Nanoobjects sorting method
SUBSTANCE: nanoobjects sorting method (objects with at least one spatial dimension within the range from ~0.05 nm up to ~500 nm) wherein a) the initial mix with any primary content of electrically conductive nanoobjects and more electrically conductive nanoobjects contact any part of liquid substance surface; b) energy of the above mix of nanoobjects is transmitted so that different nanoobjects depending on degree of their conductivity are subjected to different degree of heating (per time unit), at that during any non-zero period of time upon beginning of the energy transmission T temperature is maintained in any part of the above contact substance surface at the level sufficient for compliance with at least one of the following conditions: (1) temperature T differential module for any part of the above surface of the contact substance and temperature of its active evaporation (Te) is less than ΔTn (i.e. |Te-T|<ΔTn), (2) temperature T differential module for any part of the above surface of the contact substance and temperature of the active chemical reaction threshold with the above substance (Tcs) is less than ΔTn (i.e. |Tcs-T|<ΔTn), (3) temperature T differential module for any part of the above surface of the contact substance and temperature of the active chemical reaction threshold with nanoobjects (Tcn) is less than ΔTn (i.e. |Tcn-T|<ΔTn)), and moreover it is provided that nanoobjects heated up to different temperature (Tn) are subjected to different degree of fixation with the contact surface (up to failure to fix), c) non-fixed and weakly fixed nanoobjects are separated from the surface and d) at least one spatially separated object is received out of pluralities of nanoobjects, which contains nanoobjects with the average conductivity differing from the average conductivity of nanoobjects in the initial mix.
EFFECT: improving the efficiency of sorting.
7 cl, 1 dwg, 12 ex
The technical field
The invention relates to the field of nanotechnology and, more narrowly, to methods for sorting nanoobjects, such as semiconductor carbon and metallic carbon nanotubes.
The prior art and the technical problem
Primary for this application is a Russian patent application 2009103926 received Federal Institute of industrial property (Rospatent) February 3, 2009, the priority Date of the application is January 20, 2010 (the date of filing the patent application U.S. 12690873).
The nano-objects of different substances (objects with at least one of the spatial dimensions in the range from ~0.05 nm to ~500 nm) and, in particular, carbon nanotubes, having a number of unique properties, are materials that are important from the point of view of industrial technology.
In the existing scientific and technical literature are described in detail, including the following applications of carbon nanotubes: field-effect transistors, bipolar transistors, solar cells, lasers, LEDs, photodiodes, sources of electrons, the converters and the emitters of electromagnetic fields, voltage sources, capacitors, devices for surface exploration, monitors, flexible and flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices, electrical and thermal conductors, devices for hydrogen storage, computer t is hnica and so on
To accomplish the aforementioned and other applications of carbon nanotubes require to obtain them in large enough quantities with similar physico-chemical properties. For example, for semiconductor devices, in many cases, it is important that the active semiconductor components had no metallic impurities such as metallic nanotubes, in order to prevent shunting of the electrical voltage. On the other hand, to create a low-resistance electrically conductive components of various equipment, including the electrodes, it is often preferable to use pure metallic nano-objects.
The solution of this problem depends on the creation of effective ways of sorting the nanotubes. Although numerous studies have been devoted to solving this problem, to date, it is not practically solved. Among the methods proposed to date for solving this problem include the following: destruction of metallic nanotubes by electric current (U.S. patent 6,423,583 July 23, 2002, and the patent application U.S. No. 20060065887), the destruction of metallic nanotubes microwave field (U.S. patent 7,150,865 19 December 2006). One of the drawbacks of these methods is, in particular, the high temperature to which it is necessary to heat the nanotubes to their destruction. You okay temperature leads to the formation of defects, unwanted destruction and damage of a significant proportion of sorted nanotubes involved in this process.
Brief disclosure of the invention
The invention includes variants of the following basic method for sorting nanoobjects.
(1) a Method for sorting nanoobjects, in which the initial mixture with any primary content less conductive or more conductive nanostructures lead in contact with any part of the liquid surface of the substance, to ensure transmission of the energy of this mixture, in which the nano-objects depending on their degree of electrical conductivity have different degrees of heating and fixing the contact surface until the complete absence of attachment is separated from the surface loose and poorly fixed nanoobjects and extracted from the received sets of nano-objects spatially separated together with the increased content of less conductive nanostructures and a more conductive nanostructures (see item 1 formula, Fig.1).
Advantages of the invention
This invention allows substantially avoid the above (see the description: "the Level of engineering and technical problem") the disadvantages of the known methods of sort, including, connected with the necessity of heating truemy nano-objects to a high temperature.
The primary sorting method (see the description of the invention: "Limitiruyuschie examples of carrying out the invention") allows sorting nanoobjects at temperatures close to the temperature of the active evaporation of the substance used, or to the temperature threshold of the active passage of a chemical reaction involving nanotubes and the specified substance. The above-mentioned temperature by choosing the substance or chemical reactions can be quite small compared to temperature damage to the nano-objects.
Thus, an important advantage of the proposed ways of sorting is the ability to use lower levels of temperature compared to the temperature levels of nanoobjects in these known methods of sorting. This fact, along with the ability to simplify and cheapen the implementation of the sort, opens up the possibility of preventing unwanted damage to the nano-objects and, thus, achieve the following technical result: easy and affordable obtaining undamaged or less damaged nano-objects, sorted by conductivity.
Limitiruyuschie examples of carrying out the invention
(1) an Example embodiment of the invention (see item 1 of the formula (1) and Fig.1) is bringing into contact a liquid surface is STI toluene and a mixture of metallic carbon nanotubes and semiconducting carbon nanotubes, for example, by immersion in toluene, and the creation of such conditions of their energy exchange with the environment in which the metallic nanotubes are heated to a higher temperature than the semiconductor. This can be achieved, for example, by treatment of a mixture of both nanotubes electromagnetic field of the microwave or far infrared range. The fact that, as is well known (see, for example, U.S. patent 7,150,865 December 19, 2006 and patent application U.S. No. 20070085460), in many cases in metallic nanotubes absorbed a large proportion of incident electromagnetic energy than in the semiconductor. In the energy transfer of the substance from the heated nanotubes, its part adjacent to the metallic nanotubes are heated to a higher temperature as compared with the portions adjacent to the semiconductor. The temperature of the active evaporation of toluene to about 110 ºc. Selecting the following parameters: temperature of toluene before irradiation (for example, from the range of from normal room temperature to temperature, góra active evaporation of toluene), exposure time (for example, in the range from 1 second to 100 minutes) and the power level of the radiation (e.g., in the range from 0.1 W/cm2to 100 W/cm2), it is possible to achieve the following result. Part of the substance, immediate is about adjacent to the metallic nanotubes, heated at least to its active temperature evaporation and evaporate, while semiconducting nanotubes, still mostly in contact with the liquid substance. (A necessary condition for obtaining such a result is the fulfillment of the first condition referred to in the first paragraph of the formula). Thus, at least part of the surface of the metallic nanotube is separated from the liquid by the gas layer. As you know, toluene wets carbon nanotubes. Therefore, the semiconductor nanotubes, in a more complete contact with the fluid are more secured compared to metal, which after evaporation of the toluene become subscriptionname or loose. Department subscribing and loose nanotubes are produced, for example, by suction from the surface of the liquid in the gas area of low pressure (like a vacuum cleaner) and filtration occur when the suction gas flow (optimization of this process is the selection differential gas pressure, for example, in the range from 0.0001 to 1 atmosphere, taking into account prevention of absorption of liquid toluene containing semiconducting nanotubes). Thus collected on the filter, metallic nanotubes are separated from the remaining liquid of polypr vodnikova.
(2) an Example embodiment of the invention (see Fig.1, p. 1 formula (2) and (3)) is bringing into contact a liquid surface of concentrated nitric acid and a mixture of metallic carbon nanotubes and semiconducting carbon nanotubes and create conditions for their energy exchange with the environment in which the metallic nanotubes are heated to a higher temperature than the semiconductor. As mentioned in the previous example, this can be achieved, for example, by treatment of a mixture of both nanotubes microwave or far infrared radiation. In the energy transfer of the substance from the heated nanotubes, its part adjacent to the metallic nanotubes are heated to a higher temperature as compared with the portions adjacent to the semiconductor. It is known that carbon nanotubes react oxidation with concentrated nitric acid with the formation of covalent bonds between the nanotubes and oxygen-containing part of the acidic substance (this part is in many cases is contained in the carboxyl group-COOH). The passage of this reaction and, accordingly, the fixation of carbon nanotubes with a part of the acidic substance becomes more active with increasing temperature. The temperature of the active responsive is of this reaction typically is in the range of 60 to 120 ºc, depending on the type of nanotubes and acid concentration. Selecting the following parameters: temperature of the acid before irradiation (for example, from the range of from normal room temperature to the temperature of the active passage of this reaction), exposure time (for example, in the range from 1 minute to 100 minutes) and the power level of the radiation (e.g., in the range from 0.1 W/cm2to 100 W/cm2it is possible to achieve the following result. Part of the substance, directly adjacent to the metallic nanotubes are heated at least to the temperature of the active passage of a specified reaction, and the securing of these nanotubes with a part of the acidic substance, while semiconducting nanotubes, still mostly not fixed. (A necessary condition for obtaining such a result is the execution of the second and third terms and conditions mentioned in the first paragraph of the formula). Thus, telling the complexes of metallic nanotubes bonded with parts of the acidic substance, the average larger than the average size is almost free semiconducting nanotubes. Due to this difference in size, the obtained set of nanotubes can sort on semiconductor and a metal, for example, by passing their aqueous solution under pressure through the nanoporous glass or silica gel filters, with a pore diameter of, wybir the subject from a range from 2 nm to 100 nm. (The choice of filter depends on the size sorting of nanotubes and is selected on the basis of providing bandwidth free semiconducting nanotubes and poor bandwidth complexes of large size on the basis of metallic nanotubes).
(3) an Example embodiment of the invention, characterized in that the transfer of energy involves, including the transfer of energy in the form or microwave radiation or far infrared radiation, or narrow-band (band width in energy is less than the difference between the energies of the electronic levels involved in the charge transfer in nano-objects) of electromagnetic radiation.
(4) an Example embodiment of the invention, characterized in that the mentioned explicitly or through links to other claims contact nonobjective with any part of the surface is achieved by immersing the nano-objects inside substance.
(5) an Example embodiment of the invention, characterized in that the mentioned explicitly or through links to other claims, the energy transfer is realized by means of exposure to radiation from the ceramic source or a synchrotron or laser, or free electron laser.
(6) an Example embodiment of the invention, characterized in that in the method of sotiraki nanoobjects using current heater providing a desired temperature.
(7) the emer embodiment of the invention, characterized in that the mentioned explicitly or through links to other claims, the substance contains, including any of the following substances: water, toluene, acetone, chloroform, alcohols, waxes and paraffins.
(8) an Example embodiment of the invention, characterized in that the mentioned explicitly or through links to other claims, the mixture is subjected to the cleaning process from metallic impurities, complete or partial separation of tangled carbon nanotubes.
(9) an Example embodiment of the invention, characterized in that the mentioned explicitly or through links to other claims carbon nanotubes are, including: nanotubes any hyalinata arranged along any of the axes of the nanotubes of the zigzag type, such as "chair", semiconductor, metal, single-walled, double-walled or multi-walled.
(10) an Example embodiment of the invention, characterized in that the mentioned explicitly or through links to other claims, the energy transfer is carried out, including in the form of exposure to a standing microwave electromagnetic waves in a frequency band of about 2.45 GHz and about 915 MHz.
(11) an Example embodiment of the invention, characterized in that the mentioned explicitly or through links to other claims, the energy transfer is carried out, including using any of the following devices: a radiating antenna, the number of batalinii circuit, a capacitor, an inductor, a magnetron, a klystron, a lamp backward wave traveling-wave tube, incandescent lamp, a Gunn diode, microwave oven, tunnel diode, avalanche diode, the gyrotron, the maser.
(12) an Example embodiment of the invention, wherein in the separation of solids from the surface and the allocation of spatial separated populations mentioned explicitly or through links to other claims use, including any of the following effects: inertial effects, the effects of the flow of gas or liquid, ultrasonic treatment, the shaking, the separation of parts of a substance containing nano-objects, filtering nano-objects.
The technical result and industrial applicability
The technical result of the invention is to obtain in industrial quantities of nano-objects, sorted by the degree of electrical conductivity with minimal damage, and mass production on the basis of a broad class of high-quality products. To this class of products includes, in particular, the following products based on carbon nanotubes, described in detail in the modern scientific literature: field-effect transistors, bipolar transistors, solar cells, lasers, LEDs and photodiodes, sources of electrons, the converters and the emitters of electromagne the data fields, the voltage sources, capacitors, devices for surface exploration, monitors, flexible and flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices, electrical and thermal conductors, devices for hydrogen storage, computer equipment, etc., In some cases, the implementation of this invention, these products contain semiconductor components based on semiconductor carbon nanotubes sorted by using at least one of the ways in PP.1-7 of the claims. In other cases, the implementation of this invention the products from the above list contain metallic components on the basis of metallic carbon nanotubes sorted by using at least one of the ways in PP.1-7 of the claims. In many of these cases, the use of large quantities of intact nanotubes sorted using the present invention, gives a direct effect in improving such important characteristics of products, such as reliability, performance, efficiency, power and other
(1) Under the phrase "spatially separated products and spatially separated together (nano-objects)" refers to the aggregate of solids separated in the sorting process from another part of the original mixture to be the tion, allowing further separate the use of this product.
(2) the term "warm-up" in relation to objects and materials means the increase of internal energy associated with the increase of the energy of motion of atomic or molecular particles, in other words, the temperature increase under conditions of thermodynamic equilibrium, or increase local "quasimandatory" in the nonequilibrium case.
(3) the term "contact" refers to the existence of a General interface between any parts of substance and nano-objects.
(4) Under the phrase "separation of solids from the surface" refers to a process or action, which provides separation of solids from the part of the surface of the substance, with which they before the separation were in contact.
(5) the term "evaporation" refers to the phase transformation in substance gaseous state.
(6) Under the phrase "microwave range" is the range of electromagnetic radiation with frequencies from 1 GHz to 300 GHz.
(7) Under the phrase "far-infrared range" is the range of electromagnetic radiation with frequencies from 300 GHz to 100 THz.
(8) Under the phrase "sorting nanoobjects" refers to sorting them in a wide sense, including, including, Department of nano is logging with the required properties from other nanotubes and impurities.
(9) the Terms "first", "second", "third", etc. in relation to variants of the invention are used only to indicate the order of mention.
(10) Use of terms in the singular also means their use and in the plural, except when the opposite is clearly not evident from the context.
(11) Use of terms in the plural also implies their use and in the singular, except when the opposite is clearly not evident from the context.
(12) Grammatical constructions: "any ()...", "any ()...", "any ()...", "any ()...", "any ()..." are used in the application to refer to any combination of the following for these designs concepts, including any one of these concepts.
(13) the term "metals" refers to chemical materials, with a characteristic metallic properties such as high conductivity, the positive temperature coefficient of resistance and other
(14) Under the phrases "metallic nanotubes", "metal impurity", "metallic substances", "metal particles" refers to these objects with a characteristic metallic properties such as high conductivity, the positive rate is atorny coefficient of resistance and other
(15) Terms and phrases, definitions of which are contained in publicly available dictionaries (except those whose values are explicitly stated in the description and the claims, should be interpreted with regard to their normal values in the context of the relevant field of technology.
Although the invention is illustrated in the text and figure in sufficient detail for various embodiments, a specialist in the art can easily find additional benefits, possible improvements and optimal values of the parameters used, without leaving the scope of the claims. Specific embodiments should not limit the scope of legal protection of inventions.
The attached figure, which in the present description reference is made as a part of it, is used only for schematic illustrative purposes. The figure should not limit the scope of legal protection of the invention. In conjunction with the claims and the description of variants of its implementation the figure serves to illustrate the basic principles of the invention.
Fig. 1 illustrates the scheme used in the example of the main ways of carrying out the invention (see description of the invention: "a Brief disclosure of the invention").
1. The method for sorting nanoobjects objects,
at least one of the spatial dimensions in the range from ~0.05 nm to ~500 nm), in which (a) the initial mixture with any primary content less conductive nanostructures or more electrically conductive nano-objects are put in contact with any part of the surface of the liquid substance, (b) ensure the transfer of this mixture of solids energy so that different nano-objects depending on their degree of electrical conductivity have different degrees of heat (per unit time), and for any non-zero period of time after the start of the energy transfer support temperature T any the said contact surface of a substance at a level that is at least one of the following ratios:
(1) the module of the difference between the temperature T of any of the above contact surface of the substance and its temperature active evaporation (Te) is less than ∆ tn(that is,),
(2) the module of the difference between the temperature T of any of the above contact surface of the substance and the temperature threshold of the active passage of chemical reactions with its part (Tcs) is less than ∆ tn(that is,),
(3) the modulus of the difference of the temperature T of any part of the contact surface of the substance and the temperature is ture threshold of the active passage of a chemical reaction involving nanostructures (T cn) is less than ∆ tn(that is,),
and at the same time ensure that nanoobjects heated to different temperatures (Tn), have a different degree of fastening of the contact surface (up to a total absence of fixation),
c) is separated from the surface loose and poorly fixed nanoobjects and (d) is recovered from the received sets of nanoobjects at least one spatially separated product containing nano-objects with an average electrical conductivity different from the average electric conductivity of nano-objects in the original mixture.
2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the nano-objects are used, including semiconductor carbon nanotubes.
3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that any part of the substance at least once, at some nonzero time when energy transfer changes the phase between liquid and gas.
4. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that any part of the substance contains organic material.
5. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the energy transmission is carried out, including through exposure to electromagnetic fields from the frequency range of 100 MHz to 400 THz.
6. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that the energy transmission is carried out, including through the impact of e is ectromagnetic fields or microwave, or far infrared ranges.
7. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the energy transmission is carried out, including in the form of exposure to narrowband electromagnetic fields from the frequency range of 100 MHz to 400 THz frequencies corresponding to the resonance energies of the electronic transitions in nano-objects.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical technology, in particular to processes of carbonisation of fibrous viscose materials, and can be used in production of graphitised fibrous materials, used as filling agents of composite materials; electrodes; flexible electric heaters; filters of aggressive media; in products for sport and medical purposes, etc. The material is preliminarily subjected to relaxation processing. The obtained material, which contains a pyrolysis catalyst, is continuously transported through zones of carbonisation heating. Carbonisation is carried out to 320-360°C in not less than three zones of heating, heat- and gas-isolated one from another by transporting material with inclination from bottom to top, with increase of heating temperature from 160-200°C in the first zone by 40-60°C in each next zone of heating, in comparison with the previous one. Volatile products are simultaneously removed from the said zones into the evacuation zone, heat- and gas-isolated from the external environment and located above the heating zones and connected with them via a perforated wall. Temperature in the evacuation zone of volatile substances is set by 5-15°C higher than temperatures of the respective heating zones, temperature of the output branch piece being 5-15°C above the maximum temperature of carbonisation.
EFFECT: invention ensures increase of the process efficiency and improvement of quality of the obtained carbon fibrous materials.
2 dwg, 1 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves treating viscose fibre material with pyrolysis catalysts, heating to carbonisation temperature and subsequent graphitation to temperature of 3000°C in an inert medium. Carbonisation is preceded by preparation of precursor by preliminary washing of the starting material with water and/or 5-10% sodium hyposulphite solution with heating and drying, and/or ionising irradiation with a beam of fast electrons during transportation through the irradiation chamber of an electron accelerator, and/or warm-wet synthesis of a complex catalyst on the surface of viscose fibres and in the pore system thereof in boiling 10-20% aqueous ammonium chloride solution and with addition of diammonium phosphate in ratio of 0.5-4.0, followed by steaming in hot steam and final ventilated drying with constant transportation, which enables to deposit the catalyst in form of an amorphous film.
EFFECT: high stability of the process of carbonising viscose fibre material and improved physical and mechanical properties of the obtained carbon material.
6 cl, 7 dwg, 1 tbl, 12 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to modification of the surface of inorganic fibre by forming a highly developed surface of inorganic fibre used as filler by forming carbon nanostructures on the surface of the fibres and can be used in producing high-strength and wear-resistant fibre composite materials. The method of modifying the surface of inorganic fibre involves the following steps: (a) soaking inorganic fibre with a solution of an α2 sinter fraction in organic solvents; (b) drying the soaked fibre; (c) heat treatment of the soaked inorganic fibre at 300-600°C; (d) depositing a transition metal salt onto the surface of the fibre heat treated according to step (c); (e) reducing the transition metal salt to obtain transition metal nanoparticles; (f) depositing carbon onto the transition metal nanoparticles to obtain carbon nanostructures on the surface of the fibre. The composite material contains modified fibre made using the method given above and a matrix of polymer or carbon.
EFFECT: high strength of the composite material in the cross direction relative the reinforcement plane by preventing surface deterioration when modifying with carbon nanostructures.
9 cl, 3 ex, 1 tbl, 5 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises processing initial cellulose fibrous material by liquid-phase composition containing silanol groups with molecular weight varying from 900 to 2400 and viscosity varying from 520 to 1700 cPs, and 2-7%-water solution of fire retardant. Processed material is dried to 105-125°C for 60-120 min. Then, carbonisation is performed in air at 140-170°C for 25-40 min. Carbonisation is terminated at 700°C to proceed with high-temperature processing at, at least, 2200°C.
EFFECT: high physical properties and yield.
4 cl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heterogeneous catalysis and can be used to recycle hydrocarbons and halogen-substituted hydrocarbons when producing composite materials, catalysts, sorbents and filters. Catalytic pyrolysis of hydrocarbons is carried out at 500-700°C on a catalyst obtained by dispersing articles of solid nickel and alloys thereof with other metals, e.g., iron, chromium, as a result of reaction with 1,2-dichloroethane vapour. The catalyst contains dispersed active nickel particles attached to carbon nanofibres with diameter 0.1-0.4 mcm. The starting material used is bromine- or chlorine-containing hydrocarbons, alkanes, olefins, alkynes or aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g., ethane, propane, acetylene, benzene. Output of carbon nanofibres is equal to or more than 600 g per 1 g metal.
EFFECT: high efficiency of the method.
5 cl, 2 dwg, 9 ex
SUBSTANCE: dust-like or granular solid substance is continuously sprayed onto the outer surface of a hollow drum substrate 2. After deposition, the catalyst on the revolving substrate enters reaction zone 3, into which carbon-containing gas is continuously fed through a gas-distributing collector 17, and gaseous pyrolysis products are continuously output through a nozzle 18. The reaction zone is heated with infrared heaters 7. The end product is removed from the substrate using a blade 9 and a cylinder brush 10, and then unloaded from the apparatus by an auger 14.
EFFECT: invention enables continuous synthesis of carbon fibre materials.
5 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: apparatus for spreading a carbon bundle has series-arranged coiling unit 1, a pair of feed rolls 2, a unit for controlling 3 and regulating tension in the processed bundle, a unit for spreading 4 the carbon bundle with an air stream, a pair of receiving rolls 5, as well as a unit for winding 6 the spread bundle. The unit for spreading 4 the carbon bundle with an air stream is in form of two supporting rolls 11, 12 and a nozzle 13 which is installed between and under the supporting rolls with inclination angle of 30°-70° to the displacement surface of the bundle, and is made with a flat slotted opening 14 with possibility of feeding compressed air through said opening. The slotted opening 14 of the nozzle 13 of the unit for spreading 4 the carbon bundle can be made with partitions 15. The nozzle can be fitted with possibility of regulating its inclination angle depending on the thickness of the bundle.
EFFECT: high speed of the stream of compressed air results in efficient splitting of the carbon bundle into monofilaments and obtaining a belt of carbon fibres with lower surface density.
3 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: procedure for production of carbon nano materials consists in loading catalyst into reactor, in bringing catalyst to contact with gas containing compound of carbon and in unloading carbon nano material from reactor. Also, catalyst is loaded by applying particles or granules of catalyst on surface of a compact layer of carbon nano material, while carbon nano material is unloaded by its withdrawal from a lower area of the layer at rate facilitating stationary thickness of the compact layer of carbon nano material.
EFFECT: high efficiency at uniformity of nano carbon product and minimal formation of side products.
5 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to nonwoven fibrous materials that can be used in various electrochemical devices, hydrogen accumulators, filtration devices, catalytic substrates, etc. Nonwoven fibrous material consists of fragments of activated carbon fibre, the average characteristic ratio of which is approximately between 1 and 5.
EFFECT: increasing efficiency of electric duodielectric capacitors.
16 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used as fillers of composite materials of structure, heat protecting, anti-electro-static purpose and also at production of carbon fibrous adsorbents, catalyst carriers, materials for protection from electro-magnetic radiation, nano structured composite, fullerenes, nano tubes etc. The procedure consists in impregnation of a source unidirectional braid with solution of fire retardant. Braid is made of hydrated cellulose fibres with fine crystal non-tensioned structure with diametre of filament from 8.5 to 15 mcm at its linear density 0.07-0.17 tex. Further, the procedure consists in drying, non-oxidation stabilising carbonisation and graphitisation. As a fire retardant there is used water solution containing 150-200 g/l of ammonia chloride and 10-30 g/l of urea or water solution containing 250-300 g/l of ammonia sulphate and 20-40 g/l of urea. Drying is carried out by electric heating at 120-140°C during 30-60 min. Before carbonisation braid is treated in oxygen containing atmosphere at 140-180°C during 30-90 min. Multi-zone carbonisation is performed in current of inert medium at rate 2.5-4.5 m3/hour during 40-80 min for 5-10 min in each zone with shrinkage of source hydrated cellulose fibre at 10-30 % and at temperature from 170-230°C to 690-710°C. During carbonisation products of pyrolysis in a zone of their highest release are withdrawn due to a low excessive pressure of neutral gas of 120-150 mm of water column at continuous oxidation in spots of combustion. Graphitisation is carried out at 1000-2400°C in medium of nitrogen or argon with contents of oxygen not over 0.001% at rate of drawing 15-50 m/hour.
EFFECT: reduced duration of process, considerable reduction of humidity of produced carbon fibre, multi-zone carbonisation with guaranteed maintenance of uniform temperature of each zone, reduced release of amorphous carbon as product of resin decomposition and prevention of its settling on surface of produced carbon fibre.
7 cl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technological processes, namely to methods of realising chemical processes, in particular to the field of general and special catalysis, as well as to the creation of novel materials with special properties for the realisation of the said processes. The invention can be used for manufacturing thermochemical catalytic reactors of steam fuel conversion and chemical regeneration of heat, chemical current sources, fuel elements. In the method of a nanocatalytic material manufacturing obtaining a catalytically active layer on a metal carrier is carried out by the application of a powder composition by means of high-energy processes of the heterophase transfer with the application of two or more autonomously working devices on the metal carrier. The carrier has through holes, made by notching or by the other way of perforation. An area of the through holes of the metal carrier constitutes from 0.1 to 0.7 cm2, thickness of the catalytically active layer is from 100 to 200 mcm.
EFFECT: obtaining the nanocatalytic material, characterised by higher process efficiency, conditioned by an efficient mass-exchange in a reaction zone and the presence of through porosity, higher specific surface of the material due to the polydisperse structure and the presence of microporosity, higher strength of adhesion of the catalytic layer to the metal carrier.
4 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of nanotechnologies, namely to flame-arc technology of synthesis of nanostructural composite materials. The proposed method of synthesis of nanostructural composite CeO2-PdO material in plasma of electric discharge comprises evacuation of vacuum chamber, filling it with inert gas, ignition of the electric direct-current arc between the graphite electrode and the metal-carbon composite electrode which is a graphite rod with the cavity perforated in the centre, and spraying the composite electrode. At that in the plasma of electric arc discharge the metal-carbon composite electrode is sprayed, in which cavity drilled in the centre the rod of cerium is mounted, which is wrapped in palladium foil, and the weight ratio Pd/Ce is from 3 to 9%. Then, annealing of the synthesised material is performed, which comprises Ce2O3nanocrystals and a small amount of Pd nanocrystals with characteristic sizes of 2-5 nm, by heating it in the oxygen-containing environment with the atmospheric pressure to the temperature of 600, 700, 800, 900°C, with exposure for 2 hours and slow cooling.
EFFECT: method enables to obtain nanostructural composite material CeO2-PdO which can be used as a catalyst having high activity at low temperatures as well as improved thermal stability and resistance to corrosion in aggressive environments.
2 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metal forming and can be used for production of articles from three-component titanium-based alloy containing 2-6 wt % of aluminium and not over 4 wt % of vanadium or zirconium. Billets are subjected to equal-channel angular pressing at 400-470°C at the rate of 0.1-1.0 mm/s. Note here that nano- and sub microcrystalline structures are formed in the billet with grain size not over 0.5 mcm. Deformed billets are subjected to isothermal annealing at 450-550°C for 0.5-1.0 h. Then, the billet is subjected to upsetting or rotary forging at the temperature not higher than that of isothermal annealing.
EFFECT: higher strength and operating performances.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to manufacture of gas sensors intended for detection of different gases. The invention proposes a gas sensor manufacturing method, in which a heterostructure is formed of different materials; a gas-sensitive layer is made in it; after that, it is fixed in the sensor housing, and contact pads are connected to terminals of the housing by means of contact conductors. The gas-sensitive layer is made in the form of a thin tread-like nanostructure (SiO2)20%(SnO2)80%, where 20% - mass fraction of SiO2, and 80% - mass fraction of component SnO2, by application of sol of orthosilicic acid, which contains stannum hydroxide, onto a silicone surface by means of a centrifuge with further annealing. An area with width of 1 mcm and depth of 200 nm is formed on the surface of the substrate surface by a method of local anodic oxidation. Sol is prepared at two stages: at the first stage, Tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and ethyl alcohol (95%) is mixed in the ratio of 1:1.046 at room temperature, and the mixture is exposed during about 30 minutes, and at the second stage, to the obtained solution there introduced is distilled water in the ratio of 1:0.323; hydrochloric acid (HCl) in the ratio of 1:0.05; stannum chloride dihydrate (SnCl2·2H2O) in the ratio of 1:0.399, where TEOS volume is accepted as one, and stirred at least during 60 minutes. The invention also proposes a gas sensor with a nanostructure, which is made as per the proposed method.
EFFECT: increasing gas sensor sensitivity.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a technology for obtaining nanodimensional films of multiferroics and can be used in production of high-quality magneto-optic information processing and storage devices, magnetic sensors, capacitive electromagnets, magnetoelectric storage elements and non-mutual microwave filters. The method involves manufacture of a target of the specified composition, processing of a monocrystalline substrate with argon ions, spraying of the target onto the substrate with further annealing of the obtained film; with that, a strontium titanate substrate is used; the spraying process is performed onto the substrate heated up to 700-750°C; controlled flow of oxygen ions is supplied to the substrate area, and the obtained films are annealed in oxygen environment during 1.0 hour at the temperature of 500-550°C and standard atmospheric pressure.
EFFECT: invention allows obtaining monocrystalline nanodimensional films of multiferroics with BiFeO3 and RxBi1-xFeO3 composition (where R- Nd, La, Pr in the quantity of 0,1-0,3 form units).
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a technology for obtaining films of ferrites-garnets and can be used in application magneto-optics to obtain magneto-optic disks, modulators and deflectors. The method involves manufacture of a target of the specified composition, treatment of a monocrystalline substrate of gallium garnet with argon ions, spraying of the target onto the substrate with further annealing of the obtained film; with that, a substrate of complex replaced gallium garnet is used; the spraying process is performed onto the substrate heated up to 800-850°C; controlled oxygen ion flow is supplied to the substrate areas during the spraying process, and the obtained films are annealed in oxygen environment during 0.5-1.0 hour at the temperature of 700-750°C and normal atmospheric pressure.
EFFECT: invention allows improving quality of obtained nanodimensional films of Bi-containing ferrites-garnets, as well as a value of specific faraday rotation.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to natural polysaccharide polymers and can be used in medicine. The obtained water-soluble bioactive nanocomposite includes a melanin compound-modified hyaluronic acid salt as a matrix and gold nanoparticles as filler. The method includes chemical reaction of solid-phase hyaluronic acid powder, a melanin compound, aurichlorohydric acid or a gold salt in conditions of simultaneous pressure action in the range of 50 to 1000 MPa and shearing deformation in a mechanochemical reactor at temperature of -18° to 110°C.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain a water-soluble bioactive nanocomposite with high output of the end product and high content of gold.
4 cl, 18 ex
SUBSTANCE: to endow various materials with hydrophilic properties, a modifier is deposited on the surface of said materials. A coating is formed by successively depositing aqueous solution of an oligo(aminopropyl)ethoxysilane of a general formula shown on fig 1, and subsequently depositing aqueous solution of nitrilotrimethylene phosphonic acid of a general formula shown on fig 2. After deposition, each solution is dried on air and heat treated.
EFFECT: invention enables to endow various materials with improved hydrophilic properties.
8 dwg, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: device for synthesis of composite coatings contains a working vacuum chamber 1, an emission net 2 from a precipitated metal, a hollow cathode 3, limited by the emission net 2, an anode 4 inside the hollow cathode 3, a source 5 of an electric discharge supply, with a positive pole connected to the anode 4, and with a negative pole connected to the hollow cathode 4, a target 6, installed on the bottom of the hollow cathode 3 opposite to the emission net 2, a source 7 of high voltage, with a positive pole connected to the hollow cathode 3, and with a negative pole connected to the target 6, a source 8 of net voltage, with a positive pole connected to the anode 4 and with a negative pole connected via a high voltage diode 9 to the emission net 2, and a generator 10 of high voltage impulses, with a positive pole connected to the anode 4 and with a negative pole connected to the emission net 2.
EFFECT: creation of a device for synthesis of both conductive and dielectric coatings on products from conductive and dielectric materials, which would ensure the reduction to zero of current of accelerated ions on the surface of the product and impulse-periodical bombing of a synthesised on it coating by molecules of gas with energy of tens of keV.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. A nanostructured water-phosphorite suspension, which consists of nanoparticles with the size less than 100 nm and which is obtained from natural phosphorites as a phosphorus fertiliser for corn.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to create the phosphorus fertiliser for corn, based on natural phosphorites, with considerably smaller consumption per a unit of the sown area with the preservation of high yield of the said culture.
1 tbl, 16 ex
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: method for purification of exhaust gases, comprising transmission of the exhaust gas through the first series of discharge electrodes, where they are saturated with negative ions, and passed through a second series positively charged discharge electrodes set in activated charcoal, for removal of heavy impurities and charging by air ions and then mixed with outside air entering through the holes in the body of the device, installed on the exhaust pipe, with the formation of carbon dioxide, and then are passed through a third set of discharge electrodes with a negative charge, set next to the activated carbon, where they are saturated with ions.
EFFECT: invention improves the efficiency of purification of the exhaust gas of a car.
2 cl, 2 dwg