Hydraulic excavator drive

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to excavator drive with set of separate drives such as rotation gear drive, lifting gear drive, bucket drive and handle drive, where for rotary gear drive two reverse adjustable devices are provided which devices are connected with at least one energy accumulator. Invention task consists in excavator drive improvement so that as large as possible portion of driving energy could be recovered and put at disposal for other drive motions. The excavator drive consists of a number of separate drives such as rotation gear drive, lifting gear drive, bucket drive and handle drive, lifting gear drive, bucket drive and handle drive. In this structure, two reverse adjustable devices are provided for as rotation gear drive which devices are connected with at least one energy accumulator. One of reverse adjustable devices is made capable to be connected with excavator driving gear. In this structure, reverse adjustable devices represent hydraulic adjustable devices, and adjustable devices of rotary gear drive are energetically connected with adjustable devices of lifting gear drive.

EFFECT: perfected design.

11 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to drive the construction machine, in particular an excavator with a number of individual drives, such as at least one rotary drive, for example drive the turning mechanism, and at least one linear actuator, for example a lifting actuator, the actuator bucket and/or the actuator handle.

From DE 10343016 known actuation of the hydraulic cylinder double-acting by means of two hydraulic pumps. One of them is connected with both the working chambers of the hydraulic cylinder double-acting closed circuit. The second hydraulic pump, in contrast, is connected in open loop only with the working chamber on the piston side. The volumetric flow of both pumps is regulated. By appropriate regulation of the ratio of the volumetric flows due to different volumetric flow in the working chamber on the piston side is considered the working chamber side of the piston rod.

From DE 102007025742 A1 known hydrostatic actuator with first and second hydraulic pumps and hydraulic cylinder double acting, and the actuator includes a valve for selection of the working fluid from the reservoir in the first direction of flow of hydraulic pumps.

Hydrostatic drives are used, including, for the drive of hydraulic excavators. The drive unit is used, typically a diesel engine, which serves as the drive element for hydraulic consumers. Hydraulic consumers are separate drives, such as driving the actuator, the rotary actuator mechanism and consisting of hydraulic cylinders double acting hoist drive, the drive of the bucket and the actuator arm. Thus, by lifting the actuator is actuated, for example, all equipment excavator. Potential energy equipment changes with every movement of lifting and lowering. During the movement of the lifting system must be entered energy, whereas during the movement of lowering this energy is released again. In known systems, the released energy during the lowering movement is simply destroyed. This is due to the corresponding throttling of the return flow of the lifting cylinder valve. Because the weight of the equipment is many times greater than the loading bucket, here is destroyed a significant proportion of energy.

The objective of the invention is to improve known by itself drive for excavator so that you can regenerate as much as possible the share of drive energy and make it available for other movements of the drive.

According to the invention, this objective is achieved through a combination of traits, paragraph 1, of the claims.

In accordance with the indications in the generic drive for excavator with a number of individual p is x drives, such as the rotary actuator mechanism, the lifting actuator, the actuator bucket and the actuator arm, a closed circuit for driving the rotation mechanism formed by two reversible adjustable devices, at least one energy accumulator.

In principle, it is already known that the rotary mechanism of the excavator in closed circuit. However, in the known hydraulic excavators reversible adjustable device is adjustable hydraulic pump, while the corresponding actuator is made rigid so that the high and low pressure switch places with the direction of rotation of the turntable.

In contrast, in the claimed invention, in which the hydrodevices are both reversible hydraulic adjustable device, both elements are operated as a pump and the engine. Since reversible adjustable device is made here in the form of hydraulic components, in contrast to the aforementioned prior art, one side closed circuit between the two reversible adjustable device and the first battery may be under high pressure, while the other side of a closed loop is always under low pressure.

Upon actuation of the rotary mechanism in the case of deceleration regards the now platform excavator brake energy is adjustable device for accumulation. If necessary, this energy can also through the second reversible adjustable device to surrender to other devices, such as pumps, coupled with a second controlled device.

In the accumulator brake energy turntable is accumulated, so that it could be used again during the next acceleration. This energy is then served back to the clerk as an engine rotary mechanism of the adjustable device. If necessary, stored in the battery energy can be supplied to another reversible adjustable device by means of which it is supported, for example, working hydraulics other connected systems, for example, an elevating mechanism, and so on

Preferred embodiments of the invention shown attached to the main claim in dependent clauses.

So, at least one of the reversible adjustable devices can be connected with a drive unit of an excavator, such as a diesel engine. Since the processes of charging and discharging are associated with efficiency, energy storage could therefore Dasaratha through this drive unit.

Reversible adjustable devices are preferably hydraulic adjustable device that can reverse direction is flowing in the same direction of rotation, so they can work as a motor or pump. At least one battery is preferably a hydraulic accumulator.

Especially preferably may be provided in the second hydraulic accumulator to compensate taken from another accumulator or returned hydraulic fluid. This second hydraulic accumulator connected mainly to the low-pressure side of the closed hydraulic circuit.

Particularly preferably adjustable device of the rotary actuator mechanism can be energetically connected with adjustable devices of the drive of the lifting mechanism. This allows you to move energy from one drive circuit to another. Total control can be carried out preferably by means of an electronic control unit of energy.

According to one alternative, reversible adjustable device can also consist of the electric controlled device, consisting respectively of the power generating unit with a voltage Converter. In this case, the battery is preferably an electric battery, for example, a battery or a supercapacitor (UltraCap).

Preferably there may be additional voltage Converter through which feed on other drives, for example, Rivoli cooling fans, compressors, air conditioning systems, water pumps, etc.,

In one particularly preferred embodiment, the invention provides at least one lifting cylinder is connected to two hydraulic adjustable devices. Both hydraulic adjustable devices can be connected to one of the reversible adjustable devices drive the turning mechanism.

Preferably one of the adjustable hydraulic devices can also be connected with the hydraulic accumulator.

Other details, features and advantages of the invention are explained in more detail on the example of implementation shown in the drawing, which are:

Fig.1 - schematic of the actuator in the first embodiment of the invention;

Fig.2 is a schematic of an alternative actuator;

Fig.3 is a schematic of another alternative drive.

In Fig.1 depicts a block diagram of the proposed actuator, in which a number of individual actuators is actuated hydraulically. Separate actuators are actuators dipper, bucket, lifting and turning mechanism. Within the dash-dotted line 12 displayed of individual components known per se hydraulic hydraulic excavator (not shown). Here, first of all, there is schematically depicted evadney unit 14, which is usually a diesel engine. He drives the hydraulic pumps 16, 18 which feed hydraulic fluid to the respective cylinders 20, 22 double action. The cylinder 20 is a drive cylinder bucket (not shown). The cylinder 22 is a drive cylinder of the handle (not shown). In addition to the hydraulic cylinders 20, 22 are also hydraulic cylinders 24, 26 double action, which as lifting cylinders operate the raising and lowering of all equipment excavator. The drive cylinder 24, 26 and the rotary actuator mechanism (not shown) made in detail is not illustrated in the embodiment of the invention in a new way. Powered components of the swivel mechanism are composed of hydraulic reversible adjustable devices E2E1taking into effect the turning mechanism in a closed loop. According to the invention, these hydraulic reversible adjustable device E2E1can reverse the direction of flow in the same direction of rotation, so that they can work as a pump and the engine. On one side of the closed circuit between the adjustable devices E2E1dominated by high pressure. To the connecting line on the high pressure side connected to hidrocloro ATOR Sp Rthat serves as an energy accumulator. If necessary, this accumulator SpRcan be charged and discharged from the controlled device E2or E1. When the charging energy is stored in the battery, and when the discharge of the stored energy is again given to the appropriate device.

On the low-pressure side of a closed loop in the line between the adjustable devices E2E1an additional battery SPTthat can be considered as a reservoir. He compensates for hydraulic volume, which is on the high pressure side is taken by the battery SpRfrom the hydraulic circuit and returns to him. This means that taken on one side of the hydraulic circuit fluid volume back on the other side and Vice versa.

Lifting cylinders 24, 26 are connected directly to the hydraulic adjustable devices E3E4. In order to avoid that held the lifting cylinders 24, 26 goods slow down due to leaks in the hydraulic adjustable devices E3E4there are two gruzoperevalki valve HV effectK, HVS. When normal movement they respectively open so that the fluid flow is not interrupted. Hydraulic unit E4on the anti-Christ. Apolonas side of the connection with the lifting cylinders 24, 26 is connected to the additional battery SPH. Here we are talking about the hydraulic accumulator. Battery use SPHgives the advantage that it is possible to reduce the structural size of the hydraulic device E4 and that can, in General, to increase the efficiency of energy storage.

Hydraulic adjustable device E3E4connected with a hydraulic reversible adjustable device E1drive the turning mechanism shown in Fig.1.

The overall management of the drive takes place through the electronic control unit ECU, engaged in electronic energy management. Dashed lines indicate the corresponding signal control line. In unit ECU receives preliminary control commands to the device prior control 30 through which the excavator operator may enter the appropriate teams for lifting and rotating mechanisms.

The principle of operation of various actuators within the proposed operation will be explained below. Via a rotary mechanism of the rotary platform excavator moves relative to its chassis. When the retardation of the turntable brake energy flows from the controlled device E2to the battery SpRand, if necessary, also to the current in the quality of the solid fuel hydraulic hydraulic reversible adjustable device E 1through which can operate, for example, hydraulic pumps E3E4.

In the battery SpRbrake energy turntable is accumulated, so that it could be used again during the next acceleration. This energy then flows again to the clerk at this time as engine turning mechanism hydraulic reversible adjustable device E2or, if necessary, also to the hydraulic reversing control device E1through which you can support the working hydraulics.

Since the processes of charging and discharging of the batteries associated with efficiency, with a corresponding pressure drop in them you you may charge the respective battery through the drive unit 14. This occurs after the relevant control unit ECU by means of an adjustable device E1.

When lowering equipment, i.e., when lowering, lifting cylinders 24, 26 may introduce potential energy equipment through the adjustable device E3E4battery SpHand additionally through hydraulic reversible adjustable device E1- battery SpR. Hydraulic device E3E4E1form respectively the torque Converter, so the need is haunted lowering the pressure between the cylinders 24, 26 and accumulators SPH, SpRoccur almost without losses. In addition, this solution provides arbitrary lowering speed, which affects only the excavator. If necessary, additional energy may be the driving unit 14 in the battery rn, SpRto maintain energy levels and to better load drive motor.

When lifting equipment or raise cylinders stored energy back from the accumulators SpH, SpRthrough hydraulic device E1E3E4in the hydraulic cylinders 24, 26 double action. Parallel to this may be added the additional energy from the drive unit 14, so that this movement is no longer limited by its speed set by the engine. Due to this, the proposed solution provides not only the recovery or energy savings, but also improve the dynamics of the excavator. Compared with conventional serial machines, the lifting movement is accelerated many times over.

The electronic control unit ECU consists preferably of several modules and registers various actuator signals, processes them, and appropriately manages, finally, various regulated by the agencies, for example, pumps or Bolotnikova valves.

In Fig.2 the image is another variant embodiment of the invention. Here, in contrast to Fig.1 implemented in an electrical solution to drive the turning mechanism. The principle of operation of the actuator corresponds to the principle of the variant of Fig.1, so that in relation to the overall action and the rest of the structure can be referenced on the previous description. Is depicted in Fig.1 hydraulic device E1E3in this case, are electrical devices that also as a reversing devices operate in this case as a motor or generator.

Reversing device E2E1equipped with voltage converters W2, W1. Hydraulic accumulator SpRin Fig.1 is replaced here by an electric battery as a battery or super-capacitor (UltraCap) in combination with a voltage Converter WS. When using supercapacitors provided here, the voltage Converter WSit is not required.

Advanced electric solution according to Fig.2 through the respective voltage converters WXcan be connected to additional consumers. Here we can talk about electrified secondary consumers, such as electric cooling fan, compressor air conditioning systems and water pumps. Detail consumers are not on asana. In the variant shown in Fig.2, is also provided for reversing adjustable device E3E4connected to the hydraulic cylinders 24, 26. Here, however, reversible adjustable device E4connected not with the hydraulic accumulator SPHand with the pallet of hydraulic fluid.

The principle of operation of the actuator according to Fig.2 a similar principle of operation in accordance with a purely hydraulic solution, shown in Fig.1. However, here the difference is that the energy of the turning mechanism and lifting accumulates only in electric battery 32 (UltraCap or battery). Therefore, here the accumulators SPH, SpRsubstituted by one electric battery 32.

Finally, in Fig.3 shows a third embodiment of the actuator. Here we are talking mainly about the drive that corresponds to the variant shown in Fig.2, i.e., about "electric solution. Instead of attaching to the pallet here to hydraulic reversible adjustable device E4attached accumulator SPHas is similarly described in "hydraulic solution in Fig.1. Therefore, here we are talking about "electro solution".

The use of a hydraulic accumulator SPHgives two advantages. First, increases efficiency, energy storage, and, in the second place, reduced structural size of the hydraulic device E4.

1. Drive excavator consisting of a number of individual actuators, such as actuator rotary mechanism, the drive of the lifting mechanism, the drive of the bucket and the drive handle, and to drive the turning mechanism includes two reversible adjustable device associated with at least one energy accumulator, characterized in that one of the reversible adjustable devices made with the possibility of connection with the driving mechanism of the excavator, and reversible adjustable devices are hydraulic adjustable devices, the adjustable devices drive the turning mechanism is energetically connected with the adjustable devices of the drive of the lifting mechanism.

2. Drive under item 1, characterized in that the reversible adjustable device made with the possibility of reversing the flow in the same direction of rotation, so that they can work as a motor or pump, with at least one battery is a hydraulic accumulator.

3. Drive under item 2, characterized in that provided in the second hydraulic accumulator to compensate taken from another accumulator or returned hydraulic fluid.

4. Drive under item 3, characterized in that the hydraulic re Arsenie adjustable device is formed with the first and second accumulators closed hydraulic circuit, in which both hydraulic reversible adjustable device on one side, through which is attached also the first hydraulic accumulator, are always under high pressure, while they on the other side, through which is attached a second hydraulic accumulator, are always under low pressure.

5. The actuator according to any one of paragraphs.1-4, characterized in that it is made with the possibility of control by the electronic control unit of energy.

6. The actuator according to any one of paragraphs.1-4, characterized in that provided at least one hydraulic cylinder connected to two hydraulic adjustable devices.

7. Drive under item 5, characterized in that provided at least one hydraulic cylinder connected to two hydraulic adjustable devices.

8. Drive on p. 6, wherein one of the controlled devices are connected mainly with the hydraulic accumulator.

9. Drive under item 7, wherein one of the controlled devices are connected mainly with the hydraulic accumulator.

10. Drive under item 6, wherein the two hydraulic adjustable device, at least one hydraulic cylinder configured to connect with one of the reversible adjustable devices.

11. The actuator according to any one of paragraphs.7-9, characterized in that the two hydraulic reg the dummy device at least one hydraulic cylinder configured to connect with one of the reversible adjustable devices.



 

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