Hydro-electric power-plant

FIELD: energy industry.

SUBSTANCE: hydro-electric power-plant comprises electric generators, bearings and a float. On the base of the device the confusers and diffusers are mounted one behind the other. Between the confusers and diffusers the blade grid is located with the ability of vertical motion relative to the confusers and diffusers. The frictionless bearings are mounted on the support above the water flow.

EFFECT: obtaining electrical power with high efficiency, reliability and constant rate of rotation of the electric generators.

2 dwg

 

The present invention relates to the field of energy and is designed to produce electrical energy from water streams: streams, rivers, ocean currents and tides, as well as from the air flow.

Known hydropower plant AC 46491, using the energy of the water stream from across its width to produce electrical energy. It includes a rotor made of two semi-cylinders, which is mounted on two floats so that its axis of rotation had just across the stream. The rotor is divided into two intermediate discs on three tiers to eliminate "dead spots" of rotation. Each tier of the rotor offset from each other by 120°. On brackets that are installed below the floats, in the bearings of the rotor. Each float has an electric generator, which through the chain of Halle an der Saale connected to the rotor. Both float rigidly connected by transverse rungs.

This unit is adopted for the prototype. It has some significant drawbacks:

low energy efficiency and low reliability due to bearings and chains gall running water;

- speed electric generators is not regulated, so it is impossible to connect to the existing electrical network.

The task of the invention is the recip is the electric energy with high efficiency, reliability and constant speed electric generators, using the entire width of the stream with shallow depth, type of the stream.

This problem is solved in a hydropower facility containing electric generators, bearings, and float at the base of the device are mounted one behind the other confusor and diffusers, between confusioni and diffusers located blade grille with vertical movement relative to confusion and diffusers, and bearings mounted on the support above the water flow.

The proposed device is shown in Fig.1 and Fig.2. In Fig.1 front view of the device. In Fig.2 section a-A. the Device comprises a base 1 mounted in the bed of the water flow 2. Based on 1 set bearing 3. On the upper end of the support 3 has a flange 4. The flange 4 has an electric oscillators 5, gear 6 and the motor 7. On the low speed shaft 6 has a screw 8 with trapezoidal thread. The screw 8 is connected with a nut 9, which contains the lugs 10, which are connected to the cylinder 11, which is installed with a gap at the pole 3. The cylinder 11 is installed radial bearings 12 and the thrust bearing 13. On the thrust bearing 13 and the radial bearings 12 is installed above the water flow per blade grating 14. On the shaft of the shoulder of the grating 14 are timing number is over 15 and tubular grille 16. Pipe grid 16 has a support flange 17. On the abutment flange 17 has a float 18. The float 18 is connected with blade bars 19. At blade grating 19 is installed airfoils 20. On the shafts of the electric generator 5 is set gear 21, which is connected with the toothed wheel 15. Based on 1 one after another along the flow set compusory 22 and the diffuser 23. Between confusioni 22 and diffusers 23 in the same plane is d-shaped bars 19.

The device operates as follows. Water flows into compusory 22, which is accelerated with a decrease in internal energy by reducing the flow area in confusor 22. From confusion 22 chilled water flow with high velocity enters the vane grate 19. Stream, flowing at an optimum angle of attack profiles 20, generates a pulse of force that causes the rotation of the blade bars 19. Part of the internal energy of the water flow is transmitted electric generator 5 through a pipe grid 16 and the gear formed by the drive gear 15 and the gear 21. Of the blade lattice 19 water flow enters the diffuser 23, where the flow velocity is reduced to the speed of the stream. Then the water flow again goes to compusory 22, which is accelerated with a decrease in internal energy of the flow. With high speed and low temperature the water flow enters the impeller bars 19, where transfers part of the internal energy of the electric generator 5. Of the blade lattice 19 water flow enters the diffuser 23, where it slows down to the speed of the stream and merges with the main flow stream. Output flow temperature is smaller than the main water flow by an amount which is proportional passed on to the consumer of electrical energy. The float 18 is mounted on the blade lattice 19, offset the weight of the tube 16, the support flange 17 and the shoulder of the grating 19, thereby preventing deformation of the tube 16 and reducing the axial load on the thrust bearing 13. By increasing the speed of water flow or a reduction in electric power consumption leads to an increase in the rotational speed of the electric generator 5. To reduce the frequency of rotation of the electric generator 5 includes an electric motor 7, which through the gear 6 causes the rotation of the screw 8. Screw 8 moves the nut 9 up. The lugs 10, mounted on the nut 9, move the cylinder 11 up support 3. Shaft blade grating 14 mounted on the thrust bearing 13 and the radial bearings 12, moves up with the toothed wheel 15, the tube sheet 16, the supporting flange 17, the float 18 and the shoulder bars 19. Blade grating 19 is partially removed from the water flow, which leads to the reduction of the pulse power and the reduction of g is peruanas electric power. The rotational speed of the electric generator 5 is reduced. When reducing the speed of water flow or increase electric power consumption rotation speed of the electric generator decreases. To increase the speed of the generator 5 includes an electric motor 7, which moves the nut 9 with 10 stops down.

Blade grille 19 descends and increases communication with the water flow. Electric capacity of the hydropower plant increases and the rotational speed of the electric generator 5 is increased.

The proposed device has a higher energy efficiency compared to the prototype. For comparison we will use the law of conservation of energy to flow between cross sections 1 and 2, referred to the unit of mass:

where Q1-2- heat is supplied to flow between cross sections 1 and 2;

1 is a cross - section of flow before installation;

2 - section of the flow after installation;

Ltech.- technical work performed by the flow between sections 1 and 2;

LTP.the friction work performed by the flow between sections 1 and 2;

U1-2is the internal energy of the water flow in sections 1 and 2;

γ1-2the density of the water flow in sections 1 and 2;

P1-2static pressure in sections 1 and 2;

W1-2- the speed of water flow in CE is aniah 1 and 2;

h1-2- piezometric height of the water flow in sections 1 and 2;

g - acceleration of free fall.

Taking the heat capacity of water, does not depend on temperature, we can write:

U1=cp·T1; U2=cp·T2

where Cpthe heat capacity of water;

T1-2the temperature of the water flow, respectively, in sections 1 and 2.

For perfect water flow, type of stream, just following relations: Q1-2=0; LTP=0; γ12; P1=P2; W1=W2; h1=h2

The energy conservation law for water flow will be:

Ltech.=Cp·(T1-T2)=cp·ΔT

Using the well-known thermodynamic relation for slow adiabatic flow:

where TA. T- temperature adiabatic deceleration:

T is the temperature of the stream.

Where possible the technical work for the prototype will be equal to:

where W1- the speed of the water flow.

In the proposed device the speed of the flow on the blade bars 19 will be equal to:

W=F1/F2·W1=k·W1

where F1- input section confuser;

F2- output section confuser;

k - coefficient of increase of the flow velocity in the confusion the re.

Maximum technical work, obtained in the proposed device will be equal to:

The technical work in the proposed device to the prototype ceteris paribus will be equal to:

Ltech 2/Ltechnical 1=k2

Electric power obtained in the proposed device, in the k2times more than in the prototype. When you wrap the water flow rotor prototype blade and reset with confusioni and diffusers part of the energy of the water flow is spent on local resistance. Reduction of local resistance, the proposed device is carried out through the use of confusion 22 and diffuser 23. In the prototype, the input stream into the rotor and the output from the rotor is not organized and loss of power will be maximum due to the high turbulence of the stream.

The proposed device has a higher energy efficiency and reliability due to the removal of the mechanical transmission and bearings from water flow, and also has the ability to maintain a constant speed electric generators.

Preliminary calculations show that the proposed hydropower plant installed in the bed of the stream width 7 m, depth 1 m and a flow velocity of 1.5 m/s, having a diameter of blade lattice 6,111 m and height of confusion,in the flow direction, 0,748 m and 0,915 m may provide the user with 143,5 kW of electrical power. The temperature of the water will flow on to 0.0039°C below the initial water flow.

For example, the Kuban river has a flow of 425 m3/s and the length of 870 km If its cool at 8.5°C, it will be possible to get 15,052·106kW of electrical power or 131,854·109kW/h per year. For this you need to install on both banks of the river with an interval of 16.5 m, 10490 proposed hydropower plants with a capacity of 143,5 kW. Power 10490 hydropower plants on the river Kuban is the equivalent of three Sayano-Shushensky HPP.

Hydropower plant containing electric generators, bearings, and float at the base of the device are mounted one behind the other confusor and diffusers, between confusioni and diffusers located blade grille with vertical movement relative to confusion and diffusers, and bearings mounted on the support above the water flow.



 

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