Method for heating and temperature determination of specimens
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to measurement equipment and can be used for heating and temperature measurement of specimens, which are transparent in an infrared (IR) radiation region. The invention proposes a method for determination of temperature of specimens, which are transparent in an IR region, subject to action with flows of charged particles or electromagnetic radiation, which involves heating or cooling of specimens, measurement of temperature of specimens by means of thermocouples. Specimens are placed in a closed housing made from material with high thermal conductivity and located in a vacuum chamber; air is pumped out till the pressure is 10-3-10-5 Pa; the housing is heated or cooled at the specified temperature interval. Continuous preliminary temperature measurements are performed with thermocouples located outside and inside the housing together with the test specimens till temperature stabilisation moment. Then, final temperature measurements are performed with these thermocouples at a stabilisation moment of the temperature that coincides with the temperature of the test specimen till external action with flows of charged particles or electromagnetic radiation. External action is performed; after external action is completed, a specimen temperature measurement procedure is repeated.
EFFECT: improving accuracy of determination of temperature of specimens transparent in an IR region.
The invention relates to measuring technique and can be used to measure the temperature of the samples, transparent in the infrared (IR) radiation area.
There is a method of determining the temperature of the samples is transparent in the infrared region, the affected streams of charged particles or electromagnetic radiation, comprising heating or cooling the samples, the temperature measurement samples using thermocouples, the sample is placed in a closed housing made of a material with high thermal conductivity, situated in a vacuum chamber, pump out the air to a pressure of 10-3-10-5PA, heat or cool the body at a given temperature interval (see patent RU 2212650, 20.09.2003).
The disadvantage of this method of temperature measurement is the dependence of the temperature of the measuring junction of thermocouple is not only on the surface temperature of the sample to be measured, but also on the intensity and spatial patterns of infrared radiation, which makes the process of determining the temperature of the sample is uncertain.
The objective of the invention is to develop a method for determining the temperature of the samples is transparent in the infrared region, excluding the effect of spatial inhomogeneity of infrared radiation, different inertia absorption of infrared radiation, thermocouples with low inertia and a large absorption coefficient and the subjugated samples with significant inertia and a low absorption coefficient.
This technical result is achieved by a method for determining the temperature of the samples is transparent in the infrared region, the affected streams of charged particles or electromagnetic radiation, comprising heating or cooling the samples, the measurement of the sample temperature using thermocouples, the sample is placed in a closed housing made of a material with high thermal conductivity (low thermal inertia, resistant to ionizing radiation - copper, steel), located in a vacuum chamber, pump out the air to a pressure of 10-3-10-5PA (corresponds to a high vacuum (beeaif.com/node/88 when the length of the free path of air molecules of the vacuum chamber by several orders of magnitude, which excludes the impact of air molecules on the heterogeneity and instability of the temperature inside the cell temperature during the temperature stabilization of the sample 5 min/deg), heat or cool the body at a given temperature interval, produce a continuous preliminary temperature measurements by thermocouples located inside and outside of the body together with the test samples, until temperature stabilization, and then produce the final temperature measurement data of thermocouples at the time of temperature stabilization, which coincides with temperaturesensitive sample to external influence flows of charged particles or electromagnetic radiation, produce external effects, after external exposure to completely repeat the procedure for measuring the temperature of the samples. At the same time, the whole area changes and temperature measurement after changing the excitation of the investigated samples determines the temperature sets the temperature interval and controls the time of occurrence of thermal equilibrium automatic high-precision temperature controller (art) (www.ngpedia.ru/id224605p2.html).
For initial studies of the temperature field inside and outside temperature cells (closed body) number of thermocouples inside and outside can be quite large, once calibrated, this specific cell temperature thermocouples installed at places minimal fluctuations of the temperature field gradient, and their number is reduced to the necessary minimum in the limit to one inside the case (if known relaxation time of the temperature field). Smooth warming (cooling) of the case warrants inside temperature gradients measured by thermocouples, long-term temperature regime provides heating (cooling) of the samples inside it, to the temperature of the body.
The drawing shows the design temperature of the cell, allowing to carry out this method.
The cell is in a vacuum Cham is e 1 and consists of a detachable housing 2, the base 3, the heater casing 4, the cooler body 5, the electromagnetic plunger 6, the samples 7, liners for shielding exposure to 8, the holes for external exposure to 9, the plate that covers the external opening and shielding from heat loss and external radiation 10, thermocouples 11, high-precision automatic temperature controller (art) 12, external exposure to 13, a heat shield 14, the free volume of the cell for receiving the samples and inserts 15, the vacuum pump 16.
The method of determining the temperature of the samples is carried out as follows. Pre-vacuum pump 16 is pumped out the air to a pressure of 10-3-10-5PA, measured the initial temperature of the sample through the measurement of temperature inside and outside the housing 2 in series thermocouples 11 until then, until a certain temperature thermal equilibrium, which coincides with the initial sample temperature to external influences, then after opening the plate that covers the external influence 10 through the opening to outside influences 9 the first lower pattern 7 is subjected to external impact, for example, irradiation with a laser, then closes the plate 10 and again measured the sample temperature through successive temperature measurements outside and inside termopane 11 until until a certain temperature thermal equilibrium, which coincides with the temperature of the sample after exposure. To study differences in the change in the degree of exposure and the temperature change in the cell provides a mechanism for changing samples. Using electromagnetic plunger 6, the first lower pattern 7 and the liner 8 are shifted from the field of external action in the free volume of the cell for receiving the samples and inserts 15. Then turns on the heater 4 or cooler 5 with the aim of raising or lowering the temperature at a given interval and repeats the procedure for measuring the initial temperature of the sample to external influences through the measurement of temperature inside and outside of the housing 2 thermocouples 11 until then, until a certain temperature thermal equilibrium, which coincides with the initial temperature of the second sample 7 to external influences, and then, on the second, the sample 7 is affected, for example, a laser beam of the same power density and again measured the temperature of the second sample 7 serial temperature measurement inside and outside of the housing 2 thermocouples 11 up until will not install certain temperature thermal equilibrium, which coincides with the temperature of the second sample 7 after the second external impacts is Viy at different initial temperatures. At the same time, the whole area changes and temperature measurement, as well as changes impact on the analyzed samples determines the temperature sets the temperature interval controls the time of occurrence of thermal equilibrium and sends signals to actuators (EU) heater, cooler automatic high-precision temperature controller (art) 12.
The body temperature of the cell was performed with dimensions 15×15×60 mm of copper. To create a vacuum using a standard vacuum unit UVR-32, measurement and control of temperature was carried out high-precision temperature controller art-2 with a measurement error of 0.01°C. the Time mode from 20°C to 500°C with a fully loaded cell and the achieved vacuum 10-3-10-5PA was 15 minutes. The size of the sample made by the method of puncturing of a single crystal of KCl was 10×10×2 mm, while the inertia of a fully loaded cells in these samples was 5 min/deg in the temperature range from 200°C to 500°C. the relative error in the temperature measurements was 3%. When using NaCl crystals lag was 5 min/deg in the temperature range from 200°C to 500°C at the same relative error of measurement.
Thus, this way of using close spaced sublimation technique volume and thermal field is heterogeneity is less measurement error in the temperature cell enables to determine the temperature of any of the samples, including transparent in the infrared region with high accuracy, because it eliminates the preferential heating of thermocouple due to the infrared radiation without heating the samples are transparent to infrared radiation.
The method of determining the temperature of the samples is transparent in the infrared region, the affected streams of charged particles or electromagnetic radiation, comprising heating or cooling the samples, the temperature measurement samples using thermocouples, the sample is placed in a closed housing made of a material with high thermal conductivity, situated in a vacuum chamber, pump out the air to a pressure of 10-3-10-5PA, heat or cool the body at a given temperature interval, characterized in that produce continuous preliminary temperature measurements by thermocouples located inside and outside of the body together with the test samples, until temperature stabilization, and then produce the final temperature measurement data of thermocouples at the time of temperature stabilization, which coincides with the temperature of the sample to external influence flows of charged particles or electromagnetic radiation, produce external effects, after external exposure to completely repeat the procedure for measuring the temperature of the samples.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to measurement equipment and can be used for testing of fire-resistant efficiency of protective compounds and coatings for timber. The proposed method involves preparation of a specimen, flame action on the specimen, temperature measurement of exhaust gaseous combustion products, measurement of weight of the specimen and determination of weight loss, as per which fire-resistant efficiency is determined. Specimen weight measurement is performed continuously during flame action on the specimen and after the action is completed, and a moment exceeding the limit weight loss established by classification or moment of stabilisation of specimen weight after completion of its burning is taken as a test completion moment. This method is implemented by a device containing a chamber for arrangement of a specimen, a gas burner, an exhaust system with a thermoelectric converter, an instrument for measurement and recording of temperature of exhaust gaseous combustion products. The device is also equipped with a unit for automatic measurement and recording in time of specimen weight during fire tests, which includes a lever mechanism made so that a specimen holder can be installed and connected to a weight measurement instrument connected to the processing and recording unit.
EFFECT: obtaining more accurate data for investigation of a fire protection mechanism.
5 cl, 1 tbl, 4 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: reactor vessel steel samples are heated to temperature from 300°C, their further ageing is carried out at this temperature within certain time, subsequent tests of samples are carried out for impact bending, and test results are analysed to determine the value of the shift of critical brittleness temperature, at the same time samples of reactor vessel steel in process of ageing at the temperature of reactor vessel operation of 300-320°C are additionally exposed to neutron radiation with flux of 1011-1013 n/cm2·sec for 103 hours, after that they perform baking at the temperature of 400-450°C with duration of at least 30 hours, and assessment of extent of steel embrittlement is determined using the value of shift of critical brittleness temperature ΔTk(t) as a result of thermal ageing for the time making more than 5·105 hours, in accordance with a certain mathematical expression.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of assessment of extent of embrittlement of VVER-1000 reactor vessel embrittlement as a result of thermal ageing.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to monitoring the flue gas composition. This method is suitable for monitoring of steam boiler operation at burning the chlorine-containing fuel. It can also be used at pyrolysis, gasification and the like processes. Composition of flue gases resulted from thermal processes, particularly, at combustion of biological fuel or fuel produced from wastes is monitored by measurement of quantity of particles of definite sizes at, at least, one point in flue gas path. Measured are particles of sizes that are known to be composed of alkaline metal chlorides.
EFFECT: monitoring of alkaline metal chloride compositions in flue gases.
9 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: physics; control.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to space, aviation, radio engineering, instrument-making and mechanical engineering and can be used in all industries for automatic control of the thermal state and functional parameters of technical devices. The method for automatic control of the thermal state and functional parameters of technical devices involves setting and determining the type and parameters of thermal functions of technical devices, from which values of thermal functions during operation of the devices and downtime thereof are calculated, and making adjustments in actuating devices through a numerical control computer system upon reaching the calculated values of set acceptable values. The method involves determining the type, the time variation characteristics of standard laws of thermal functions of the position, movement and state of technical devices, heat-loaded parts thereof, assemblies and components during heating and cooling thereof for each controlled functional parameter during operation of a technical device and during downtime thereof. Statistical characteristics of the time variation of thermal functions of heating and cooling for each controlled functional parameter during operation of the device and during downtime thereof are established during multiple tests. The obtained characteristics of the time variation of thermal functions in the working volume of the technical device during operation and downtime thereof are then used to calculate the value and/or position and/or movement and/or state of the controlled functional parameter in accordance with the operating time or downtime, for the current range of positions, movements and states of heat-loaded parts, assemblies and components of technical devices, and when values and/or positions and/or movements and/or states reach, with given probability, set acceptable values, the controlled functional parameter of the technical device is adjusted through a numerical control computer system by changing and acting on current parameters and functioning characteristics which define the level of the thermal conditions or state of heat-loaded devices.
EFFECT: high accuracy of functioning of technical devices, high reliability thereof, stability of maintaining the level or range of values of functional output parameters of the position, movement and state of technical devices during operation thereof, carried out without using additional mechanisms, devices and systems for measuring temperature and/or thermal deformations and/or the position and/or movement and/or state of heat-loaded parts of devices.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises: a sensor comprising a sensitive element and a heating element configured for heating of the sensitive element to the previously set operating temperature, besides, the sensitive element is perceptive to the specified gas so that at least one electric property of the sensitive element varies depending on presence of the specified gas, besides, the electric property of the sensitive element is measured by a gas metering device; and a control circuit comprising a heating element controller connected to the heating element and measuring its electric property, besides, the control circuit has a source of heating energy supplying energy to heating element. The controller of the heating element is connected with a source of heating energy and controls its operation depending on measurement of the electric property of the heating element; a facility of pulse modulation connected with the controller of the heating element, the source of heating energy for control of the energy value supplied to the heating element. At the same time the facility of pulse modulation is made as capable of generation of the first set of energy pulses, having certain duration, and the second set of energy pulses, having another, shorter duration for maintenance of temperature of the heating element substantially at the permanent level. Also the invention relates to the method for manufacturing and method of operation of the gas metering device.
EFFECT: device is manufactured and operated in a profitable and reliable manner.
8 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of determining dryness of wet steam involves measuring pressure in a controlled stream of steam. A steam sample is then collected from the controlled stream, the collected sample is throttled into a flow chamber and calculations are carried out based on the measured parameters. The collected steam sample flows from the first flow chamber into a second flow chamber. Both chambers are placed in the controlled stream of steam or other heating medium. Pressure and temperature is measured in each chamber. After the second chamber, flow rate, pressure and temperature of the collected sample is measured. The value of flow rate is then established based on parameters measured in the first chamber.
EFFECT: determining dryness of a stream of wet steam without condensing the collected sample.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: sample is heated to temperature of polymer binder decay. Filler content is calculated by variation of a sample mass, taking into account the ash residue in process of polymer binder decay defined under conditions identical to composite decay. At the same time the variation of the sample mass is defined according to a thermogram.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of detection of filler content in a polymer composite, reduced time of analysis, lower labour and power inputs.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method to display a temperature field of an object includes measurement of temperature in different points of its surface. Previously an object image is introduced into a computer base, and the image is displayed onto the screen, the points of temperature measurement on the surface of the object are displayed on the object image on the monitor screen, and after performance of measurements and treatment of results of measurements in the computer the image of the temperature field of the object is formed on its image with software.
EFFECT: simplified design of technical facilities used to vary temperature field of an object.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: testing equipment.
SUBSTANCE: sample of a lubricant material of permanent volume is heated with mixing in presence of air, measured, and the light flux absorption coefficient is determined. At the same time, at first each sample of the lubricant material is pre-heated for a continuous period of time at atmospheric pressure and fixed temperature, which in process of each subsequent test of a new sample is increased, and after each heating a sample of a lubricant material is taken with permanent mass, which is then heated with mixing in presence of air within the time established depending on the base under permanent temperature and permanent speed of mixing, which after oxidation is measured, the light flux absorption coefficient is determined. Then the graphical curve is built for dependence of the light flux absorption coefficient on heating temperature. Thermal-oxidative stability of the lubricant material is defined by heating temperature with least value of the light flux absorption coefficient.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of determination of thermal-oxidative stability of lubricant materials.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises heating the part to temperature whereat pressure of released gas expanding under the coating exceeds yield point of coating material to define gas content in part surface from relative area of coating swell.
EFFECT: faster, simpler and cheaper procedure.
FIELD: measurement technology; material quality control.
SUBSTANCE: method involves testing lubricant material sample in presence of air with stirring constant volume under optimum temperature selected with its dependence on lubricant base and a group of operational properties during a time interval characterizing equal oxidation degree taken into account. Acting in equal time intervals, absorption coefficient is measured for luminous flow absorbed by oxidized lubricant material by applying photometry methods. Viscosity and thermal oxidative stability coefficient Ktos are calculated by using relationship like Ktos = Ka μ0/μin, where Ka is the luminous flow absorption coefficient of oxidized lubricant material; μ0 and μin are the viscosities of oxidized and initial state lubricant, respectively. Graphic dependence of thermal oxidative stability coefficient against luminous flow absorption coefficient of oxidized lubricant material is plotted. Rate of oxidation end products release and their influence upon tested lubricant viscosity growth is determined from plot slope angle tangent with respect to abscissa axis after inflection point. The inflection point coordinates are used for determining the starting point the oxidation end products release begins.
EFFECT: high reliability of estimation method.
FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises determining the values of the inform-parameter for various reference petrols, plotting calibration dependence of the inform-parameter on the octane number, determining the value of the inform-parameter of a sample of petrol to be analyzed, determining octane number of the petrol to be analyzed from the calibration curve, and measuring density and temperature of the sample. The value of the inform-parameter is determined from measuring the surface tension of the sample. The octane number is calculated within temperature range 10-40oC.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of determining.
1 tbl cl, dwg
FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises determining composition and concentration of phase in equilibrium two-phase mixture by analyzing heat effects of reactions.
EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities and reduced labor consumption.
FIELD: non-destructive inspection.
SUBSTANCE: temperatures at inner and outer surfaces of tested area of multilayer objects are registered periodically during predetermined time interval. Value of heat conductance coefficient of the layer of interest is set multiple and density of heat flow is calculated which heat flow goes through selected surface of tested area. For any value of heat conductance coefficient the calculated density is compared with really achieved value of density to be determined through he same surface of interest. Then that value of heat conductance coefficient is selected which meets the condition of comparison. Heat flew density is determined by means of reference plate which is mounted onto selected area of tested part. Temperatures at surfaces of reference plate are registered and density of heat flow is determined which goes through surface of reference plate and density of flow through surface of reference plate is determined which surface is adjacent to selected surface of tested part.
EFFECT: improved truth of data.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: measuring equipment.
SUBSTANCE: thermo-indicating paint is applied to metallic sample of symmetric section, prepared by thermal couples. Unevenly current sample is heated by electric current up to chosen temperature. Current ducts are cooled down concurrently. Sample is exposed for a preset time duration. Sample temperature field is registered. Distances from a chosen point on sample to points of preparation of thermal couples and line of transfer of color of indicator paint are determined. Graph of temperature distribution along sample length is built. Temperatures of color transfer are determined from aforementioned graph.
EFFECT: broader functional capabilities, higher speed of operation.
FIELD: measuring engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises measuring the output signal from the sensor that is set in the reaction chamber in the period of heat relaxation process. The cyclic process is converted into the pseudo-continuous one by means of formation of the transferring process so that to provide the heat-exchange Bio criterion to be constant and its value to range from 0.001 to 0.1. After the completion of the process, the heating is immediately stops. On reaching the concentration balance between the reaction chamber and the ambient fluid, the next heating cycle begins.
EFFECT: decreased power consumption and period of measuring.
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: method can be used for measuring linear expansion coefficient of hard bodies within wide temperature range. Lattice period for whicker crystal is determined preliminary by X-ray method. Change in lattice period is calculated depending on temperature and coefficient to be found is determined while taking mentioned dependence into account.
EFFECT: reduced labor input.
FIELD: thermo-physical research.
SUBSTANCE: subject flat sample of known thickness through heat source of given specific power is brought to heat contact by plane with flat standard sample, having lesser thermal resistance, than subject sample, and additional heat source previously mounted thereon. External surfaces of subject and standard samples with thermo-isolated side surfaces are thermostatted at given temperature and temperature in contact plane is measured. Instead of researched sample, additional standard sample is mounted, identical to main one, efficient thermal resistance of standard samples is determined depending on specific power of additional heat sources in same temperature conditions, at which it is required to determine heat conductivity of subject sample. Then, subject sample is mounted again and specific power of additional heat source is selected, for which efficient thermal resistance of standard sample within error limits coincides with thermal resistance of standard sample, and its heat conductivity is determined.
EFFECT: increased precision.
FIELD: analytical methods.
SUBSTANCE: sample is heated together with pyrite to temperature Tn = (0.45...0.55)(TL-TS)+TS in container with magnesium oxide lock and, before hydrostatic weighing is performed, paraffin layer is deposited onto surface of sample. Summary content of gases is found in terms of following equation: where M1 and M1* are masses of sample before and after heating, respectively, g; M1' mass of sample after heating and deposition of paraffin, g; M2' mass of sample in water after heating and deposition of paraffin, g; V and V' are specific volume of distilled water at temperatures of corresponding weighing, cm3/g; Ta ambient temperature, °C; Th heating temperature of sample, °C; TL and TS are liquidus and solidus temperatures of test alloy, respectively, °C.
EFFECT: increased reproducibility and accuracy in testing aluminum alloy semimanufactured products for summary gas content.
1 dwg, 3 tbl
FIELD: the invention refers to the field of measurements of thermal condition of a solid body and a surrounding medium.
SUBSTANCE: the arrangement has a thermovision chamber and a converter( a sensor for definition of characteristics of heat emission). The sensor is a plate-"wall" of an arbitrary form out of elastic material in which an opening of a corresponding form is made. The form of the plate and the form of the opening are defined by configuration of the investigated field. The both surfaces of the plate are covered with thin layer of material with high thermal conduction - a foil. At that the foil directed to the investigated surface, covers the whole square of the plate of the sensor and the opening it , and from the other side - it also covers the whole square of the plate but it has an opening identical to the opening of the plate.
EFFECT: arrangement allows to define with high degree of accuracy and reliability the meanings of characteristics of thermal emission - a thermal flow and coefficient of thermal emission from a solid body in a gas medium enveloping it and also to cut down expenditures of time and to increase safety of the work of a man at conducting the indicated measurements.