Method for determining fire-resistant efficiency of protective compounds and coatings for timber and materials on its basis, and unit for its implementation
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to measurement equipment and can be used for testing of fire-resistant efficiency of protective compounds and coatings for timber. The proposed method involves preparation of a specimen, flame action on the specimen, temperature measurement of exhaust gaseous combustion products, measurement of weight of the specimen and determination of weight loss, as per which fire-resistant efficiency is determined. Specimen weight measurement is performed continuously during flame action on the specimen and after the action is completed, and a moment exceeding the limit weight loss established by classification or moment of stabilisation of specimen weight after completion of its burning is taken as a test completion moment. This method is implemented by a device containing a chamber for arrangement of a specimen, a gas burner, an exhaust system with a thermoelectric converter, an instrument for measurement and recording of temperature of exhaust gaseous combustion products. The device is also equipped with a unit for automatic measurement and recording in time of specimen weight during fire tests, which includes a lever mechanism made so that a specimen holder can be installed and connected to a weight measurement instrument connected to the processing and recording unit.
EFFECT: obtaining more accurate data for investigation of a fire protection mechanism.
5 cl, 1 tbl, 4 dwg
The group of inventions relates to techniques for carrying out experimental studies of the effectiveness of fire protection protective compounds, coatings and impregnations for wood and materials on its basis with the aim of obtaining the classification characteristics in comparative and certification tests, climatic and accelerated tests.
Known experimental setup for conducting trials assessing the effectiveness of fire protection protective compounds and coatings for wood and related methods of assessment and research the effectiveness of protective compounds and coatings.
For example, in GOST 16363-98 and GOST R 53292-2009 given similar in design and methods of tests for evaluating the effectiveness of fire protection on the wood samples of size 150×60×30 mm
In GOST R 53293-2009 (p. 5.4) proposed to estimate the fire-retardant properties on microbranch from 1 mg to 20 mg, taken from the surface of the soaked wood chips in thickness from 0.5 to 1 mm). In this case, the equipment for testing of samples is expensive equipment - derivatograph or thermo analytical complex.
The essence of all these methods is the determination of the mass loss of the test sample treated wood flame retardant.
In some cases, is estimated only the final value changes the assy sample (GOST 16363-98, GOST R 53292-2009) and there is no possibility of tracking changes of this mass during the experiment, and the other (GOST R 53292-2009) it is possible to trace the change in mass of the sample during the experiment, but no flaming effect on the sample, because the very construction of the instruments thermal analysis provides only an impact on the sample heat flow (does not include an external source of flame impinging on the sample). (see "a brief chemical encyclopedia", T. 5, S. 89-91, M: "SE", 1967).
In addition, the method according to the information set forth in GOST R 53293-2009 (p. 5.4)recommended for treated wood only impregnating compositions, and does not provide for testing of wood, with the top layer of fire-retardant coatings (paints, varnishes, enamels, and so on), since in this case to select a homogeneous microabrasion (wood+fire resistant layer) is not possible, which is a significant drawback, limiting the use of this device.
Closest to the proposed technical solution is the installation and the method of testing described in GOST R 53292-2009 "flame retardants and substances for wood and materials based on it. General requirements. Test methods", (p. 6).
The known system includes a removable ceramic box with external dimensions of 120×120×300 mm when the thickness of the wall (16±2) mm, the inner surface of which is covered with a thin aluminum foil for best heat accumulation, a holder for fixing wooden sample size of 30×60×150 mm fire protection within the ceramic boxes on its centre at a distance of (60±2) mm from the gas burner. In the lower part of the boxes in the center comes out the nozzle of a gas burner. Actual ceramic box is mounted on a special stand with air intake holes, and inside the fortified gas burner. Above ceramic duct coaxially him, at a distance of (40±2) mm, there is a metal umbrella of square section with reinforced at its upper, narrow part of the junction thermoelectric Converter for measuring the temperature of exhaust gaseous products of combustion by means of a potentiometer with a measuring range from 0°C to 800°C. the Metal umbrella mounted on a special vertical bar with horizontal rotation to allow for its rotation by lowering the sample in a ceramic box and bring it to its original position upon completion of subsidence (the initial firing tests). The gas flow in the burner is measured by a rotameter and is governed by its needle valve.
There is a method of testing using the known installation will include the basics of the haunted stage:
1) preparation and conditioning of samples of wood with fire;
2) conduct fire tests of samples at the facility;
3) handling of test results and classification of means of fire protection.
During fire tests, air-conditioned weighted sample of wood with fire retardant is fixed in a special holder and placed in a ceramic box with a working gas burner. In a ceramic box sample is exposed to the normalized flame source for a fixed time (2 minutes). After that, the gas burner is shut off and the sample is left in a ceramic box until the temperature of the flue through the umbrella of the gaseous combustion products on the testimony of the potentiometer is balanced with the ambient air temperature. After that, the sample (or what is left of the sample after combustion) are removed from the ceramic boxes and weighed. Determine the mass loss of the sample in % of the original weight before the test. According to the averaged value of the index weight loss (at least 10 experiments) conducted a classification applied remedies.
During firing tests of each sample statement:
1)determines the initial mass of the sample;
2)lowers the sample is fixed to a holder, in a ceramic box with a working burner;
3)control Studio strobe, flash the em and supports the gas flow in the burner;
4)fixes the time of the burner (2 min) and disables it after a set time;
5)monitors the behavior of the sample and the temperature of the flue products of combustion through the reading of the potentiometer during the whole experiment;
6)remove the sample (the remains of the sample) of the ceramic boxes reaching the point when the temperature of the flue gases through umbrella on the testimony of the potentiometer is balanced with the ambient air temperature;
7)weigh the extracted sample (the remains of the sample) and determines the mass loss of the sample in % of its original mass.
The gas supply to the burner in the course of the test is controlled by a rotameter and regulated by the needle valve of the flowmeter. Before each test checks and regulates the flow of gas through the flame height (20±5) m, and then the temperature of the flue products of combustion (idle experience without sample) in the upper part of the umbrella (200±5)°C. Firing tests (GOST R 53292-2009) of the sample is carried out after stabilization of the prescribed gas flow rate and the desired value of the temperature of exhaust gases through umbrella installation.
The air required for combustion gas and other combustible products, enters through the intake holes coasters ceramic boxes.
The behavior of the sample under the fire test is entirely determined by ognezashita the th effectiveness of protective equipment. So depending on the effectiveness of fire retardant means during operation of the gas burner, the sample may not ignite or ignite and go out immediately after its shutdown, or ignite and burn for some time after switching off the source of the flame and then go out, and may continue to burn until complete burnout.
The greater the weight loss of the sample during firing tests, the less effectively applied fireproofing agent.
There is a method for classification of the characteristics of the fire protection means has two limit values of the mass loss of the sample 9% and 25%.
The funds fire protection according to GOST R 53292-2009 providing mass loss less than or equal to 9%, are fire retardant means of the first group of fireproof efficiency, and providing the mass loss in the range of more than 9% to 25% inclusive - group II fire retardant efficiency. The remedies which the weight loss of the sample is more than 25%, the flame retardant tools do not apply.
In the known method test duration test firing of the sample consists of two parts: the first - time operation of the gas burner (2 min) and the second time from off the burner until the temperature of the flue gases will be equal pace is atural ambient air (25±5)°C.
And if the first part of the duration of the experiment strictly rationed, the second one can proceed indefinitely (from several minutes to several tens of minutes). The duration of the second part of the experiment is unpredictable and depends on the nature of self-combustion of the sample. So, if the sample already essentially lost a lot of its original mass, combustion proceeds in the mode of decay, this burning may continue for a long time (see "Fire safety. Encyclopedia", M: FGU VNIIPO of emergency situations of Russia, 2007, p. 69, 360).
The latter circumstance is a significant drawback, since it significantly increases the complexity and unpredictability of the duration of a full cycle of tests taking into account the fact that averaging the data you need to get at least 10 converging values of the experimental results.
Thus, the time spent on "combustion" model with already the actual limit on the mass loss (25%), classification tests will not be productive.
This is because the operator in the known method has only information about the current temperature value of the exhaust products of combustion, but has no information about the current change in mass of the test sample. The absence of these data also severely limits research the possibility of the particular well-known method of testing means of fire protection of wood and materials based on it, because this case is complicated by the identification of the mechanism of action of fire protection at different stages of the processes of ignition and combustion and also increases unnecessarily the duration of the experiment.
Another disadvantage of the known construction of the device and the associated method of testing is that the output nozzle of the burner inside the ceramic boxes, may suddenly become clogged during the test, falling off large particles of wood coke, ash, thermally exfoliated particles of flame retardants. This circumstance, in turn, can lead to changes in the cross-section area of the burner and to break the mode of combustion gas, change the shape of the flame, which, in turn, will lead to the distortion of the test results.
The lack of known valve fitting located as close as possible to the gas burner and immediately overlying the gas supply to the burner causes the effect of additional irregular heat and flame exposure to the test sample due to the combustion in the burner of the residual volume of gas under pressure in the pipe after it is disconnected.
Available on the rotameter needle valve is adjusting and does not immediately turn off gas.
The objective of the invention is the improved design of the installation for carrying out trials assessing the effectiveness of fire protection protective compounds and coatings for wood and materials based on it and its associated method of testing, eliminating the deficiencies noted.
The technical result achieved by the proposed method and installation, is to reduce the time of testing, ensuring the possibility of obtaining complex characteristics for studies of the mechanism of fire protection by providing the ability to track weight changes of the sample during testing.
This technical result is achieved in that in the method of determining the effectiveness of fire protection protective compounds and coatings for wood and materials based on it, including sample preparation, exposure to flame on the sample, measuring the temperature of exhaust gaseous products of combustion during exposure to flame on the sample and after termination of exposure until the end of the test, the measurement of the mass of the sample and determination of the mass loss, which determine the flame-retardant efficiency, according to the invention provide measurements of the mass of the sample continuously during exposure to flame on the sample and after the intervention and at the end of the tests take time exceeding the specified limit loss of mass or moment stabilization of the mass of the sample after the cessation of combustion.
The technical result is also achieved by the fact that the device for determining the flame retardant efficiency of the protective compounds and coatings for wood and materials based on it, contains open from opposite sides of the chamber for placing the sample, a gas burner located underneath the open side of the chamber, located on the top open side of the chamber exhaust system with thermoelectric Converter, a device for measuring and recording the temperature of exhaust gaseous products of combustion and a system for measuring and controlling the flow of gas to the burner, according to the invention provided with a device for automatic measurement and recording time of sample mass during fire tests, including a lever mechanism made with the possibility of installation of the sample holder and associated with the device for measuring the mass connected to the processing unit and recording.
In a preferred embodiment, the lever mechanism is attached to the pivoting bearing fork lever, fork ends of which are fixed cradle for placement of the sample holder, and the opposite part is the balancing device and is connected with a device for measuring mass.
In addition, the gas burner nozzle preferably has a protective mesh cap made of heat-resistant stainless metal alloy.
In addition, the system of measuring and regulating the gas supply to the burner preferably includes a rotameter and faucet set is Lenna between the burner and the rotameter.
The ability to track weight changes of the sample during the experiment allows not only to carry out the classification efficiency of the fire protection means for the final values of the mass loss of the samples, but also get along with this additional important information - characteristics of the mass change of the sample from the time course of the experiment. When comparing the dependences of the mass change of the sample over time with the same dependence of a change in temperature of exhaust gases there is an opportunity to get a comprehensive kinetic characteristics of the process of combustion fire-protected wood that is of interest to analyze the mechanism of fire protection.
In Fig.1 shows the proposed installation to determine the effectiveness of fire protection protective compounds and coatings for wood and materials based on it (the General view, front view), and Fig.2 is a view of the device in side view and schematic diagram of the interconnection of the core node device for the automatic determination of the mass of the sample during the experiment; Fig.3 is a schematic diagram of fork lever mechanism in working position in combination with a ceramic box, a sample holder and the sample (top view), and Fig.4 is a fragment of a nozzle of a gas burner with protective mesh cap.
Installation to determine the effectiveness of fire protection the safety of structures and coatings for wood and materials based on it contains the following main elements: the camera in the form of an open top and bottom ceramic boxes 1; gas burner with 2 worn on its output nozzle protective mesh cap 3; rectangular stand under 4 box 1 with the intake holes on the sides and a hole for the burner 2, which is installed inside the base 4 so that its output nozzle placed at the bottom of the box 1; a holder 5 for holding the sample 6 of wood in a ceramic box 1; a lever mechanism in the form of a fork lever 7 with the cradle for holding the holder 5 of the sample; an exhaust device over the duct 1 in the form of a metallic umbrella 8 square cross section for removal of combustion products with fortified in its narrow upper part thermoelectric Converter 9 for measuring the temperature of exhaust products of combustion; a vertical rod 10 for mounting and rotation of the umbrella 8; a system for measuring and controlling the flow of gas to the burner 2, which includes the flowmeter 11 gas with a needle valve to regulate gas flow to the burner 2 and the ball valve 12 to turn off the gas and flame gas burner 13 2.
The inner surface of the removable ceramic boxes 1 is covered with a thin aluminum foil to better ensure the accumulation of heat by the sample 6 in the tests.
Device to automatically determine and record the mass of the sample during fire testing includes system uravnovesen the th lever mechanism in the form of a fork arm 7 of tool steel, fixed in the rotating axial support 15 with a low coefficient of sliding. Open-end portion of the lever 7 has on each of the two ends is coaxially fixed to the cradle 14 for retaining and fixing the holder 5 of the test sample 6 of wood in the form of a horizontal axial rod and the inner distance between the two ends of the fork must provide for free passage into her ceramic boxes 1. The opposite part of the lever mechanism 7 is made in the form of a shoulder with an adjusting screw (not shown) for balancing the system in the initial position and has the drive to the device for measuring the mass - automatic electronic laboratory scales 16. The scale 16 is equipped with a locking system original position in an idle state and have the ability to reset the sample, and an interface for transmitting and processing data on the computer 17 is connected and thermoelectric Converter 9 for measuring and recording time temperature of exhaust gaseous products of combustion.
The sample holder 5 when the experiment is fixed with the upper open side of the ceramic box 1 on two lodgments (right and left) 14 fork arm 7 and does not apply ceramic boxes 1, but provides the location of the sample 6 in a ceramic box 1, similar izvestno installation. A lever mechanism 7 is balanced and secured in a pivoting bearing 15 which is free to rotate in the vertical plane. Efforts arising from the mass of sample 6 wood, when the tests are passed via a lever mechanism on the laboratory scale 16. Data on the change in sample mass 6 and the temperature of exhaust through umbrella 8 products of combustion through the interface and transmitted to the computer 17 and processed as composite charts: the mass of the sample is a function of time 18, the temperature of the gaseous combustion products is a function of time 19.
Dimensions, design, device and method for fixing ceramic boxes 1, umbrella 8, stand 4, the burner 2, sample 6 in the holder 5, rotameter 11 correspond to the known device.
Additional ball valve 13 mounted on the gas-feeding pipe between burner 2 and a rotameter 11 as close as possible to the burner 2 directly in front of the stand 4, allows you to quickly turn on after 2 min exposure to the flame of the burner 2, because with this arrangement, the valve 13, the gas volume, free flowing and in a gas-feeding tube after closing the gas valve is extremely minimal and there is no effect of the subsequent uncontrolled "afterburn" significant remains of the gas in the burner.
Internal distance Lv between the two forks (see Fig.3) lever 7 is installed from the trace of the subsequent ratio:
where s=10±5 mm gap between the inner surface of the fork arm 7 and the outer surface of the ceramic boxes 1, providing convenience when measuring the mass of the sample 6 and eliminating interference;
Lk - width (external) ceramic boxes 1.
The height h of the protective mesh cap 3, put on the output of the burner nozzle 2 (see Fig.4), is set equal to the outer diameter of the exit nozzle of the burner D, because under these conditions, protective mesh cap 3 will be the most cool part of the flame and not be perekachivanii (Great Soviet encyclopedia, T. 7, S. 224-225, 3rd ed., M: "SE", 1972) and at the same time to have the necessary slope, providing rolling with it particles of coke.
The device operates as follows.
Before the tests are set up and operation control lever mechanism in combination with the weights 16. This produces the control definition of the known mass of the sample 6 on the holder 5 is placed on the cradle 14 of the horizontal and balanced fork arm 7. The coincidence of the control mass with an indication of the weights 16 a system for determining the mass of the sample is ready for testing. In case of discrepancies in the testimony of mass of the system is governed by the balancing lever mechanism and adjustment of the weights 16.p> Next, check the height of the flame of the burner 2 and the temperature of the flue products of combustion when the burner 2, as well as on the well-known setting. Then the weighted sample 6 of wood fire protection fixed to the holder 5. Then take away the umbrella 8 and the sample 6 is dipped into the center of the cross section of the ceramic box 1 with a working gas burner 2 so that the rod holder 5 stood up simultaneously on the right and on the left the cradle 14 of the fork arm 7, which previously brought into balance with the availability of the holder 5 (without sample) and recorded. Further, at the same time return to its working position the umbrella 8, include scales 16 with the removal of the fixation lever mechanism and record the readings thermoelectric Converter 9 and the mass of the sample 6 to the computer 17 in the form of graphs 18 and 19.
Upon completion of exposure exposure to the sample gas burners (2 min) turn off the gas supply to the burner 2 ball valve 12 and continue measuring and recording settings on the computer.
Classification tests of the fire protection means the end of the experiment after 2 min exposure to the burner on the sample occurs when one of two conditions:
a) the sample has lost a lot larger than the classification limit values according to the testimony of weights 16 on the chart 18 (see Fig.2), regardless of the tempo of the atmospheric temperature, defined under the direction of thermoelectric Converter 9 on the chart 19, (see Fig.2);
b) the sample is not illuminated (the temperature of the flue gas products on the testimony thermoelectric Converter 9 in the umbrella 8 drops sharply), the mass of the sample 6 on the testimony of weights 16 on the chart 18 is stabilized (not changing with time) (see Fig.2).
Classification of fire protection means and the evaluation of the averaged test results of the proposed installation is in compliance with the applicable standard.
The table below shows examples of the implementation of the proposed method of testing in comparison with the known and the results obtained for samples of wood - pine, treated with a known flame retardant MS (see "Ways and means of fire protection of wood: a Manual", M.: the Institute of fire prevention, 1994, S. 21-24).
In all these examples (see table PP.1-4) preparation and conditioning of samples mounting of samples in the holder, the adjustment and setting of the gas supply to the burner in the flame height and temperature of the waste gaseous products of combustion and the duration of operation of the gas burner, the method of lining with aluminum foil inner surface of the ceramic boxes correspond to GOST R 53292-2009.
In a known method of testing for known installation (see table p. 1 and p. 3) led monitor and record the temperature of Kodama combustion products (GOST R 53292-2009), but in the proposed method, the proposed installation (see tab. p. 2 and p. 4) in addition, in the course of the experiment automatically measured and were recording the mass.
From the table it is seen that in the case of applying the proposed method and installation are obtained adequate and comparable with GOST R 53292-2009 results for final evaluation of the effectiveness of the flame retardant composition. So, at a flow rate of flame retardant 500 g/sq. m (see tab. p. 1 and p. 2) the data obtained in both cases correspond to group II of fireproof efficiency and at a lower flow rate of 200 g/square m fire resistant tool does not provide the required level of fire protection (see tab. p. 3 and p. 4), because the weight loss of the samples greater than 25%.
At the same time testing if the proposed installation and its associated method of testing is greatly reduced because the operator during the test has the ability to track, in the course of the experiment, indications of changes in the mass of the sample and to complete the experiment in optimum time.
In addition, you can save the received data in the computer's memory and instant processing of test results.
|№ p/p||Fireproof is a tool and flow,|
|Type install||Weight of sample before test-Tania, g||Maxim-supplemented flax tempera-round products of combustion tests nieh, °C||The duration of the test after switching off the gas burner, min||The sample mass on the end-NII test-tions, g||The weight loss of the sample during the test deposits, % of the initial mass||The duration of the tests with respect to time of operation of the burner, min|
-ucts of combustion to ambient temperature
|To achieve the ultimate weight loss greater than 25%||To stabilize the weight after stopping combustion|
|1||The composition of the MS, 500||known||120,2||510||47||Not defined||Not defined||for 91.3||24,0 (less than 25%)||49|
|2||The composition of the MS, 500||of 120.5||495||Not defined||-||12||91,8||23,8 (less than 25%)||14|
|3||The composition of the MS 200||known||125,6||553||58||Not defined||Not defined||68,5||45,5 (over 25%)||60|
|4||The composition of the MS 200||offer||125,4||540||Not defined||5||-||90,3||28 (over 25%)||7|
1. The method of determining the effectiveness of fire protection protective compounds and coatings for wood and materials based on it, including sample preparation, exposure to flame on the sample, measuring the temperature of exhaust gaseous products of combustion during exposure PLA is February to the sample and after termination of exposure until the end of the test, measurement of the mass of the sample and determination of the mass loss, which determine the flame-retardant efficiency, characterized in that provide measurements of the mass of the sample continuously during exposure to flame on the sample and after the intervention and at the end of the tests take time exceeding the specified limit loss of mass or moment of stabilization of the mass of the sample after the cessation of combustion.
2. Installation to determine the effectiveness of fire protection protective compounds and coatings for wood and materials based on it containing open from opposite sides of the chamber for placing the sample, a gas burner located underneath the open side of the chamber, located on the top open side of the chamber exhaust system with thermoelectric Converter, a device for measuring and recording the temperature of exhaust gaseous products of combustion, and means for measuring and controlling the flow of gas to the burner, characterized in that it is provided with an automatic device for measuring and recording time of sample mass during fire tests, including a lever mechanism made with the possibility of installation of the holder sample and associated with a device for measuring the mass connected to the processing unit and recording.
3. Installation under item 2, wherein ry is one important mechanism is attached to the pivoting bearing fork lever, at the ends of the fork part which is fixed cradle for placement of the sample holder, and the opposite part is the balancing device and is connected with a device for measuring mass.
4. Installation under item 2, characterized in that the gas burner nozzle has a protective mesh cap made of heat-resistant stainless metal alloy.
5. Installation under item 2, characterized in that the means of measuring and regulating the gas supply to the burner includes a flowmeter with regulating valve and a valve installed between the burner and the rotameter.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: reactor vessel steel samples are heated to temperature from 300°C, their further ageing is carried out at this temperature within certain time, subsequent tests of samples are carried out for impact bending, and test results are analysed to determine the value of the shift of critical brittleness temperature, at the same time samples of reactor vessel steel in process of ageing at the temperature of reactor vessel operation of 300-320°C are additionally exposed to neutron radiation with flux of 1011-1013 n/cm2·sec for 103 hours, after that they perform baking at the temperature of 400-450°C with duration of at least 30 hours, and assessment of extent of steel embrittlement is determined using the value of shift of critical brittleness temperature ΔTk(t) as a result of thermal ageing for the time making more than 5·105 hours, in accordance with a certain mathematical expression.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of assessment of extent of embrittlement of VVER-1000 reactor vessel embrittlement as a result of thermal ageing.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to monitoring the flue gas composition. This method is suitable for monitoring of steam boiler operation at burning the chlorine-containing fuel. It can also be used at pyrolysis, gasification and the like processes. Composition of flue gases resulted from thermal processes, particularly, at combustion of biological fuel or fuel produced from wastes is monitored by measurement of quantity of particles of definite sizes at, at least, one point in flue gas path. Measured are particles of sizes that are known to be composed of alkaline metal chlorides.
EFFECT: monitoring of alkaline metal chloride compositions in flue gases.
9 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: physics; control.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to space, aviation, radio engineering, instrument-making and mechanical engineering and can be used in all industries for automatic control of the thermal state and functional parameters of technical devices. The method for automatic control of the thermal state and functional parameters of technical devices involves setting and determining the type and parameters of thermal functions of technical devices, from which values of thermal functions during operation of the devices and downtime thereof are calculated, and making adjustments in actuating devices through a numerical control computer system upon reaching the calculated values of set acceptable values. The method involves determining the type, the time variation characteristics of standard laws of thermal functions of the position, movement and state of technical devices, heat-loaded parts thereof, assemblies and components during heating and cooling thereof for each controlled functional parameter during operation of a technical device and during downtime thereof. Statistical characteristics of the time variation of thermal functions of heating and cooling for each controlled functional parameter during operation of the device and during downtime thereof are established during multiple tests. The obtained characteristics of the time variation of thermal functions in the working volume of the technical device during operation and downtime thereof are then used to calculate the value and/or position and/or movement and/or state of the controlled functional parameter in accordance with the operating time or downtime, for the current range of positions, movements and states of heat-loaded parts, assemblies and components of technical devices, and when values and/or positions and/or movements and/or states reach, with given probability, set acceptable values, the controlled functional parameter of the technical device is adjusted through a numerical control computer system by changing and acting on current parameters and functioning characteristics which define the level of the thermal conditions or state of heat-loaded devices.
EFFECT: high accuracy of functioning of technical devices, high reliability thereof, stability of maintaining the level or range of values of functional output parameters of the position, movement and state of technical devices during operation thereof, carried out without using additional mechanisms, devices and systems for measuring temperature and/or thermal deformations and/or the position and/or movement and/or state of heat-loaded parts of devices.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises: a sensor comprising a sensitive element and a heating element configured for heating of the sensitive element to the previously set operating temperature, besides, the sensitive element is perceptive to the specified gas so that at least one electric property of the sensitive element varies depending on presence of the specified gas, besides, the electric property of the sensitive element is measured by a gas metering device; and a control circuit comprising a heating element controller connected to the heating element and measuring its electric property, besides, the control circuit has a source of heating energy supplying energy to heating element. The controller of the heating element is connected with a source of heating energy and controls its operation depending on measurement of the electric property of the heating element; a facility of pulse modulation connected with the controller of the heating element, the source of heating energy for control of the energy value supplied to the heating element. At the same time the facility of pulse modulation is made as capable of generation of the first set of energy pulses, having certain duration, and the second set of energy pulses, having another, shorter duration for maintenance of temperature of the heating element substantially at the permanent level. Also the invention relates to the method for manufacturing and method of operation of the gas metering device.
EFFECT: device is manufactured and operated in a profitable and reliable manner.
8 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of determining dryness of wet steam involves measuring pressure in a controlled stream of steam. A steam sample is then collected from the controlled stream, the collected sample is throttled into a flow chamber and calculations are carried out based on the measured parameters. The collected steam sample flows from the first flow chamber into a second flow chamber. Both chambers are placed in the controlled stream of steam or other heating medium. Pressure and temperature is measured in each chamber. After the second chamber, flow rate, pressure and temperature of the collected sample is measured. The value of flow rate is then established based on parameters measured in the first chamber.
EFFECT: determining dryness of a stream of wet steam without condensing the collected sample.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: sample is heated to temperature of polymer binder decay. Filler content is calculated by variation of a sample mass, taking into account the ash residue in process of polymer binder decay defined under conditions identical to composite decay. At the same time the variation of the sample mass is defined according to a thermogram.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of detection of filler content in a polymer composite, reduced time of analysis, lower labour and power inputs.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method to display a temperature field of an object includes measurement of temperature in different points of its surface. Previously an object image is introduced into a computer base, and the image is displayed onto the screen, the points of temperature measurement on the surface of the object are displayed on the object image on the monitor screen, and after performance of measurements and treatment of results of measurements in the computer the image of the temperature field of the object is formed on its image with software.
EFFECT: simplified design of technical facilities used to vary temperature field of an object.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: testing equipment.
SUBSTANCE: sample of a lubricant material of permanent volume is heated with mixing in presence of air, measured, and the light flux absorption coefficient is determined. At the same time, at first each sample of the lubricant material is pre-heated for a continuous period of time at atmospheric pressure and fixed temperature, which in process of each subsequent test of a new sample is increased, and after each heating a sample of a lubricant material is taken with permanent mass, which is then heated with mixing in presence of air within the time established depending on the base under permanent temperature and permanent speed of mixing, which after oxidation is measured, the light flux absorption coefficient is determined. Then the graphical curve is built for dependence of the light flux absorption coefficient on heating temperature. Thermal-oxidative stability of the lubricant material is defined by heating temperature with least value of the light flux absorption coefficient.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of determination of thermal-oxidative stability of lubricant materials.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises heating the part to temperature whereat pressure of released gas expanding under the coating exceeds yield point of coating material to define gas content in part surface from relative area of coating swell.
EFFECT: faster, simpler and cheaper procedure.
SUBSTANCE: in the method for determining the system of heat-engineering properties of rooms of buildings and facilities under full-scale (operating) conditions, which involves measurement of inside and outside air temperature, relative air humidity is measured inside the room and temperature is measured on internal surface of enclosing structures; dewpoint temperature and rated temperature is determined; the above temperatures are compared and that parameter is chosen, which has maximum value; the chosen value is used in radiation thermometer as lower alarm limit; radiation thermometer is used with pre-set alarm mode for investigation of the controlled zone in order to detect points with minimum temperature; density of heat flow passing through those structures is measured at those points, and corrected resistance to heat transfer of enclosing structures is calculated.
EFFECT: providing possible evaluation of heat-engineering characteristics of rooms and heat protective properties of enclosing structures under non-stationary conditions using minimum amount of recording instruments at maintaining the accuracy and increasing the monitoring efficiency.
4 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: fire-fighting equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method of combined sand jet-water extinguishing forest fires from the air due to the use of local materials and purposeful fire extinguishing only at points of contact of with burning crowns with non-burning crowns of neighbouring trees is a mobile in time of starting the whole process of fire extinguishing due to the ubiquitous proximity of consumables. According to the proposed method, the formation of sand jets occurs automatically due to the lifting height and weight of the thrown sand. The water thrown then to the remaining sources of fire with less heat liberation is used without loss by evaporation in the air directly to cool crowns, including those fallen to the ground, which ensures high efficiency of extinguishing forest fires. The extinguished area of spread of fire in the form of a band with no means of transmission of fire is a barrier for spreading fire from the ongoing passive afterburning of the isolated part of the forest.
EFFECT: improved method.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fire protection of inhabited pressure compartments of spacecrafts. Additional container with gas working medium is placed adjacent to sample combustion chamber made in the form of cylinder. The combustion chamber at its both ends is connected with additional container by openings for working gas medium passage when closed loop of its motion is created. The combustion chamber and additional container are equipped with plate-type heat exchangers one of which is located in combustion chamber between the axis of centrifuge rotation and sample of material being tested, and the other one - in additional container between the axis of centrifuge rotation and working gas medium outlet from combustion chamber. Opening at the side of working gas medium inlet into combustion chamber is closed by grid made of incombustible material with low hydraulic resistance. Openings between combustion chamber and additional container at each end of combustion chamber are made with port areas not less than combustion chamber cross-sectional area in the region of tested material sample location.
EFFECT: determination of material combustion limits from gravity acceleration depending on oxygen concentration in spacecraft pressure compartment atmosphere.
8 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: testing equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises two vertical guides, upper ends of which are stiffly connected with a crosspiece, a horizontal frame placed between two vertical guides as capable of movement in the vertical direction and made in the form of two knee pieces, the vertical shelves of which are located in vertical guides, and a cross beam is fixed on horizontal shelves, three units for nozzle fixation, a high pressure pump, a hoist with a rope, where the horizontal frame is suspended, a block for the hoist rope fixed in the central part of the specified crosspiece, a recorder, a model fire seat. One of units for nozzle fixation is fixed on the cross beam, and two others are fixed on vertical shelves, which have height much higher than the critical value that corresponds to jamming of the frame during its movement and determined in accordance with the formula.
EFFECT: expanded arsenal of technical facilities for nozzle testing.
6 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: fire-fighting equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device for protection of fire-fighter from thermal radiation can be used in open area, as well as indoors and enables the fire-fighter in fire fighting gear stay in the fire zone for a long time. The device is made from the pivotally interconnected sections. The sections are the mesh panels mounted with a gap between them, between which the nozzles are located, connected with the pipe to the fire-hose barrel and fire hose.
EFFECT: invention enables to make the device compact, to simplify its design, to improve reliability and to reduce weight.
12 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: fire-fighting equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of fire suppression in the gallery premises, comprises the registration of fire by the sensors, processing of these signals, the supply of command signal to the actuator, followed by the initiation and supply of the fire extinguishing fluid in the premises with the creation of the transverse and longitudinal drencher curtains, characterised in that the registration of fire is carried out using the module of registration of fire situation, the operational state of the conveyor to determine the localisation of the source of fire on it is registered by the sensors of the conveyor operation, the operation start of the transverse drencher curtains functioning constantly and the longitudinal drencher curtains is carried out simultaneously, the longitudinal drencher curtain is created directly in the area of initiation and/or in the area ahead of the moved source of fire on the conveyor along the entire length of the protected area and with partial overlapping of the adjacent zones, and when the conveyor is stopped the suppression is performed directly in the area of the premises, where the source of fire is located, and by creating the longitudinal drencher curtains, these drencher curtains are transverse and longitudinal and are made for a predetermined time which is predetermined separately for each protected area.
EFFECT: providing localisation and liquidation of the fire in the gallery premises.
FIELD: fire safety.
SUBSTANCE: means of volumetric thermal and fire protection of drive of shutoff and control valves of pipeline in case of fire comprises a rigid box made in the form of an open vessel, which internal volume is equipped with a coating of fire retardant material. At that the securable object is made in the form shutoff and control valves with the housing and the main shaft connected to the locking element, the servo-actuator and the control unit. At that the bottom of this box is made of a rigid magnesite plate and the box is made in the form of a rigid volumetric frame with the walls of the sandwich panels. At that under the bottom of the means the bearing assembly is placed consisting of a support platform, and a lower sleeve is located in it in which the additional hollow shaft of the servo-actuator is mounted, connected to the main shaft of the locking element. At that in the contact between the panel of the bottom and the panels of the box the seal of soft fire retardant material is placed, glued by heat-resistant adhesive to the sandwich panels of the box, latticed with steel amplifier of its mechanical strength and provided with handles with the ability of its removal, the additional shaft of servo-actuator is kinematically connected to the joint lever rotation of the indicator of position of the locking element, and the electrical cable of the control unit and the working power supply connections of the servo-actuator are passed through the holes in the bottom of the means and are sealed in it.
EFFECT: improvement of operational capabilities and reliability of operation.
16 cl, 16 dwg
FIELD: fire safety.
SUBSTANCE: float lines of lightweight non-combustible material are attached to the ceiling, to form compartments of square or rectangular shape with the area of not more than 36 m2, at that in the cross-section the line has a T-bar, and its height is 20-25 mm larger than the size of the sprinkler or the heat detector.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of automatic fire fighting units through the elimination of fire outbreak and fire prevention in the national economic assets.
FIELD: fire safety.
SUBSTANCE: method of inerting for prevention and/or extinguishing fire, in which the oxygen content determined in advance is less, the method comprises the following steps: obtaining the initial gas mixture comprising oxygen, nitrogen, and optionally other components in a mixing chamber, preferably in a mixing chamber made in the form of a mixing tube; using the gas separation system at least a portion of the oxygen is separated from this initial gas mixture obtained; and the gas mixture enriched in nitrogen is fed through pipes to the atmosphere of the enclosed space, a portion of the ambient air contained in the enclosed space is extracted from the space, preferably in a controlled manner and fed into the mixing chamber, and the extracted part of the space air is mixed with fresh air, preferably in a controlled manner through the vent mechanism provided in the system of fresh air supply duct connected to the mixing chamber. The inerting system for setting and/or maintenance of pre-determined oxygen content in the atmosphere of the enclosed space, which is reduced compared to natural ambient air. The inerting system comprises a gas separation system that separates at least part of the oxygen from the initial gas mixture, and at that the inerting system comprises a system of supply pipe line for supplying the gas mixture enriched in nitrogen into the enclosed space. A mixing chamber is additionally provided, preferably a mixing chamber made in the form of a mixing tube for obtaining the initial gas mixture. The first pipeline system through which a part of the air contained in the enclosed space opens into the mixing chamber, and at that the second system through which fresh air is supplied into the mixing chamber opens into the said mixing chamber. The group of inventions also relates to the system of integration.
EFFECT: reduction of risk of fire breaking-out, and extinguishing fire in the protected space.
33 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: fire safety.
SUBSTANCE: fire preventing barrier comprises a direct-flow housing and a composite locking element mounted inside the housing, comprising a locking element itself and a fire damper mounted on the locking element and made wholly or partly of titanium nickelide with reversible effect of shape memory. The damper has a shape not overlapping the opening of the direct-flow housing at a temperature below the temperature of beginning of the reverse martensite transformation, and a shape overlapping the opening of the housing at a temperature above the temperature of end of the reverse martensite transformation. At that the fire damper is made with the ability of the reversible effect of shape memory by treating the damper prior to securing on the locking element, with the cyclic thermal heating and cooling in combination with the deformation.
EFFECT: invention enables to reuse the fire preventing barrier without repeating mounting and replacement of structural elements.
10 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: fire-prevention facilities.
SUBSTANCE: method of fire-fighting in closed facilities, which consists in creation in the fire seat of fire extinguishing agent through discharge from the cylinder and spraying of fire extinguishing agent under pressure through the outlet valve, on the cylinder the outlet valve is mounted, set to actuation from impact on it of metered excessive pressure significantly exceeding the normal pressure in the cylinder, then on the cylinder also the device of generation of the said excessive pressure is mounted, provided with a working element, the cylinder is charged with the extinguishing agent, then inert gas is injected into the cylinder to normal pressure, less pressure of actuation of the outlet valve, and at the time of occurrence of ignition in the device of generation of the additional pressure the working element is initiated, transforming it into the gaseous state, is introduced into the cylinder, the excessive pressure is generated in the cylinder, which is sufficient for actuation of the outlet valve, and the latter is opened, and discharging the fire extinguishing agent from the cylinder, it is sprayed in the ignition area in the form of fine mist. The group of inventions also relates to an automatic fire extinguisher used in this method.
EFFECT: group of inventions provides a guaranteed complete and almost instantaneous opening the fire extinguisher outlet, and also accelerated expulsion of the extinguishing agent and a higher rate of spraying the composition.
7 cl, 3 dwg, 5 ex
FIELD: equipment for protection against fire, particularly to protect auditorium against fire appeared on stage with the use of flexible barrier made as curtain.
SUBSTANCE: fire-proof curtain is formed of web including several layers of heat-resistant material and additional kentledge arranged in lower curtain part. Kentledge is wound round rotary drum connected with electrical and standby manual drives. Drives include electric and manual elevator-descender systems. Curtain has sealing frame including stationary vertical members, horizontal member, movable members and rotary swinging pressing member. Curtain is provided with curtain dropping speed stabilization system including several weights located on different heights and connected one to another by flexible tie wound on multiple-pass pulley installed on drum shaft and damper. Device is operated in the following way. As fire occurs on stage fixing force is manually or automatically released from drum and curtain begins to move downwards under the action of kentledge. Pulley is rotated and weights are consecutively lifted to prevent curtain acceleration due to increasing curtain weight. When kentledge reaches floor weights reach dampers and stop. Swinging pressing member presses curtain to horizontal member and movable members press curtain to provide stage portal air-tightness, to localize fire on stage and to protect auditorium against hazardous combustion products.
EFFECT: increased efficiency.