Method of producing planar condenser of extended capacity

FIELD: nanotechnology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of micro- and nano-electronics that uses short-term and combined power sources. In particular, the invention can be used as an energy accumulator. The method of manufacturing a planar condenser of extended capacity comprises creation of first electrode by forming the conductive layer with the extended surface on the conductive electrode base, formation of the thin dielectric layer uniform in thickness, repeating the surface relief of the conductive layer with the extended surface, and creation of the second electrode by filling the voids with the conductive material between the irregularities of the first electrode coated with the dielectric layer, formation of the conductive layer with the extended surface is formed of a material having anisotropy of conductivity of electric current such that in the horizontal direction the electric conductivity is higher than the electrical conductivity in the vertical direction.

EFFECT: creation of a planar condenser of extended capacity with a higher specific capacity.

11 cl, 4 dwg

 

Applications of the invention are micro - and nanoelectronics, which uses short-term and combined power sources. In particular, the invention can be used as an energy store, such as uninterruptible power supplies, and components of pulsed power devices, passive components, semiconductor integrated circuits and other devices where there is a need for fast-acting energy source.

The planar capacitor of high capacitance, unlike conventional flat electrical capacitor has a very high capacitance value at small sizes. High capacity is achieved by increasing the effective area of the plates and reducing the effective distance between them to a few nanometers. In most on the market of high-capacity capacitors plates made of materials having a high specific surface area.

Ultracapacitor or super capacitor electric double layer is an electrochemical capacitor, the energy which is stored electrostatically by using the inverse absorption of ions of the electrolyte active material which is electrochemically stable and have a large specific surface area available for chemical reaction is s [1]. Currently, the capacitance of edlcs reaches about 900-3000 F. However, to date, these supercapacitors have a low breakdown voltage.

One of the ways to solve this problem is the use of the basis of the material of the electrodes carbon nanostructures, which have a developed surface, and development of electrolyte with a high dielectric constant [2].

The closest technical solution of the present invention is a method of manufacturing a capacitor of high capacitance, including the formation of the first electrode by deposition of a layer of profiled material, which has high specific surface area, oxidation of the surface of the profiled material, resulting in a thin dielectric layer of natural oxide and the deposition of conductive material of the second electrode of the capacitor so that it fills the irregularities of the profiled material, covered by a dielectric layer of the oxide [3].

The disadvantages of this method is that as the material of the dielectric layer may be only a natural oxide profiled material, which may have a relatively low dielectric constant and breakdown voltage of the capacitor obtained by this method is low due to high for what ragnotti the electric field at the peaks of the roughness profile material of the electrodes with a developed specific surface area compared to a planar electrode.

The objective of the present invention to increase the breakdown voltage, capacity expansion, and hence the power density of the planar capacitor of high capacity.

To achieve these objectives in the method of manufacturing a planar capacitor of high capacitance, including the creation of the first electrode by forming a conductive layer with a developed surface on the conductive electrode, the formation of a uniform thickness thin dielectric layer, repeating the relief of the surface of the conductive layer with a developed surface, and a second electrode by filling the voids conductive material between the unevenness of the first electrode coated with a dielectric layer, forming a conductive layer with a developed surface is formed from a material having anisotropy in the conductivity of the electric current such that in the horizontal direction of the electric conductivity higher than the electrical conductivity in the vertical direction.

Conductive layer with a developed surface is a carbon nanostructure in the form of columns, which is formed plazmostimulirovannom chemical deposition from the gas phase. Conductive layer with a developed surface contains a metal or intermetallic nanoclusters, for the purpose of lowering the specific resisting film to prevent the effect of a conducting material. Uniform thickness of the thin dielectric layer is formed by atomic layer deposition. The material of the dielectric layer is selected from the group of Al2O3, ZrO2, HfO2, TiO2the lead zirconate-titanate. The second electrode consisting of a conductive material, is formed by electrochemical deposition. Before the electrochemical deposition of conductive material of the second electrode is the formation of the adhesion-wetting layer over the thin dielectric layer. The material of the adhesion-wetting layer contains an element from the group of Ti, Zr, Hf, TA, W, Cr, V

Thus, the distinctive features of the invention is that the conductive layer of the first electrode with a developed surface is formed from a material having anisotropy in the conductivity of the electric current such that in the horizontal direction of the electric conductivity higher than the electrical conductivity in the vertical direction.

The set of distinctive features allows you to achieve the task and to eliminate the disadvantages of the prototype, providing the increase of the breakdown voltage and specific capacity of the condenser of high capacity.

It is known that the electrical conductivity of single crystals of graphite is anisotropic in a direction parallel to the basal plane, close to metal, perpendicu the Pnom - hundreds of times less. In this connection it is as a conductive layer with a developed surface to form a carbon nanostructure in the form of columns, which is the anisotropy of the conduction of electrical current such that in the horizontal direction of the electric conductivity higher than the electrical conductivity in the vertical direction.

Thus, the hallmark of the invention is that the conductive layer with a developed surface is a carbon nanostructure in the form of columns.

Chemical deposition from the gas phase (HALL) is a common synthesis of carbon nanostructures [4, 5], because it provides a controlled growth of a given size forms of carbon nanostructures.

Preferably the growth process of the carbon structure to carry out chemical deposition from the gas phase, stimulated plasma. It is known that the traditional process of HOLL carbon nanostructures occurs at relatively high temperatures of the order of 600-700°C. However, for some technologies, and in particular to integrated circuit technology, such temperatures are not acceptable since they cause degradation of elements of semiconductor devices formed on the previous operations of the technological cycle of production of IP. Stimulation of plasma HOLL reduces the temperature of the process of formation of carbon nanostructures at 100-300°C [6].

To lower the resistivity of the material from the point of view of minimization of energy losses of planar kondensator high capacity, it is possible to accomplish this by introducing inward developed nanostructures of metal or intermetallic nanoclusters with low resistivity.

To increase the conductivity of the layer with a developed surface suitable metal or intermetallic nanoclusters to form ion-plasma sputtering simultaneously with plazmostimulirovannom chemical deposition from the gas phase conductive layer with a developed surface for placing a metal or intermetallic nanoclusters venutre layer with a developed surface.

Atomic layer deposition is used to form ultrathin and conformal thin-film dielectric layers. The technology of atomic layer deposition is to perform a serial self-terminating surface reactions, allowing to control the growth of films in the case of monolayer or submonolayer mode. The advantage of this technology atomic layer deposition that formed layers are free from defects and pores, allowing it to be used for the formation of ultrathin diffusion-barrier and insulation layers on surfaces with complex terrain.

Electrochemical whom the deposition is technologically simple and cheap process for the deposition of metal films, carried out at room temperature and allowing to fill the voids between the roughness layer with a developed surface.

With the purpose of improving the adhesion is preferably a conductive material of the second electrode to precipitate on top of the adhesive layer.

It is desirable that the material of the adhesive layer contains an element from the group of Ti, Zr, Hf, TA, W, Cr, V, as these elements and their alloys are well known and are used as adhesive layers.

Suitable as a material of the dielectric layer to use materials such as ZrO2, HfO2, TiO2the lead zirconate-titanate, because they have a high dielectric constant, and therefore will provide a high specific capacity of a super-capacitor.

In Fig.1-3 shows the stages of the proposed method of manufacturing a super-capacitor.

In Fig.1 shows a section of the structure after forming the first electrode by forming a conductive layer 1 with a developed surface irregularities which have anisotropic conductivity of the electric current such that in the horizontal direction of the electric conductivity higher than the electrical conductivity in the vertical direction, the conductive electrode base 2.

In Fig.2 shows a section of the structure after formation of a uniform thickness thin IER is aktionscode layer 3, repeating the relief of the surface of the conductive layer with a developed surface

In Fig.3 presents a section of the structure after the process of forming the second electrode 4 by filling the voids conductive material between the unevenness of the first electrode coated with a dielectric layer.

In Fig.4 shows a photograph of carbon nanostructures, which is a conductive layer 1 with a developed surface roughness which good conduct electric current in a horizontal direction and bad in the vertical.

Conducted patent studies have shown that the set of features of the present invention is a novel that proves the novelty of the method of manufacturing a planar capacitor of high capacitance. In addition, patent research showed that in the literature there are no data affecting the distinguishing features of the claimed invention to achieve a technical result, which confirms the inventive step of the proposed method.

Example 1. As the electrode bases super-capacitor used aluminum foil. Using plasmodiophoromycota method of chemical deposition from the gas phase are formed in the first electrode in the form of carbon nanostruct, the height of which about 300 nm, the distance between nanoscopically faced the t 30 nm. The resistance measurement of this carbon structures showed anisotropy this property: along the column - 165 Ohm*m, in the transverse direction of the column - 25 mω*m received On the conductive layer with a developed surface using the method of atomic layer deposition is formed of a thin dielectric layer (Al2O3thickness of 20 nanometers. Using the method of pulsed electrochemical deposition is the formation of a second electrode by deposition of the Cu layer thickness of 500 nm.

Example 2. As the electrode bases super-capacitor used is a silicon substrate coated with a conductive layer of copper. Using plasmodiophoromycota method of chemical deposition from the gas phase is formed first electrode in the form of carbon nanostruct, the height of which about 300 nm, the distance between nanoscopically is 30 nm. The resistance measurement of this carbon structures showed anisotropy this property: along the column - 165 Ohm*m, in the transverse direction of the column - 25 mω*m received On the conductive layer with a developed surface using the method of atomic layer deposition is formed of a thin dielectric layer (Al2O3thickness of 20 nanometers. Using magnetron sputtering method in the same process, is the formation of the adhesive layer over the thin dielectr the ical Ti layer thickness of 10 nm, then there is the creation of the second electrode by depositing a Cu layer thickness of 500 nm.

The benefits of using high-capacity capacitors as energy sources over conventional batteries is well known: much less time is required to recharge (from several seconds to several minutes), orders of magnitude greater quantity withstand cycles of charge-discharge, high energy density, low cost, longer service life, environmental friendliness, ability to work in extreme conditions.

Sources of information

1. R. Kutz, M. Karlen. Principles and applications of electrochemical capacitors. Electrochim. 45, 2483 (2000).

2. F. Simon, J. Gogosi. Materials for electrochemical capacitors. Natural. Mat.7, 825 (2008).

3. U.S. patent No. 7605048 prototype.

4. B.p.Dyachkov. Carbon nanotubes: structure, properties, applications. - M.: Binom, 2006. - 293 C.

5. E. G. Rakov. Nanotubes and fullerenes. - M.: University book. Logo, 2006. - 376 S.

6. D. G. Gromov, S. A. Gavrilov, S. C. Oaks. The formation of carbon nanostructures plazmostimulirovannom deposition from the gas phase at a constant current. International conference Micro - and Nanoelectronics 2009. MOOF. 7521 (2010).

1. A method of manufacturing a planar capacitor of high capacitance, including the creation of the first electrode by forming wire is the common layer with a developed surface on the conductive electrode base, the formation of a uniform thickness thin dielectric layer, repeating the relief of the surface of the conductive layer with a developed surface, filling a conductive material between the unevenness of the first electrode coated with a dielectric layer, thereby creating the second electrode, wherein the conductive layer with a developed surface is formed from a material having anisotropy in the conductivity of the electric current such that in the horizontal direction of the electric conductivity higher than the electrical conductivity in the vertical direction.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the conductive layer with a developed surface is a carbon nanostructure in the form of columns.

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the conductive layer with a developed surface is formed by chemical deposition from the gas phase.

4. The method according to p. 3, characterized in that the chemical deposition from the gas phase stimulated plasma.

5. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that the conductive layer with a developed surface contains a metal or intermetallic nanoclusters.

6. The method according to p. 5, characterized in that the conductive layer with a developed surface is formed plazmostimulirovannom chemical deposition from the gas phase with the simultaneous physical deposition from the gas phase m is a metallic or intermetallic nanoclusters,

7. The method according to p. 1, wherein the thin dielectric layer is formed by atomic layer deposition.

8. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the second electrode consisting of a conductive material that fills the voids between the roughness layer with a developed surface covered with a dielectric layer is formed by electrochemical deposition.

9. The method according to p. 8, characterized in that before the electrochemical deposition of conductive material of the second electrode is the formation of the adhesion-wetting layer over the thin dielectric layer.

10. The method according to p. 9, characterized in that the material of the adhesion-wetting layer contains an element from the group of Ti, Zr, Hf, TA, W, Cr, V

11. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the material of the dielectric layer is selected from the group of Al2O3, ZrO2, HfO2, TiO2the lead zirconate-titanate.



 

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