaporator the device 9 is mounted for direction of the air flow to the water surface, consisting of panels mounted along the shoreline with the ability to be inclined in the vertical plane in the direction of the water surface of the pond.
EFFECT: increased intensity of evaporation from the evaporation pond surface and the effectiveness of concentration of the drainage flow.
SUBSTANCE: fine powder of peat ash of dry removal is fed simultaneously with the feeding of exhaust gases into the drain cavity. The fine powder of peat ash of dry removal together with the flow of exhaust gases is fed to the inner surface of the drainage pipes and the slits of the drainage pipes. The peat ash of dry removal blocks the bacterial process of transformation of iron compounds in insoluble forms.
EFFECT: increased intensity of suppression of iron bacteria life activity.
SUBSTANCE: method of capillary irrigation from the covered ground on the vineyard plantation includes making of vineyard crone in the form of bowl composed by ring-shaped suports, sequentially increasing by diameter, which are connected to each other with rigid radial guides, which are fixed in the lower part of the bowl on the upper part of the vertical support, the lower part of which is fixed on the upper part of the bowl-shaped vessel, which is positioned above the ground, installation of the pipeline with the water outlet holes and coaxial vertical branch pipes for supply of irrigation water into the internal part of bowl-shaped vessels, which are positioned on the vineyard plantation inside soil, in the upper part of the bowl-shaped vessel a coaxial hole is made, and inside it a coaxial restrictive branch pipe for limitation of irrigation water level inside of the bowl-shaped vessel is provisioned, the lower part of the vertical branch pipe of a waterpipe is tightly connected to the upper part of the bowl-shaped vessel for supply of irrigation water into its coaxial hole. The pipeline is installed in the lower part of bowl-shaped vineyards, along each bowl-shaped vineyard the additional vertical supports are fixed and their upper parts are connected to the respective ring-shaped supports in each cup from the diametrally opposite sides, the vertical branch pipes of the pipeline are positioned inside a vertical support and their lower end is tightly connected to the central hole of the bowl-shaped vessel for supply of irrigation water in their internal part.
EFFECT: ensuring of independent removal of irrigation water from the pipeline.
2 cl, 3 dwg