Method of obtaining sapropel concentrate

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of obtaining a sapropel concentrate includes the extraction of easily separable water-soluble components of a native sapropel by the centrifugation and separation of a supernatant, with the supernatant being discharged into a vacuum evaporating aggregate, in which the concentration of the claimed supernatant is realised by the evaporation in vacuum, and the sapropel sediment is placed in a drying chamber, separated from the vacuum chamber with a net and a hermetic lock, heated with the simultaneous creation of a vacuum in the vacuum chamber, after which the sapropel sediment is subjected to a vacuum-impulse influence, the remaining moisture separated from the sediment is pumped by a vacuum pump into the vacuum evaporating aggregate, where it is condensed and concentrated at the same modes as the supernatant, after that, the dry sediment (extraction cake) is milled and packed, and the obtained concentrate is poured into vessels and each of the obtained target products is applied by purpose or the solubilisation of the milled dry sediment (extraction cake) is realised in the obtained concentrate of easily separable water-soluble components under certain conditions.

EFFECT: method makes it possible to preserve all useful substances of the native sapropel.

1 dwg

 

The method applies to balneology, more precisely to a method of obtaining concentrates of sapropel, preserving the main biologically active components.

Known methods for producing extracts from sapropel, characterized in that the extracts contain one of the biologically active components or a group of similar components. Thus, each of these extracts is deprived of a significant part of the components inherent in the whole of the sapropel.

There is a way to obtain concentrates of sapropel, which is carried out by pre-treatment of native mud alcoholic solution of alkali to pH (8,5÷9,0) and extraction of the treated raw water at the ratio of raw materials - extractant 1:(10÷12) under vigorous stirring (1500 rpm) for 15 min at a temperature of 50÷60°C, separating the extract from the precipitate and evaporation of the extract in vacuum [1].

However, this method is complex, requires the use of chemicals, and the obtained target product (concentrate) contains only legkodelimae water-soluble components of the mud in an amount equal to about half the volume of the original mud.

There is a way to get lightdesign water-soluble components of sapropel [2]. The product obtained with it, is called "Palidin". According to this method, native sapropel is poured into a porcelain E. the bone with a 5-fold volume of physiological solution, insist (3÷4) hours while stirring, allow the mixture to settle and merge sucks. After filtration of sludge is sterilized and poured for transportation in glass containers. The resulting product is used in local applications with paraffin in the treatment of arthritis, arthrosis, sciatica, gynecological diseases.

The disadvantage of this method is that the obtained target product contains only legkodelimae water-soluble components of dirt, and the dry residue, which contains not less nutrients (lipids, humic acid, and others), there goes a waste.

There is a way to obtain humic complex sapropel, based on the precipitation of sodium humates from alkaline extract dirt [2]. To obtain humic acids sapropel pour 10-fold volume of a 2%aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide, heated (4÷6) hours at the boiling point, cooled and diluted with water 2 times, defend 24 h, siphoninus and filtered, the filtrate add 20%sulfuric acid to a pH of 1.0, defend until complete precipitation, adosados discarded, and the precipitate washed with water and dried at 60°C. the resulting product is a complex of humic acid - used for medicinal purposes, including for conditions that are treated by centrifugation dirt and Plaidinum".

The disadvantage of this method is that the target product contains only one useful component of whole sapropel - humic acid. In addition, the implementation of the method requires the use of additional chemicals: caustic soda, sulfuric acid, water, which complicates the process and contaminate the desired product. In addition, heating of the sapropel to boiling point for (4÷6) h leads to the destruction of many biologically active substances, which reduces the biological value of the obtained product.

There is a way to obtain a product containing lipid complex from whole sapropel [2].

To obtain drug dirt fill in an organic solvent or mixture of solvents, maintained at a constant stirring 6-12 h, decanted solvent, filtered, the filtrate is evaporated to small volume and transferred to the oil solution, removing traces of solvent.

The product contains high-molecular fatty acids, phytosterols, chlorophyll, carotene and oxidized carotenoids. The downside of it is the complete absence of water-soluble components and humic acids present in the whole sapropel, as well as the need to use different solvents, which reduces the biological value of the target product.

Closest to the claimed method is a method of obtaining lightdesign water-soluble components of sapropel [2]. The prototype method is based on the use of centrope the strength of to obtain lightdesign water-soluble components from native sapropel [2].

According to the method prototype native sapropel centrifuged with acceleration 600 g for 1 h, separated adosados, fill them three-liter bottles and rolled for transportation. The residue goes to waste. The scope is the same as the "Peledina", from which centrifugal different reduced 5-fold volume and the fact that it contains less water-soluble components than Palidin". The dignity of the prototype is that when obtaining the target product no temperature effect on the sapropel and excluded a variety of chemicals.

The disadvantage of the prototype method is, firstly, a significantly lower content of water-soluble components than Palidin". This disadvantage is due to the fact that in the process of centrifugation from the native sapropel are separated not all water-soluble components contained in the sapropel, and only part of them, while the "Peledina" receive significantly higher content of water-soluble components due to prolonged infusion of saline mud.

Secondly, the disadvantage of the prototype is that centrifugal contains only part lightdesign water-soluble components of the mud. Meanwhile, no less useful solid residue (cake)containing lipids, humic acids and other useful the substances, goes to waste.

The technical problem on which the invention is directed, is to increase the efficiency of the process and to handle native sapropel in such a way as to preserve all useful components without compromising their biological activity.

This objective is achieved in that in the method of obtaining a concentrate of the sapropel, including removing lightdesign water-soluble components of native sapropel by centrifugation with the Department nadeshiko mentioned adosados poured into a vacuum evaporation unit, in which the concentration of the specified nadasdy by evaporation in a vacuum at a temperature of 30-40°C and a vacuum of 50-60 Torr, and the residue sapropel placed in the drying chamber, separated from the vacuum chamber mesh and sealed by the shutter, which exceeds 2-3 times the volume of the drying chamber, the sludge is also heated to a temperature of 30-40°C and at the same time in a vacuum chamber to create a vacuum 20-30 Torr, after which the precipitate sapropel carry out the vacuum-impulsive effects, which open a vacuum-sealed gate, separating the drying and vacuum chamber, and is pumped out by a vacuum pump separated from the precipitate remaining moisture in the vacuum evaporation unit, where it condenses and concentrate under the same regimes that adosados, after which the soup sludge (cake) is crushed to a size of 20-40 microns and Packed, and the resulting concentrate is poured into the vessel and each of the obtained target product used for a purpose or carry solubility crushed dry residue (cake) in the resulting concentrate lightdesign water-soluble components.

On Fig schematically a flow diagram of obtaining a concentrate of the sapropel, where we have introduced the following notation: 1 - centrifuge; 2 - evaporating device and drying chamber; 4 - vacuum chamber; 5 - vacuum pump; 6 - bolt; 7 - mesh; 8 - condenser; 9 - disintegrator; position 10 indicated the operation of a spill of concentrate; position 11 marked the operation of packing the crushed dry sludge (cake); the position of the 12 designated operation solubilization crushed dry sludge (cake) in the resulting concentrate lightdesign water-soluble components.

The invention consists in the following. Native sapropel placed in a centrifuge 1, where due to centripetal force is the separation of the original product (native sapropel) liquid (adosados) fraction and precipitate. Adosados poured into a vacuum evaporation apparatus 2 and create a vacuum of 50÷60 Torr. Creating a vacuum inside the vacuum evaporation apparatus 2 is necessary in order to implement effective vaporization mode of boiling water, to ensure concentri the Finance and saving in concentrate lightdesign water-soluble components of all biologically active components of the liquid fraction of the sapropel. The range of dilution in 50÷60 Torr in the vacuum evaporation apparatus 2 due to the following reasons. It is known that the lower the magnitude of the dilution, the lower the temperature of boiling water. For example, when the vacuum 10 Torr water boils at 18°C. However, for low temperatures, boiling water is required to tighten the requirements to tightness of the vacuum evaporation apparatus to the booster pump, which complicates the application of the method in practice and leads to increased cost of manufacture of the vacuum apparatus. When the negative pressure 50 Torr water begins to boil at a relatively low temperature is 30°C. Obtaining vacuum at 50 Torr simply is relatively cheap booster pumps and can be obtained without particularly strict requirements to ensure the integrity of the vacuum evaporation apparatus. Relatively low boiling temperature of water at a pressure of 50 Torr, the possibility of obtaining the specified dilution cheaper booster pumps and the elimination of the excessive demands for tightness of the vacuum evaporation apparatus indicate inappropriate use at concentration lightdesign water-soluble components of the lower vacuum than 50 Torr. When the negative pressure 60 Torr water boils at a temperature of 40°C. Therefore, when creating the RA is regenia more than 60 Torr will be required to provide boiling water to raise the temperature of the heating netawaka sapropel, which results in obtaining a concentrate of sapropel to increasing energy costs and the destruction of biologically active substances.

By centrifugation cannot be separated from the native sapropel all the moisture and legkodelimae components. So in the sediment after centrifugation there is still a lot of useful lightdesign water-soluble components and must be separated from the sludge and used for practical purposes.

In all known methods of separation of moisture from sapropel put the phase transition of the entire discharge moisture into steam. This is the most energy-consuming drying mechanism. The main feature of the proposed method of drying the solids sapropel from all known methods is vacuum-impulsive effects on product handling due to volumetric ratios clothes 3 and 4 vacuum chambers with further deepening of the vacuum in the drying chamber, the vacuum pump 5, in which the removal of moisture sapropel sediment up to 70-80% is no phase transition (evaporation). To intensify the mass transfer process decisive role played by the generation rate of the pressure gradient and its value. With the increase of its speed, the amount of moisture removed due to the phase transition decreases (up to 5%), and the amount of moisture removed in the form of fog increases. The generation rate of the gradient Yes the population at the opening of the shutter 6, separating the drying 3 and 4 vacuum chamber depends on the ratio of their volumes, the difference in initial pressure and temperature of sediment.

Consider the impact of these factors on the speed of the pressure gradient, resulting in the drying chamber 3 at the opening of the shutter 6, separating the drying 3 and 4 vacuum chamber. From physical considerations it is clear that the greater the volume of the vacuum chamber 4 relative to the volume of the drying chamber 3, the higher the speed of the resulting pressure gradient. When the volume of the vacuum chamber 4, less than 2-fold different from the volume of the drying chamber 3, the speed of the pressure gradient at the opening of the shutter 6 is relatively low. The increase in the volume of the vacuum chamber 4 relative to the volume of the drying chamber 3 more than 3 times significantly increases the size of the entire installation for processing of sapropel in General and leads to a lengthening of the process of vacuum in the vacuum chamber. Therefore, the dry residue (sludge) sapropel after centrifugation placed in the drying chamber 3, the volume of which is 2-3 times less than the volume of the vacuum chamber 4. Sediment placed in the drying chamber is also heated to a temperature of 30-40°C. After heating in the drying chamber sapropel sediment to a temperature of 30-40°C and the vacuum chamber of the vacuum value of 20-30 Torr carry out the vacuum-impulsive effects on a preheated OS the dock sapropel, why open a vacuum-sealed shutter 6, separating the drying and vacuum chamber.

Temperature range, which is used in the concentration lightdesign water-soluble components of native sapropel, proved above, and this temperature range is also advisable to save and when heating the precipitate sapropel. Simultaneous creation in the vacuum chamber 4 of the vacuum value in the 20-30 Torr due to the following reasons. If the ratio of the dryer 3 and 4 vacuum chambers is equal to 2, and the initial vacuum in the vacuum chamber above 30 Torr, for example 40 Torr, at the opening of the shutter 6 in both chambers, the pressure will increase in two times up to 80 Torr. At this pressure for further effective complete separation of the liquid components from the sludge will need to provide heat sapropel sediment to temperatures above 40°C, which will lead to increased energy consumption and reduced biological activity of the concentrate. Reduction of the initial vacuum in the vacuum chamber for the value of 20 Torr imposes more stringent requirements on the tightness of the installation as a whole and higher requirements to the vacuum technique. At the opening of the shutter 6, a force directed from the drying chamber 3 into the vacuum chamber 4. The specified power affects not only legkodelimae water-soluble components sapropel sediment, but on hard the components of the sediment. Therefore, the dry ingredients can get into the vacuum chamber, which is an undesirable process. To reduce this negative process, between the dryer and the vacuum chambers placed mesh 7, which during vacuum-pulse effects on sapropel allows vacuum extraction of sapropel sediment remaining in it lightdesign water-soluble components. Thus, the smaller the grid cell size of 7, the more effective vacuum extraction. Experimentally it was found that sufficiently effective vacuum extraction occurs when the cells of the grid 7 area (1-4) mm2.

Vacuum pulse drying sapropel sediment consists of two stages:

The first stage is the removal of free moisture.

In the preheating process sapropel sediment at atmospheric pressure in a sealed drying chamber 3 decreases the viscosity of the liquid, reducing its surface tension and, consequently, reducing energy cohesion, increase its fluidity. Free moisture from sapropel sediment flows on its surface. Sharp creation in a sealed drying chamber 3 of the vacuum at the opening of the shutter 6 causes the liquid in the overheated state and leads to its boiling in the pores of the sediment sapropel. Due to the resulting pair of free moisture from the pores of sapropel sediment is removed in the volume of drying the Noah camera 3. This process can be called a vacuum centrifuge.

At this stage in the process of creating a vacuum pulse to the amount of liquid removed in the form of a mist (no phase transition), remains constant and the number of the evaporating liquid is not changed. This leads to a temperature decrease sapropel sediment during high-speed vacuum to a constant value.

The second stage is the removal of bound moisture. This is the final stage of removal of the liquid from the precipitate sapropel is almost only due to the phase transition, based on the use of the latent heat of vaporization obtained with a sharp reduction of residual pressure in the drying chamber 3 at a given temperature. In this case, the temperature decrease is less significant than in the first stage of drying.

Pressed legkodelimae components sapropel is pumped by the pump in the vacuum evaporation apparatus 2 through the condenser 8, where it is condensed and warialda to the concentrated state. Dry sludge (cake) disintegrate up to 20-40 microns and Packed in a special container (Fig.1 item 11).

Grinding of dry sludge (cake) carry out in order to increase the active surface interaction of the particles of the dry residue of the sapropel, which leads to an increase in its chemical and biological activity.

Receiving the hydrated in a vacuum evaporation apparatus (2) the concentrate is poured into containers (Fig.1 item 10) and is also supplied as packaged meal to the consumer. If you want to use the final product with fully preserved properties of native sapropel exercise solubility (Fig.1 item 12) crushed dried sludge (cake) in the resulting concentrate lightdesign water-soluble components.

An example of a specific implementation.

By the present method has been the concentrate of sapropel produced at lake Karasev, located in kolachevska district Tomboy area. Native sapropel was placed in a centrifuge 1, which was carried out by centrifugation at 600 g for 1 h was Separated adosados and poured it into a vacuum evaporation apparatus 2 marks BBA-100 [3], with the evaporation capacity of 100 l/h Inside BBA-100 created a vacuum of 50 Torr. Adosados in the vacuum evaporation apparatus was heated to a temperature of 30°C, at which the water was boiling, and evaporation (concentration) nadeshiko. Dry sapropel sediment was overloaded in the drying chamber 3, where it carried out its heating to a temperature of 30°C. at the same time in a vacuum chamber 4, the volume of which was 2 times the volume of the drying chamber 3, created by the vacuum pump 5. When reaching the vacuum atmosphere in the vacuum chamber 4 to a pressure of 30 Torr was opened by the shutter 6 and the drying chamber had a pressure pulse, during which the vacuum in the drying chamber instantly pad is from about atmospheric to the value equal to 60 Torr. Under the influence of vacuum emerged pulse-gradient moisture from sapropel sediment was extracted through a grid 7, the size of the square cells of which was 1 mm2and in the form of a mist evaporated and came from the drying chamber 3 into the vacuum chamber 4, where it was pumped by a vacuum pump 5 through the condenser 8 in the vacuum evaporation apparatus 2, where it is condensed and concentrated under the same regimes that adosados sapropel.

After 6 hours drying process sediment and concentration lightdesign water-soluble substances was completed. The obtained concentrate lightdesign water-soluble substances from the evaporator was entered on the operation of the spill 10, where he poured in the tank. Dried sludge (cake) was moved to the cage 9, which was used vacuum drum dryer of the type-25. The dryer drum is rotated at a speed of 2 rpm C. drum dryer Balls dry sludge (cake) were ground into powder to the grain size of the powder 20÷40 microns. Grind the dry residue to sizes less than 20 microns dryer drum does not allow. When the grain size of the powder is more than 40 μm falls chemical and biological activity of the powder. The grinding process is continued for 4 hours. Upon completion of the grinding of dry sludge (cake) it was Packed up in a bag container for surgery is 11. If you want to use sapropel with a full set of inherent characteristics of the native sapropel, meal solubilizer (item 12) in the resulting concentrate lightdesign water-soluble components. Grinding the dry residue of sapropel increases its reactivity, which leads to a more intensive process of solubilization of solids in the resulting concentrate lightdesign water-soluble components and to increase the biological activity of the target product.

Thus, the inventive method compared to the prototype is resource-efficient and much more effective, as it has the following advantages over the method of the prototype:

- prototype method allows to extract and use only part lightdesign water-soluble substances, and part undelimited water-soluble substances and dry sediment, which are useful components, throw in the waste;

in the present method retains all the nutrients of native sapropel by dividing it into a liquid and a dry fraction in modes that allow you not only to preserve the biological activity of native sapropel, but also significantly increase its concentration lightdesign water-soluble substances and grinding of dry sludge (cake).

Sources of information

1. RF patent №1793578. the procedure of obtaining substances, with anti-inflammatory action. Burkova C. N., Saratikov A. S., Pisarev, S. I., N. Yudina.In., Mathis E. J., Kurkalova E. A., Sibileva L. A., B. N. Moskvin, S. Banevich M. Publ. 27.09.1996.

2. htt://medicine_6/medicine-69/shtml (Prototype).

3. RF patent №2005478. A method of obtaining a concentrate of the sapropel. Byszewski A. W., A. Potapov P., Gembarzhevskii S. B., Chryatiev E. A. Publ. 1994.01.15.

A method of obtaining a concentrate of the sapropel, including removing lightdesign water-soluble components of native sapropel by centrifugation and separation nadasdy, characterized in that adosados poured into a vacuum evaporation unit, in which the concentration of the specified nadasdy by evaporation in a vacuum at a temperature of 30-40°C and a vacuum of 50-60 Torr, and the residue sapropel placed in the drying chamber, separated from the vacuum chamber mesh and sealed by the shutter, which exceeds 2-3 times the volume of the drying chamber, the sludge is also heated to a temperature of 30-40°C and at the same time in a vacuum chamber to create a vacuum 20-30 Torr, after which the precipitate of sapropel carry out the vacuum-impulse effect, which open a vacuum-sealed gate, separating the drying and vacuum chamber, and is pumped out by a vacuum pump separated from the precipitate remaining moisture in the vacuum evaporation unit, where it condense and concentrate the ri the same modes, as adosados, after which the dry residue (cake) is crushed to a size of 20-40 microns and Packed, and the resulting concentrate is poured into the vessel and each of the obtained target product used for a purpose or perform the solubilization of crushed dry sludge (cake) in the resulting concentrate lightdesign water-soluble components.



 

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7 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: medicine, veterinary science.

SUBSTANCE: the present innovation refers to medicinal preparations obtained out of natural humificated materials, such as peat. One should carry out alkaline extraction of sodium humates with aqueous solution of caustic soda due to infusing at temperature up to 90°C in a closed reservoir at weight ratio of peat/water being 1:20...1:25, moreover, sieved peat and caustic soda should be separately packed into filtration parcels made out of air-tight material. Infusion should be continued during 6..12 h at the concentration of aqueous solution of caustic soda being 0.10...0.18 weight%. For storage and delivery to the distant place for extraction one should hermetically pack filtration parcels with peat and caustic soda into preventive membrane out of water- and air-tight material with the help of vacuum packaging equipment. The veterinary preparation suggested contains stock solution of sodium humates prepared due to the above-described technique, it has hydrogen value of pH 7...8 and the concentration of sodium humates being 2...5 weight%. It additionally contains in therapeutic dosages, at least, one macro- and/or micro-elements in water-soluble and/or easily hydrolyzed form chosen out of the following group: iron, iodine, calcium, cobalt, magnesium, manganese, copper, selenium, phosphorus and their combinations. As a result, macro- and micro-elements could be observed in the following total quantities, mg/l: iron 42.6...65.4; iodine 0.29...0.36; calcium 590...730; cobalt 0.24...0.30; copper 6.52...7.98; magnesium 15.1...18.5; manganese 13.2...16.2; selenium 0.10...0.13; total phosphorus 244...296. The innovation enables to obtain the product of increased content of macro- and micro-elements.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

8 cl, 1 tbl

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