Free form lenses with variable refraction index
SUBSTANCE: free form ophthalmic lens comprises a first optical zone portion comprising multiple voxels of polymerised crosslinkable material containing a photoabsorptive component. The optical zone portion comprises a first area having a first refraction index and a second area having a second refraction index; and a second portion comprising a layered volume of crosslinkable material polymerised beyond the gel point of the crosslinkable material.
EFFECT: obtaining ophthalmic lenses with a free form surface and areas with different refraction indices, which enable to correct vision by changing the focal distance.
18 cl, 19 dwg
This application will require the priority application for U.S. patent for the registration number 12/729334, filed on March 23, 2010, and the application for a U.S. patent for the registration number 61/164995, filed March 31, 2009.
The SCOPE of the INVENTION
The present invention describes a device for the manufacture of ophthalmic lenses and, more specifically, in some embodiments, for the manufacture of ophthalmic lenses free form regions with different refractive index.
BACKGROUND of INVENTION
A known method of manufacturing ophthalmic lenses by injection molding, in which the Monomeric material is placed in the cavity formed by the optical surfaces of two or more opposite parts of the molds. Composite molds for manufacturing products made of hydrogel, such as ophthalmic lenses, may include, for example, the first portion forms a convex surface corresponding to the back surface of the ophthalmic lens, and the second section forms a concave surface corresponding to the front surface of the ophthalmic lens.
For the manufacture of lenses with the use of such parts moulds for unpolymerized composition to obtain lenses of the hydrogel is placed between disposable plastic is th part, forming the front surface of the lenses, and disposable plastic part forming the rear surface of the lens, and then polymerized. However, the design of manufactured thus ophthalmic lenses is limited by the design of the mold used for casting.
Therefore, additional methods and devices for manufacturing ophthalmic lenses of a given shape and size, which can be modified to obtain individual lenses to achieve specific goals and / or needs of a specific patient.
BRIEF description of the INVENTION
The present invention relates to the manufacture of ophthalmic lenses, which includes the first section, containing many elements polymerized capable of cross-linking material, and the second section containing a layered volume is capable of cross-linking material, polymerized above the point of gelation. In addition, different areas of the lens, made in accordance with the present invention, may have different refractive indices to further facilitate vision correction in a patient.
Typically, the reaction mixture containing photoglossy component is irradiated by a source of actinic radiation through the media surface is curved. On m is Nisha least part of the curved surface may be a surface of optical quality. Specified actinic radiation is controlled in such a way as to polimerizuet of the said reaction mixture with the formation of products of a given geometric shape. Specified geometric shape may include one surface is formed on the surface of the optical quality of the substrate and a second surface, freely formed in the volume of the reaction mixture.
Part of lenses constituting the present invention may include photoglossy component. Specified photoglossy component can be used to generate a set of volume elements (voxels) of the lens material. Each voxel may have a first end and a second end, the second part of the lens may include a layered volume is capable of cross-linking material, polymerized next point of gelation, which substantially covers each of the second end. Different ways of implementation can also include an optical surface on one or both of these first and second sections of the lenses.
The voxels of polymerized lens material can be formed by irradiation capable of cross-linking material many rays of actinic radiation, each beam of actinic radiation out of the radiation source and is reflected in the direction of some for the data item of the reaction mixture within a specified period of time. Each beam of actinic radiation may be reflected in the direction of a given element of the reaction mixture within a specified period of time, the radiation has a certain desired wavelength. In some embodiments mentioned the second part of the lens is formed by irradiation of the reaction mixture by many rays of actinic radiation emerging from the various sets in the space.
In some additional embodiments of the formed lens may have one or more features, such as canals, formed by the voxels polymerized capable of cross-linking material, one or more raised areas formed by the voxels polymerized capable of cross-linking of the material.
Lenses made in accordance with the present invention may be spherical or non-spherical. The composition of this first surface may include optical area of the optical quality and the second surface may contain artifacts.
In one embodiment, the layered volume capable of cross-linking material contains a diagram of the cross-linkage other than the linkage voxel to voxel.
In another embodiment, the lens further comprises one or more recessed region is, composed of voxels polymerized capable of cross-linking of the material.
In yet another embodiment, a layered volume is capable of cross-linking material, polymerized next point of gelation, repeats the form of recessed areas formed by the voxels polymerized capable of cross-linking material. In an alternative embodiment, the layered volume capable of cross-linking material, polymerized next point of gelation, does not repeat the form of recessed areas formed by the voxels polymerized capable of cross-linking of the material.
In yet another embodiment, the first section contains a discrete pattern is formed along the surface of the media.
In another embodiment, the perimeter of the ophthalmic lens is essentially non-circular form.
In yet another embodiment, the perimeter of the lens has an essentially oval shape.
In some embodiments of the described lens may be formed from blanks lenses containing both fluid and structure-forming region. In the preferred embodiment, these structure-forming region largely formed under the action of raster optimalisations device, but asana fluid region can be formed in a variety of ways while under the influence of optimalisations device. In alternative embodiments, the implementation of the lens can be fully formed under the action of raster optimalisations device without producing billets lens as an intermediate product.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION of DRAWINGS
In Fig.1 presents the sequence of steps that can be used to implement some embodiments of the methods that are the subject of the present invention.
In Fig.2 shows additional steps that can be used to implement some embodiments of the methods that are the subject of the present invention.
In Fig.3 presents an example of the relationship between absorption and transmission for forming and fixing actinic radiation.
In Fig.4 illustrates a lens made in accordance with the principles of the invention described in this document.
In Fig.5 shows part of the device that can be used to implement some embodiments of the present invention, involving the use of raster lithography.
In Fig.6 shows an example of system components of a radiation source that can be used to implement some embodiments of the present invention.
In Fig.7 shows an example of components of the optical system, which could is t be used to implement some embodiments of the present invention.
In Fig.8 shows an example of components of a digital mirror device that can be used to implement some embodiments of the present invention.
In Fig.9 illustrates additional components of the device that can be used to implement some embodiments of the present invention.
In Fig.10 shows an example of forming the optical elements that can be used to implement some embodiments of the present invention.
In Fig.11 presents an example of a container for the monomer, which can be used to implement some embodiments of the present invention.
In Fig.12 shows an example of device removal of material that can be used to implement some embodiments of the present invention.
In Fig.13 presents the raw positioning system, for example, device removal of material that can be used to implement some embodiments of the present invention.
In Fig.14 presents an example of a device stabilization and fixation, which can be used to implement some embodiments of the present invention.
In Fig.15 shows an example of a measurement system that can be used for the implementation of a number in the of options for the implementation of the present invention.
In Fig.16 presents an example of the system hydration and separation from form, which can be used to implement some embodiments of the present invention.
In Fig.17 shows an example cross-section of the workpiece lens with the generated voxels and layered displacement fluid lesoobrazuyushchei reaction medium.
In Fig.18 presents the workpiece lens with examples of channel artifacts.
In Fig.19 shows the lens formed by irradiation of the workpiece lens actinic radiation.
DETAILED description of the INVENTION
The present invention describes methods and apparatus for the manufacture of lenses and lens blanks. The following sections provide a detailed description of embodiments of the present invention. The above description as the preferred and alternative embodiments, despite the detail, are only examples of possible embodiments, and it is implied that to a person skilled in this field will be obvious possibilities for variations, modifications and changes. Therefore, it is necessary to understand that the examples of possible embodiments do not limit the broad aspects of the described invention stated in the claims.
In the following description and claims altoadige of the invention uses a number of terms, for which will be taken the following definitions.
Used in this application, the term "actinic radiation" means radiation that is able to initiate a chemical reaction.
Used in this application, the term "curved" means a line or curve, such sognatore onions.
Referred to in the present application is "the law of the bear", sometimes also called the "law of Lambert-Baer", shows that I(x)/I0=exp(-αcx), where I(x) is the intensity as a function of distance x from the input of the irradiated surface, I0 is the intensity incident on the input surface radiation, α is the absorption coefficient of the absorbing radiation component, the concentration of the absorbing radiation component.
Used in this application, the term "colliergate" means to limit the angular divergence of radiation, such as light radiation, which is supplied as output from the device receiving radiation as an input stream. In some embodiments the angular divergence can be limited so that the outgoing light rays will be parallel. Thus, the collimator is a device that performs this function, and "collimated" describes its impact on radiation.
Used in this application, the term "CMU" (digital Micromirror devices is) refers to a bistable spatial light modulator, consisting of an array of movable microthermal, functionally associated with and mounted on the chip CMOS memory. Each mirror is controlled independently by loading data into the memory cell directly below the mirror for directing the reflected light, allowing you to display a pixel of video data per pixel of the screen. Downloadable data electrostatically control the angle of the mirror, which can be in two States: angle +X C (incl.) and angle is X degrees (off). For currently available devices with nominal value of X can be 10 or 12 degrees. Reflected in the "enabled" state mirrors the light passes through the projection lens and is directed to the screen. In "off" state, the mirror reflects the light to create a dark field, thus setting the background black level of the image. The images themselves are generated by modulation of the level of grey by fast switching of the mirrors between two States with a frequency sufficient for the average perception of the observer. Described CMU sometimes is a digital projection system DLP (Digital Light Processing).
Used in this application, the term "CMU-script" refers to the Protocol control spatial light modulator, and to the control signals for pleasure what about the system component, for example, the light source or drum filters, each of which may consist of a time-ordered sequence of commands. The use of abbreviations, CMU does not imply restriction of the use of this term to denote a specific type or size of the spatial light modulator.
Used in this application, the term "fixing radiation" means actinic radiation sufficient to achieve one or more of the following purposes: almost complete polymerization and cross-linking of the reaction mixture comprising the lens or lens blank.
Used in this application, the term "fluid lesoobrazuyushchaya reaction environment" means the reaction mixture, which is able to flow in its original form, unreacted form or partially reacted form and which when further processing is becoming a part of manufactured ophthalmic lenses.
Used in this application, the terms "free-formed" and "freely generated" means a surface that was formed by cross-linking of the reaction mixture and the formation of which was not involved in the surface of the moulds.
Used in this application, the term "gelation point" means the point at which the first observed appearance is their gel or insoluble fraction. The point of gelation is a degree of transformation in which the degree of cross-linkage liquid curable mixture increases so that the mixture becomes solid. The point of gelation can be determined in the experiment socket: the reaction of polymerization is stopped at different time points and polymer mixture is analyzed to determine the mass fraction of insoluble polymer. Then the data extrapolate to a point at which the gel is not yet formed. This point is the point of gelation. The point of gelation can also be determined by analyzing the viscosity of the reaction mixture during polymerization. The viscosity can be determined by using a rheometer with parallel plate gap between the plates which is placed polymerizable reaction mixture. At least one plate of the rheometer should be transparent for radiation with a wavelength that is used for initiating polymerization. The point at which the measured viscosity tends to infinity, and is the point of gelation. For any given polymer system and reaction conditions, the gelation point is always at the same degree of conversion.
Used in this application, the term "lens" means any ophthalmic device, raspolojennoi or on the eye. Such products can be used for optical correction or perform a cosmetic function. For example, the term "lens" can refer to the contact lens, artificial lens, invoice lens, ocular insert, optical box or other device of a similar employee for correction or modification of the visual or cosmetic correction physiology of the eye (for example, change the color of the iris) without prejudice to the view. In some embodiments the preferred lens in accordance with the present invention are soft contact lenses made from silicone elastomers or hydrogels, which, inter alia, silicone hydrogels and forhydrogen.
Used in this application, the term "workpiece lens" means a compound object that contains the form for the procurement of lenses and fluid lesoobrazuyushchei the reaction mixture in contact with a workpiece lenses. For example, in some embodiments flowing lesoobrazuyushchaya the reaction medium is formed in the mold making process for the procurement of the lens in the volume of the reaction mixture. The Department forms for procurement of lenses and which are in direct contact with the fluid lesoobrazuyushchei reaction medium from the rest of the volume of the reaction mixture, IP is Altavas for the manufacture of forms for procurement lenses, allows you to receive the blank lenses. In addition, the lens blank can be converted to another product or by removal of significant amounts of fluid lesoobrazuyushchei the reaction mixture, or by transformation of a significant amount of fluid lesoobrazuyushchei reaction medium in stagnant body material lens.
Used in this application, the term "shape for the workpiece lens" means a stagnant object with at least one optical surface quality, which in the further processing may become part of the ophthalmic lens.
Used in this application interchangeably the terms "mixture for the manufacture of lenses", "lesoobrazuyushchaya mixture", "reactive monomer mixture (RSM) and "capable of cross-linking material" means a Monomeric or preprimary material which can be polymerized and (or) cross stitched with the formation of ophthalmic lenses or part of the ophthalmic lens. Various options for implementation may include mixtures for the manufacture of lenses with one or more additives, such as UV blockers, toning supplements, photoinitiators or catalysts, and other desired additives for ophthalmic lenses, such as contact or intraocular lens.
Used in this application, the term "cast" OSN which includes a rigid or semi-rigid object, which can be used for forming the lenses of the unpolymerized composition. Some preferred forms for casting contain two sections: section forming the front curved surface of the form for casting, and a section forming the rear curved surface of the form for casting.
Used in this application, the term "absorbing radiation component" means absorbing the radiation component, which can be included in the reaction mixture of monomer and which absorbs radiation in a certain range of the spectrum.
Used in this application, the term "reaction mixture", "lesoobrazuyushchaya mixture", "capable of cross-linking the environment and the reaction mixture monomer" are equivalent and have the same meaning that the term "mixture for the manufacture of lenses".
Used in this application, the term "separation from molds" means that the lens is either completely removed from the used molds, or weakly associated with it and can be learned with moderate shaking or using a tampon.
Used in this application, the term "stereolithography procurement lens" means a lens blank, the form of which was formed using stereolithography.
Used in this application, the term "carrier" means Phi is practical object, on which are placed or to which other objects.
Used in this application, the term "intermediate lesoobrazuyushchaya mixture" means a mixture, which can be flowing or stagnant on the form for the procurement of the lens. However, the intermediate lesoobrazuyushchaya mixture largely removed in one or more of the following operations: cleaning, solutionone and hydration before it will become part of the finished ophthalmic lenses. Thus, for clarity, the combining form for procurement of the lens and the intermediate lesoobrazuyushchei mixture will not be considered a procurement of the lens.
Used in this application, the term "voxel" or "voxel actinic radiation" means the volume element, representing a certain amount on a regular grid in three dimensional space. Voxel can be considered as a three-dimensional pixel, if the pixel is an element of a two-dimensional image, the voxel has a third dimension. In addition, although the voxels are often used for visualization and analysis of medical and scientific data, in the present invention, the voxel is used to set boundaries dose of actinic radiation that falls in a certain volume of the reaction mixture and thereby controlling the speed of cross-linking or polymerization in to the specific element of volume of the reaction mixture. As an example, in the framework of the present invention, the voxels are arranged in a single layer adjacent to a two-dimensional surface of the mold for molding, and use of actinic radiation can be directed along the normal to the two-dimensional surface and along a common for all the voxels axis. As an example of the processed volume of the reaction mixture can be crosslinked or polymerized in accordance with the splitting matrix of 768×768 voxels.
Used in this application, the term "voxel procurement lens" means a lens blank, the form of which was created using lithography dividing the working space into voxels (raster lithography).
Used in this application, the term "Xgel" means the degree of chemical conversion stitched reaction mixture in which the proportion of the gel in the mixture is greater than zero.
In Fig.1 shows a block diagram 100 of a number of embodiments of the present invention. Various aspects of the present invention include, for example, the raster technique of lithography 110, an alternative method of molding 120, the method of processing the workpiece lens 130, the method of post-processing 140 and the measurement technique and to provide feedback 150. On presents the block diagram contains two products - harvesting lens 160 and ophthalmic lens 170.
the means and apparatus for the manufacture of wood lens and ophthalmic lens 170 is described in detail in the following patent applications U.S. located on the simultaneous consideration: Methods and apparatus for forming blanks lens and ophthalmic lens 170 is described in detail in the patent application U.S. No. 12/194981 located on the simultaneous consideration, filed August 20, 2008 and entitled "apparatus for forming blanks lenses and ophthalmic lenses", the application for U.S. patent No. 12/195132, filed August 20, 2008 and entitled "methods of forming the billet lenses and ophthalmic lenses", the application for U.S. patent No. 12/363138, filed January 30, 2009, and entitled "Procurement of ophthalmic lenses and lens", and the application for U.S. patent No. 12/396019 filed March 02, 2009 and entitled "Ophthalmic lens surface free form", the contents of each of which is the basis for this application and is incorporated into it by reference.
In the presented scheme, the single arrows can show what is possible for a number of options for implementing the General direction, and double arrows indicate that some or all of the materials, data and / or information can travel between different parts of the described methods and the Central part of the measurements and to provide feedback.
Methods raster lithography
In Fig.1 also presents the ways raster lithography 110, which are the first stage of the otoplenie lens in accordance with some embodiments of the present invention and include the input parameters of the lens in a computer or other computing device to perform the calculation according to a certain algorithm. In some embodiments, these parameters can be determined by measuring the optical aberrations on the optical surfaces of the eye of the patient, or other physical or neurological aspects of the visual system of the patient. The results of such measurements can be converted to the required characteristics of the wave front of manufactured lenses. In other embodiments, the implementation can be used theoretical characterization of the wave front, which factored into the algorithm to determine the required parameters in the manufacture of lenses.
At step 115 some algorithm takes the above input parameters, and in some embodiments correlates them with previously manufactured lenses. At this stage, can be defined a set of "frames" for the sequence of exposure, or script, which will be transferred to the spatial light modulator.
Also available are many techniques that can be used to convert the result of this algorithm for a single-voxel prepared in the temporal intensity profile of the reflected light, including CMU script. As an example, the calculated result of the algorithm, the total intensity of the radiation can be directed in a particular voxel of the reaction mixture in the form of the village is egovernance discrete periods of exposure, during which the incident flux of radiation from the illumination system is recorded continuously. The integral intensity of such periods of continuous exposure can then be supplemented by another period of exposure for which the control of the mirror element is written to a fractional value, so that the mirror is translated to an on state in a sequence of pulses with a certain duty cycle and the output intensity is smaller than under continuous irradiation. Alternative methods may include, for example, in taking the average value of intensity for short periods of exposure, or "frames", and use it to set the value in all frames that it sends to CMU. The person skilled in the art it will be obvious that the community is represented in the device description of the spatial light modulators may also lead to the development of a methodology appropriate to the purpose of control of the intensity and time of exposure.
Although the above methods are examples related to the modulation falling on the device spatial light radiation flux of the fixed intensity device spatial lighting, advanced techniques can be applied to the intensity modulation and the source of radiation either in the source, either the optical system of the light source using optical filters. Additional options for implementation may be obtained by combining the intensity control on the level of components of the lighting system, and a spatial light modulator. Other additional options for implementation may be obtained by controlling the wavelength of the radiation.
Therefore, the method of forming CMU script, which, in General, should be regarded as associated with the control signals of any spatial light modulator of any size, as well as with the control signals of any other appropriate component of the system, for example, a radiation source, drum filters, etc. may generally include the formation of the program of a time sequence of control commands. The person skilled in the art it will be obvious that the possible embodiments of method-related software sequence of control signals that cover different ways to implement the elements of the source of actinic radiation used in the optical system and the chemical composition of the material of the reaction mixture of monomer.
It should be noted that the elements of the implementation of the selected CMU script and algorithms it podgotovlenost be directly related to the processing results. System to provide feedback on important parameters will be described later, so a detailed discussion of these issues has been postponed. However, in terms of how they are created, represented in block 115 CMU script, double arrows coming and going from the block of raster techniques of lithography and block methods of measurement and feedback, partly related to the exchange of information on how to create CMU script.
Another source of input information for the method of forming blanks lenses are different methods of cooking and preparation of the reaction mixture for the system. For example, the chemical components that perform the function of monomer units in the reaction mixture can be photoactive in the ultraviolet part of the spectrum of chemical compounds, as described in some embodiments. However, unlike some other techniques, which are not taken into account the effects of the law of the Bouguer-Lambert-Baer, in the composition of the reaction mixtures of the present invention are molecules which absorb actinic radiation to initiate the expression. Similarly, components of the optical system can also be optimized for operation in the corresponding spectral region of electromagnetic radiation. Accordingly, the method of the ka of the present invention in part of materials used may include molecules sensitive to actinic radiation in a wide region of the electromagnetic spectrum.
In some embodiments of the used monomer mixture is a mixture of one or more types of photochemically active monomer, which also added other chemical constituents. As a non-limiting example, the mixture can be introduced other chemical compounds to absorb actinic radiation. This Supplement may play an important role, for example, in variants of implementation, implementing the principle of raster lithography so that the intensity of the actinic radiation along a defined voxel optical path can be described by the law of the Bouguer-Lambert-Baer. One or more of these components can largely determine the thickness of the photosensitive layer forming mixture in the voxel. In addition, in some embodiments the composition of the reaction mixture may be some component that absorbs radiation in the relevant spectral region.
In other embodiments, implementation of the specified absorbing component in the reaction mixture of monomer can provide a more complex mode of absorption of radiation in comparison with described. For example, in some embodiments of the present invention is the method of introduction in SOS the AB mixture of absorbing actinic radiation component, contains many absorbing different way and (or) at different wavelengths molecules. Additional options for implementation may be obtained from the use of shock-absorbing elements containing molecules, which are able to absorb radiation in several preferred areas of the spectrum. Other embodiments of the described techniques may include the introduction of the reaction mixture of monomer components, which combine the functions of the monomer and the absorbing agent. Such a combined role monomer may also allow in some embodiments to implement a function of absorption even after the entry of the monomer in a chemical reaction. In additional embodiments, the implementation can also be used introduction to the composition of the reaction mixture of compounds that have the ability to change their adsorption characteristics after passing photoinitiated reaction. From the point of view of the generality of the approaches used, it is necessary to understand that the possible embodiments of the method of introduction into the reaction mixture of monomer compounds for absorption of radiation in one or more preferred ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum that are within the scope of the present invention.
In additional embodiments, the implementation of the method of preparation of spacemonger may also be provided for inhibiting component. Inhibiting component may react with the chemical product formed in the reaction mixture of monomer. In some embodiments the absorption of actinic radiation can lead to the formation in a mixture of one or more free-radical particles. The role of the inhibitor may be in the reaction with the formed free radicals and, consequently, the chain termination reactions of polymerization. One of the results of such implementation can be limit polonizirovannaya the polymerization reaction or otherwise limit the distance to which may be distributed reaction of polymerization from the original absorbing a quantum of light of photoinitiator. You need to understand that a number of embodiments with the addition of this inhibitor in the reaction mixture of monomer may be related to the spatial resolution of the lithography process, as set caught in voxel photons will eventually be reflected in the spatial localization of the resulting reactions. Typically, the inhibitor may be subject to a variety of embodiments within the present invention.
Types of chemical compounds or components of the reaction mixture, which can perform the function of the inhibitor are many other options done by the means of the present invention. As in the case of the absorbing agent, the inhibitor with two functions for inhibition of many polymerization processes is within the scope of the present invention. Moreover, the inhibitor may be part of the actual monomer units. Used the inhibitor may have a thermal or photosensitivity. Additional options for implementation may arise from the nature of the inhibitor as chemically pure compounds as inhibitor may be used as dissolved in a mixture of compounds, but to be a gaseous, liquid or solid substance in pure form.
The method of preparation of the reaction mixture of monomer can also be implemented in additional embodiments, providing different ways of introducing the initiating component. In the composition of the reaction mixture of monomer may include fotopolous connection, which molecule by absorption of a photon creates a chemical particle initiating the polymerization reaction. In some embodiments, the initiator can be a molecule with significant absorption in a certain spectral band. Additional embodiments of possible when using the initiator molecules which absorb light in several spectral regions, with the actual operation used in the device to a source of actinic radiation. In addition, absorption can occur in a relatively wide band of frequencies corresponding to the used in the device to a source of actinic radiation. Additional embodiments of possible, if the initiator component in the reaction mixture of monomer are performed by groups with chemical initiating ability and are part of the molecules of one or more types of monomers present in the mixture.
In Fig.1 at the stage 112 is also shown that a certain volume of the reaction mixture is dosed into the container, which can be available for injection forming optical element. In some embodiments, the implementation of the specified container is an open container, in other embodiments, implementation of the specified capacity may be a part form for casting, which can be interfaced with other part form for casting. Although embodiments of multiple parts molds can recall system injection molding of the lens, in the framework of the present invention at least part of one surface of the final lens freely formed in the volume of the mixture and does not repeat the shape of the surface of at least one of the parts of the molds, of which the system consists of the casting.
In some embodiments, when using open or rytoj capacity inside the reaction mixture of monomer can be brought into balance to achieve it required concentration of dissolved oxygen or other gas. In some embodiments, such a reduction in the equilibrium can be achieved by keeping the vessel with a certain volume of the reaction mixture of monomer in the chamber with the atmosphere, in which there is a specified amount of oxygen (or other gas)that after the establishment of equilibrium in the mixture will be required concentration of dissolved gas. In additional embodiments, the implementation can be used automated equipment for introducing the necessary amount of oxygen in the flow of the reaction medium monomer using technology exchange through the membrane. Possible other ways of changing the concentration or the introduction of a sufficient amount of gas in the reaction mixture to obtain the desired level of dissolved in the mixture gas that is in the scope of the present invention.
In some embodiments metered volume of the reaction mixture of monomer can then be manually transferred into a vessel containing vessel in which the reaction mixture of monomer will be in the immediate vicinity of the surface forming the optical element. In other embodiments, the implementation can use automated mechanisms to fill the specified capacity of the reaction mixture of monomer. In additional embodiments, the implementation is also possible dozer the study of mixtures in non-refillable containers, which can then be used as needed during the process of lens manufacturing. The scope of the present invention encompasses the use of some methods of filing in the tank in close proximity to the surface forming the optical element, at least the volume of the reaction mixture of monomer in excess of the amount of material which will be formed lens after completion of all stages of processing.
At stage 116 is making lenses. Typically, the composition of the reaction mixture of monomer includes an absorbent element, so that there is induced by the specified absorption of a significant drop in the intensity image forming actinic radiation they traversed the thickness of the layer, which in some embodiments may be described by the law of Lambert-Baer.
In some embodiments, after working CMU script for the irradiation volume of the reaction mixture of monomer actinic radiation forming the optical element, through which was designed script extracted from the remaining volume of the reaction mixture. In some embodiments forming the optical element can simply be removed from the tank with the reaction mixture of monomer. In other embodiments, the implementation is, the capacity can be omitted Rel is relatively stationary forming optical element. In various embodiments, the implementation can also be provided for removal are on forming optical element patterns of the remaining volume of the reaction mixture. These structures can represent, for example, the form for the procurement of lens extraction of lens or lens.
In additional embodiments, the implementation describes the process of raising or lowering can be automated with the use of equipment capable of accurately control the speed of removal. In alternative embodiments, the implementation itself vessel with the reaction mixture of monomer may be in some way emptied, which will lead to the separation of forming an optical element located on the form for the procurement of the lens from the reaction mixture.
The present invention describes a device and methods of manufacturing ophthalmic lenses with many areas within the optical zone of the lens. These areas are characterized by one or both of the optical characteristics provided by the change in the refractive index and shape of the lens in the optical zone. In some embodiments within the optical zone has several spatially distributed areas with different refractive indices corresponding to the desired vision correction for the patient.
In the present invention may be modulated actinic radiation to create one or more regions with different refractive index on the basis of different modes of/degrees of polymerization, as well as modulation of actinic radiation in accordance with fotoperiodismo characteristics of the reaction mixture for forming the optical surface quality. In an additional aspect of the present invention, a method of modulation or attenuation of UV radiation to achieve different modes of/degrees of polymerization in the material volume of the reaction mixture. Accordingly, in some embodiments there are two or more optical zones, each such optical zone can be formed by varying the refractive index and / or curvature of the optical surface.
Unless otherwise noted, all materials used in the present document technical and scientific terms have a common value, clear to any expert in the field, which is the ratio of the present invention. As a rule, used in this document, the nomenclature and production processes are well known and widely used in this field. For the implementation of these processes using standard methods, for example, is well known in this field and are described in various General guidelines. When using a certain term in the singular, the authors present invention also provide for the possibility of the use of this term in the plural.
Using the method in this application, the term "capable of cross-linking and (or) the polymerized material" means material, which can be polymerized and (or) cross stitched under the action of actinic radiation with obtaining cross-linked and (or) polymerized material which is biocompatible. Examples of actinic radiation include UV radiation, ionizing radiation (such as gamma or x - rays, microwave radiation, and so on
Used in this application, the term "polymer" means a material formed by polymerization of one or more monomers.
Used in this application, the term "prepolymer" means the original polymer, which can be polymerized and (or) cross stitched under the action of actinic radiation with obtaining a cross-linked polymer, the molecular weight which is significantly greater than the molecular weight of the original polymer.
The present invention generally relates to the manufacturing process and design of contact lenses. In one aspect of the present invention, a method for obtaining an optical zone of the lens with the required optical power by modulating an energy source to create a variable intensity of the light flux in accordance with the desired lighting scheme. In accordance with the present invention, this lighting scheme can be used in combination with fotoperiodismo characteristics of the reaction, see the si. The use of variable intensity of the light flux enables to polimerizuet the reaction mixture to create a spatial distribution of refractive index in the optical zone of the lens in the polymerized lens. Intensity energy source, such as UV radiation, varies to obtain the required characteristics of the optical wavefront. Characteristics of the optical wavefront can be varied in accordance with a certain scheme, for example, a basic set of Zernike polynomials or scheme for the correction of aberrations, causing hyperopia. The specified optical wave front can be built based on aberrometry, data corneal topography, or may be calculated as, for example, wave front for the correction of hyperopia.
Forming the subject of the present invention are soft contact lenses preferably are made from the reaction mixture, such as a silicon - or fluorine-containing hydrogel or DUMB, with the characteristics of the material, providing the possibility of modulation of the refractive index. You must understand that for the manufacture of contact lenses that are the subject of the present invention can be used in the reaction mixture of any type. Preferred materials and compositions for these purposes prefer is Ino contain pure or specific modified hydrogels, preferably polyvinyl alcohols (PVA)containing activated by irradiation and capable of cross-linking functional group, which can be photoinitiator exposure to radiation of a certain wavelength.
In accordance with some embodiments, the ophthalmic lens can be manufactured using the technology of two-way wheels in combination with the methods of free forming in volume and device using photoabsorption processes, such as described herein, associated with the law of Lambert-Baer.
The design of these lenses may contain one or more zones in the volume of the lens material, limited by the geometry of the lens. This geometry lenses can assume a homogeneous index of refraction or more regions with different indices of refraction within the optical zone of the lens, depending on the desired type of optical correction. As a rule, most manufactured today lenses are mostly homogeneous refractive index.
In the present invention proposed a lens with a spatial distribution of refractive index. In addition, the lens may have a zone with a variable gradient/gradients of the refractive index. These one or more refractive indices of socetanii or instead of the geometric shape of the optical surface of the lens preferably create the desired profile of the optical power of the lens. The location of these zones is determined by the desired optical characteristics of the lens. One or more zones with constant or varying gradient of the refractive index can be used to obtain a monofocal lenses, toric lenses, bifocal lenses, multifocal lenses, and lenses with any combination of these characteristics.
The power of the lens is determined by the curvature of its front and rear surfaces. More specifically, the optical power of the lens is measured in diopters, which are the reciprocal of the focal length of the lens.
In some embodiments, to change the focal length of the lens can be used to change the shape of its surface, which provides vision correction. In addition, in the framework of the present invention also provides a change in the refractive index of the lens material and the shape of the lens surface is selected in such a way as to change the focal length for passing through the lens of the light.
The present invention provides the shape of the optical surface of the lens, which represent a spherical surface or aspherical surface. The area can be centered on the optical axis of the lens. "Deflection", or z-coordinate of the standard spherical surface is defined by the following expression is m: z standard spherical surface = cr21+1-(1+k).times.C2.times.r2, where  = curvature (the inverse of the radius),  r = radial coordinate in lens units,  k = conic constant; specified conic constant is less than -1 for hyperboloidal, -1 for paraboloids, from -1 to 0 for ellipsoids, 0 for spheres and 0 for more flattened ellipsoids.
A number of designs of the lenses described in the present invention, allow to eliminate or correct optical aberration and defocusing. Two main ways of correction of defocus are the appropriate selection of the surface profile of the lens or change the index or refraction by the polymerization. The present invention provides for the simultaneous creation of a spatial distribution of refractive indices in the optical zone of the lens to compensate for defects of vision and create the desired shape of the lens surface in one lens. The design of the lens can represent a certain design or can be created for a particular patient. In the embodiment, when the ophthalmic lens is designed for a particular patient, for measuring the roughness of the surface of the eye can be used by the wavefront sensor, for example, the wavefront sensor the Shack-Hartmann.
In this case, since the retina is generated ideal wave front, which is then passes through the optical path of the eye. The specified wavefront sensor irradiates the Central fovea of the retina generating a narrow beam light source, typically a laser diode or led, and fixes the position of the scattered light through a set of lenses multibeam system. When you exit the eye specified wave front (optical wave front of an electromagnetic wave from the optical element) contains a complete map of the aberrations of the eye to be analyzed by the sensor. The specified set of lenses multibeam system breaks almost collimated beam on a single point on a digital sensor, typically a CCD or CMOS optical sensor. After the registration of the wavefront sensor may conduct a complex series of analyses to obtain a more complete picture of the optical path of the eye. Then the data can be approximated by some set of Zernike polynomials.
After preparation of optical and mechanical designs of contact lenses specified structure preferably takes the form of a standard file format such as IGES or VDA file or file internal format of the manufacturer of the lens. After the presentation of the known defects in the form of a set of Zernike polynomials or another mathematical form specified mathematical representation is converted to the desired optical power profile.
In predpochtitel the om embodiment of the present invention the reaction mixture, such as the hydrogel is polymerized to obtain the desired spatial distribution of the refractive index of the lens material. The specified spatial distribution preferably is created in the form of a geometrical image, equivalent to a distribution of intensity of radiation and the radiation scheme. The difference in refractive index is proportional to the intensity distribution of the irradiation and thus inversely proportional to the optical density (OD). The higher the refractive index of the lens material, the greater will be the difference in optical power between the different optical zones of the lens. As mentioned earlier, for vision correction refractive index of the entire optical system in the area of the pupil must be constant. The change in the refractive index of the lens at a specific known areas of the lens to compensate for known defects unadjusted eyes helps to normalize the refractive index of the entire optical system.
In some embodiments of the present invention, the modulation of the energy source can be provided by using the mask in gray levels. In the mask of the gray level, or half-tone mask may be used a variable optical density of the individual elements to control the intensity coming in the form of UV radiation is an energy source, thereby ensuring the formation of different refractive index or gradient index of refraction. In some embodiments using a mask of the gray level specified mask can be manufactured using the technology of stereolithography, providing a high precision mask the desired design. The design of the mask and the ability of some areas of the mask to a greater or lesser extent, to pass light energy used can be determined by the processes of generation and production of masks. The design of the mask preferably corresponds to the desired design of manufactured lenses, in which the desired refractive index to an element in the lens material depends on the amount of light energy passed by the mask used for casting the lens cavity. The mask may also be sensitive to the intensity of the incident radiation.
In some embodiments for material modification can be applied composition for the lens material based on PVA. The second composition for the lens material preferably includes increasing the refractive index additives, chemically associated with the frame of the hydrogel, which can be a substituted benzaldehyde, reacted with hydroxyl groups of PVA with the formation of Ilichevsky acetals. The introduction of aromatic fragments in the polymer matrix can be used to improve the overall refractive index of the matrix, which leads to increasing differences in the refractive indices between areas with different density of the polymer.
Additional increase of the refractive index can be caused by the interaction between the polymer and aromatic fragments that increase the order packing of polymer chains in the areas of high density, and increases efficiency. As introduced in the polymer matrix modifiers are chemically bonded to the matrix, thus obtained material retains its biocompatibility and does not require additional steps after extraction of lens manufacturing.
In another preferred embodiment, capable of cross-linking and (or) curable fluid material is an aqueous solution of one or more prepolymers and may optionally one or more vinyl monomers in the composition specified aqueous solution composed of low molecular weight additives, such as NaCl which has limited compatibility with the polymer formed from the specified capable of cross-linking and (or) curable fluid material, but good compatibility with water. Thanks a specified Ogre is Chennai the compatibility of these additives lead to an osmotic gradient, which causes compression of the resulting polymer matrix.
In Fig.2 shows that in another aspect of some embodiments of the present invention as forming ophthalmic lenses may be improved by measurement and feedback. It should be noted that shown in Fig.2 stages and description of related methods are provided only as examples and are not intended to limit the scope of the present invention. For example, in block 205 from an external source may be introduced one or more parameters of the desired lens. As an example, the model of the lens surface can enter the system of the ophthalmic measuring device applied to an eye of a patient. In other embodiments, implementation of the method of block 205 may be represented by theoretical input parameters. Then put the settings in some way handled to comply with the input requirements of the block bitmap lithography 210. Properly prepared input data is being received on different devices, which in some embodiments using an algorithm to convert them into the system operating parameters raster lithography 211.
Let us proceed further in Fig.2, on which the lens blank is made by blending voxel in the village, as shown in block 220. After that, the lens and / or lens blank can be processed in the block processing method of the workpiece lens 230, resulting in a "dry" form of the ophthalmic lens 240. Then the parameters of the obtained dry ophthalmic lens can be measured during measurement 250. As an example, at this stage, you can use a laser displacement sensor.
The received data can be processed by the algorithms, as shown in blocks 251 and 252, to compare results with expected results for lenses that have been configured at the step 205, the input parameters. In some embodiments of the differences from the input parameters can be processed and can match you need to change the parameters used in the processing of the lens raster lithographic system 211. This feedback system measurement results and input parameters are presented in the form of a feedback loop 253. The obtained data can also be processed and can meet the required within the processing method of the workpiece lens 252 to change settings. The feedback system on the required changes in the system 252 is presented in the form of a feedback loop 254. You need to understand that different methods of calculation and control can be implemented on different hardware obrabotannykh, including, without limitation, workstations, personal computers, industrial computers, and other similar computer systems.
The results of the implementation of phase measurements 250 and different ways of processing data 251 and 252 in some embodiments may enable a decision on the compliance characteristics of the manufactured lens 240 allowable limits of variation of parameters as input parameters in block 205. Accept for a given lens solution is shown as a block 251 in which the lens can be rejected, and the other lens with the adjusted parameters is made. Alternatively, the characteristics of lenses that can be in the acceptable range, and the lens may go forth in block 260 for processing in accordance with various implementation methods and devices for post-processing. After hydration and separation from the carrier lens can pass additional phase measurements, shown as block 270. In some embodiments, the result of the implementation of this step may be ways to provide feedback, such as the one outlined for stage 250 in the present embodiment.
After obtaining ophthalmic lenses in the form of ready-to-use product 280 process stream may be combined with the stream at the point of rejection dry the lenses. Then the entire flow may return to block 205 through the block to the beginning of the 290. The person skilled in the art it will be obvious that the possible modifications of, additions, and changes during the implementation of phase measurements for various products within the framework of the present invention and subsequent organization of a feedback system, the adjustment system parameters based on measurement results.
In several slightly different from the described embodiments may be used for type of measurement to assess aspects of the quality of the lens used for the organization of the system of global feedback, including the full range of equipment. As a non-limiting example, in some embodiments may be a system of determination of aerosol particles for the detection of such defects in manufactured parts lenses. If the results of the measurement indicated on the presence of aerosol particles may be generated in the feedback system, which in some embodiments may provide for the grant of the relevant information to the operator of the device and the method of correcting the situation that caused the alarm. The person skilled in the art it will be obvious that within the framework of the present invention, there are various options phase of Areni, the result is feedback to the operator.
In Fig.3, the graph 300 shows an example of the relationship between the transmission frequency of the radiation and absorption of radiation, for example, the reaction mixture on the basis of material etafilcon And the reaction mixture is widely used for the manufacture of contact lenses. The composition of the mixture of etafilcon And include Monomeric component during polymerization can form a solid matrix or gel. The composition of the mixture of etafilcon And also includes an absorbent component Norbloc, molecules which absorb UV radiation in a band in the region of small wavelengths. Forming radiation 320 in the figure shown as the band that secures the radiation 330 is also shown as a band. Absorption initiator shown as the inflection 340, and the absorber gives a plateau 310. In the illustrated mixture etafilcon dissolved in a mixture of gaseous oxygen can also function as an inhibitor. Thus, the reaction mixture may include both the actual mixture of solid and / or liquid components, and controlled levels of dissolved oxygen. Description this version of the implementation is given solely as an example and not intended to limit the scope of the present invention.
In the method of preparation of a mixture of monomer optional implementation, is provided with the processing of the mixture. As a non-limiting example, such a mixture can be placed in vacuum pumping, which can lead to desorption of some dissolved gaseous substances. In another embodiment, the reaction mixture can be processed by irradiation of the total volume of the mixture of actinic radiation that will allow you to change the degree and distribution of multimeric components of the mixture prior to its use in the subsequent steps photoinitiated polymerization. The person skilled in the art it will be obvious that the possible additional embodiments of the process of the reaction mixture of monomer, leading to change its characteristics. Thus obtained mixture may be used for the manufacture of ophthalmic lenses and lens blanks.
On is shown in Fig.3 the graph shows an example of a radiation absorption, in which the wavelength is directed at a specific voxel actinic radiation such that the radiation falls in the region of the effective absorption is included in the composition of the reaction mixture of the initiator and is in the field of rapidly changing absorption present in the mixture of the absorbing agent. Also as a non-limiting example, assume that the composition of the mixture of the monomer include an inhibitor. Although this combination of methods is as practical the ski example of implementation, it is in no way intended to limit the scope of the present invention, which can be used by other models.
At the microscopic level, this variant example of implementation has such a characteristic that the incident actinic radiation creates around the crash site of a very small local area in which triggered a particular element chemical reaction proceeds at a rate greater than the ability of the inhibitor present in high concentrations, to inhibit its spread. Since some systems spatial light modulation are on the surface some "dead" space between the individual modulating elements, which does not reflect the radiation to the same extent as the modulating element, it is necessary to understand that in this embodiment, the material formed on the surface forming the optical element may take the form corresponding to each voxel isolated columnar elements, which in some embodiments may not be related to each other. In other embodiments, the implementation of individual voxels cross-linked material may overlap with each other.
To control the relative position of the voxels of polymerized material and, thus, the presence of overlapping Il the gap between neighboring voxels of polymerized material can be used control CMU or other device, used to direct rays of actinic radiation to form an optical element.
In addition, in some embodiments the spatial distribution of voxels with a given set of parameters actinic irradiation may affect the concentration of the inhibitor. Accordingly, in some embodiments the elements of the voxels define actinic activity, which passes through the boundaries between the individual voxels. In this case, at the microscopic level, these individual column elements will try to unite with each other in the irradiation conditions, if the conditions exist for a considerable intensity of irradiation in the neighboring voxels. In some embodiments the optical system forming the image can work in the mode of some of defocus, which allows you to create another variant of the method of merging the individual column elements into a whole. In other embodiments implement a similar effect can provide an oscillatory or swinging movement of the shaping optical element and its holder in the space, so that individual voxels will overlap each other to form continuous form element.
In another aspect of the present invention, CMU script for a particular voxel can determine integrals the Yu intensity or the exposure time, which lead to a reaction in the depth of the voxel in the direction from the surface forming the optical element. At some depth these conditions may include conditions flow polonizirovannaya reaction in the reaction mixture of monomer, in which the degree of completion of reaction determines the point of gelation.
In the reaction at depths less than specified may form a three-dimensional aspect, however, at depths greater than the gelation point is reached and the mixture is still a fluid mixture components, more viscous compared to the environmental source of the reaction mixture of monomer due partly held the polymerization reaction.
In such embodiments, the implementation of a sufficient volume of the original reaction mixture, including areas in which the reaction has proceeded to the point of becoming larger than the point of gelation, and the area in which the material is negley layer, which may include a mixture of partially reacted and unreacted reaction mixture. In some embodiments part of the last layer can be a layer of so-called fluid lesoobrazuyushchei reaction medium. At the microscopic level, it is formed inside the volume of the reaction mixture, but not necessarily in the armed forces is the volume between the two parts of the mold for casting.
In other embodiments, the implementation used CMU script can be used to define local structural elements of the lens divided into voxels layer, the reaction which was then the point of gelation. In some embodiments, the control may be viewed as a form for the procurement of the lens. As a non-limiting example, consider the impact of input in CMU script predominantly linear design features, which has a width of several voxels and the length in the set of voxels and low integrated irradiation intensity for all the member of voxels. Using discussed in example 3 options for implementation, as a non-limiting example can be foreseen that this linear feature is formed in the form of billets lenses. At the microscopic level neighboring voxels may comply with such intensity that their thickness in the form of the workpiece lens was big enough. On the first neighboring voxel generated linear design features a thick form will sharply decrease, which will lead to the appearance of features on the thickness profile shape associated with the linear design feature specified in CMU script.
In Fig.4 as element 400 shown lens formed according to a series of variant the implementation of the present invention. In this example, the lens has a linear design feature 440 extending along the lens on the set of voxels. By analogy it should be clear that aspects of the present invention include a variety of options for implementation, taking into account the shape and features of the profile thickness, which can be specified in addition to the optical surfaces of the lens. As an example, among many possible such embodiments can be adjusting elements, areas of raised surfaces and areas with a recessed surface. In additional embodiments, the implementation can be formed one or more characteristics of the thickness profile of the lens, such as, for example, particularly for the creation of drainage channels - linear structural features extending predominantly in a radial direction to the edge of the shape to the workpiece lenses, holes or blind holes of various shapes and sizes, swings up or down relative to the surrounding medium topology and plateau, or predominantly flat spots on subsets of sites that define the profile of the lens. These examples are only some of the options for implementation related to the method of forming lenses, which will be obvious to a person skilled in this field.
In Fig.5 shows forming l is su device, which includes a radiation source 520. The generated source 520 radiation occupies a certain spectral range and has a spatial distribution of intensity and direction. In some embodiments specified a certain spectral region includes actinic radiation to the reaction mixture used for the manufacture of lenses.
The regulator spatial intensity distribution 530, or collimator, can be used for condensation, dispersion and, in some embodiments, callmerobbie radiation from the radiation source 320 to generate a flux 540 with high spatial uniformity of intensity. In some embodiments the received radiation flux 540 is sent to the digital mirror device ZU 510, which divides the radiation flux on the elements-pixels, the intensity of each of which may take the discrete value of 1 or 0 (on/off). The mirror in each of the pixels reflect light along one of two directions. The direction to "on." (element 550) is a direction, flying along which photons reach the reaction of the chemical environment.
On the other hand, in some embodiments in the state of "off" reflected light is directed along a second direction, which is located is between directions, specified on the drawing elements 516 and 517. Flying along the direction of the "off" photons fall into a light trap 515, which is functionally absorbs or otherwise retains all aimed at her photons.
Returning to the direction to "on." 550 running along his radiation potentially contains many rays from different pixels that have been set to "on" and which are directed spatial respective individual paths leading to the respective pixels. Time average radiation intensity from each of the elements of the pixels along the corresponding paths 550 can be represented as a spatial intensity profile 560 on a spatial lattice, asked ZU 510. Alternatively, at a constant intensity incident on each mirror radiation element 560 can be represented in the form of spatio-temporal profile of the exposition.
Everyone who is in an enabled state of the item-pixel will direct the photons along the path 550. In some embodiments, the net flow of radiation can then be focused by focusing element. As an example of the light path 550 is projected in such a way that the flux drops almost vertically to the optical surface formiruya what about optical element 580. Bearing the image of the flux then passes through the shaping optical element 580 and enters the tank 590, in which the reaction mixture.
The interaction of the transmitted light for each specified element of the pixel determines the state of "on" element-voxel in the volume of the reaction medium or capable of cross-linking of the material in the vessel in the vicinity of 590 forming optical element 580. Falling in a given volume element of the photons can be absorbed and can trigger the reaction absorbed in their molecule, which will lead to changes in the polymerization state of the monomer in some neighborhood of the absorbed photon molecule.
In accordance with some embodiments of the present invention, for forming ophthalmic lenses can be used raster lithographic system. A graphical image of the surface of the wave front for manufactured so the lens shown in Fig.4.
In some embodiments can control the conditions surrounding the device 500 environment, including temperature and humidity. The components of the device 500 of the atmosphere may be controlled, for example, by blowing nitrogen gas. This purge can be used to increase or decrease the partial pressure of ceclor is Yes in the atmosphere up to a specified level. Humidity can be maintained at a predetermined relative level, for example, at relatively lower humidity than in the office.
Other external parameter that can be controlled in some embodiments, is the level of vibration energy, which is valid for the individual components of the device. In some embodiments large and massive support structures provide working conditions with relatively low vibration. In other embodiments, the implementation of all raster lithographic system 500, or a portion of its components can be placed on bearing elements with active vibration reduction. Without limiting the General nature of the possible solutions, it is necessary to clarify that the experts in this field it is well known that piston decoupling system with the air dampers can significantly reduce the transmission of vibrational energy on the isolated system. Other standard means of vibration isolation can also meet the purposes of the present invention.
The presence of aerosol particles in the surrounding device, the air can lead to undesirable defects of various types, including ingress of foreign particles in the manufacture of lenses and lens blanks. For example, aerosol particles can affect fu is from the micromirrors and they hit on the way radiation can lead to modulation of the intensity of radiation in one or more mirrors. For these reasons, at least the process of ensuring that measures to control the concentration of aerosol in the air is within the scope of the present invention. A possible variant example of implementation to achieve this goal could be the use of high-efficiency aerosol air filters (HEPA) in the area of installation of the device and the provision of sufficient intensity to blow air through the filters to establish laminar flow regime of the air on the open elements of the device. However, any variant of implementation, allowing to significantly reduce the concentration of aerosol in and around the device, is within the scope of the present invention.
Another aspect of careful control of operating conditions for the optical device constituting the subject of the present invention is external lighting and how to control them. In some embodiments, the external light can be a source of actinic radiation, it is therefore necessary to limit side optical sources of energy.
In accordance with the above, in some embodiments, the device 500 may be placed in a casing of opaque material,to ensure the above measures to control the environment. In a preferred embodiment, in the working area of the device can be used filtered light sources that may be sufficient to protect the active components of the device from falling on them containing actinic radiation external light.
In Fig.6 closeup shows the radiation source 600. Specific characteristics of the radiation can be considered a fundamental aspect of any lithographic system, and in providing raster optimalisations device variants of implementation of the present invention the nature used in the system of the radiation source may be important.
In some embodiments it is preferable that the radiation source 620 generated radiation in a narrow spectral region. The components shown in the drawing of the embodiment of the lighting system 600 provides a means to obtain the narrowband radiation. In a preferred embodiment, the light source includes led 620, which is installed on decoupling the holder within the casing 610. As an example, in some embodiments the led light source 620 may be a light source type AccuCure ULM-2-365 controller Digital Light Lab Inc. (Knoxville, Tennessee, USA). The source of this radiation model is AET light in a narrow spectral region centered at a wavelength of 365 nm and a width at half-height of about 9 nm. Thus, this commercially available radiation source provides radiation in the desired narrow spectral region, there is no need for additional components. You must understand that for these purposes can also be used with any led or other source of radiation with similar characteristics.
Alternatively can be used sources 620 with the broader scope of radiation, for example, arc coal lamp or xenon lamp. This version can be used broadband radiation source 620. The radiation is generated inside the protective casing 610 and passes through the drum filter 630 is mounted on the radiation source 620. The specified drum filters 630 may contain multiple filters 631 in different operating positions, and among these filters 631, for example, may be band-pass filter, which transmits radiation with a Central wavelength of 365 nm and a bandwidth at half-height of approximately 10 nm. In this embodiment, the drum filters can be operated actuating device with an electric motor 640, you can turn the drum by various filters in the workspace, so this variant example of implementation of the raster lithographic system 500 can be run on the cracks of the waves.
You must understand that can be implemented in many alternative embodiments, including, inter alia, the possibility of permanent fastening of the filter 631 near broadband light source 620. In another aspect, the ability to work on multiple wavelengths can be provided in an alternative embodiment, which provides that in the casing 610 is multiple led light sources 620, which are included separately to obtain the required wavelength.
If we consider the issue as a whole, in different variants of implementation can use different sources of radiation, including, for example, incandescent bulbs, lasers, LEDs and other similar products, with or without the use of filters of different types. In addition, in some embodiments can be used sources capable of generating radiation in a controlled spectral band, and this possibility is also within the scope of the present invention.
The light source 600 may additionally possess the characteristics of stability, homogeneity and relatively high intensity of the generated radiation. In some preferred embodiments the led light source 620 type AccuCure generates intense light is the second thread and has an internal control feedback circuit, supporting the radiation intensity is constant in time.
The radiation source 620 may include controls for intensity modulated radiation, including switching the source from the on state to the off back and forth with a given duty cycle. Thus, this mode of intensity control allows you to get adjustable average intensity level for some period of time. Alternatively, in an additional embodiment, the led light source can support the voltage-controlled mode, when the change in intensity produced by the installation is not time-dependent level of radiated power.
To ensure stability of the output power of the radiation source 620 of any type can be entered additional elements of the control environment of the source, which leads to the possibility of creating additional embodiments. Examples of this aspect may include means for monitoring temperature using cooling systems. Other elements of the control environment of the source can lead to the creation of additional options for the implementation, consistent with the objectives of the present invention.
In another aspect the use of a radiation source 600 allows for the creation of alternative the variant of implementation of the present invention by modulating the intensity of the radiation. A separate radiation source 620 may operate in the mode of generating a constant intensity, and the drum with filters 630 may be operated actuating device with an electric motor 640, entering on the path of the light flux of the neutral absorbing filter 631. Thus, the intensity of radiation incoming to the rest of raster lithographic system 500 will be modulated downward. From the point of view of the generality of the approach, it should be noted that in the construction of individual filters 631 provides many degrees of freedom that can lead to the creation of various aspects of embodiments. As a non-limiting example, the filter design can provide modulation of the intensity of the passing light flux with a given spatial profile, so that the intensity of radiation passing along the same path through the filter will have a higher intensity of radiation passing along another path. As a second non-limiting example, the design of the drum filters can provide intensity modulation of the light flux that is synchronized with the work of ZU, thereby allowing you to coordinate the pixel intensities of the radiation flux, determined by the values of optical density of each segment is of ultra in the drum. In alternative embodiments, the implementation can use combinations of the described modes of operation. It must also be understood that any means for monitoring the intensity of the light beam with the above-described characteristics are within the scope of the present invention.
In some embodiments, the drum filter 630 may have a bolt on the filter element 631 to block radiation from passing in other parts of the optical system 500. This function can be associated with significant benefits, including stability and longer service life in the path of the light flux of the optical components. In addition, in some embodiments, the stability of the radiation source 620 is raised if the source can operate continuously. A blocking filter 631 will allow the rest of the production system, operations that require the absence of radiation from source 600. The person skilled in the art it will be obvious that although for drum filters 630 specified specific location, there are various valid locations along the optical path of the radiation.
In another aspect, in some embodiments of the present invention in the composition of the raster optimalisations device may further I shall go homogenizing and collimating the radiation flux of the optical element. This device receives the radiation flux from the output of the light source 520 and outputs the flux 540 with a more uniform intensity distribution, which focused on ZU 510.
In Fig.7 presents some preferred embodiments of such a device. As indicated above, the purpose of this part of the system is to callmerobbie flow of radiation from the radiation source 520 and the increase in the uniformity of the spatial distribution of its intensity. In some preferred embodiments uses an led radiation source 620 AccuCure with a wavelength of 365 nm, mated with optical components for callmerobbie output radiation of the radiation source 620.
The composition of such collimating device may include collimating component and homogenizing component. In a preferred embodiment, a sufficiently collimated source 620 the flux passes in the device 700 and falls on the set of focusing optical elements 710 a diameter of approximately 2.54 cm (1 inch). These optical elements 710 can be a finished lens supplied, for example, CVI Laser, Inc. (Albuquerque, state of new Mexico, USA).
One or more lenses 710 can be used to focus the radiation source at the end is vetoed 720. The specified light guide 720 performs the function of increasing the uniformity of the input flux, aligning spatial variation of the radiation intensity. The light guide 720 may be a hexagonal fiber, made of acrylic material UV grade. In alternative embodiments, the implementation may use an optical device to improve the spatial uniformity of the radiation source.
Then coming out of the light guide 720 homogenized irradiance standard focuses the optical element 730, also representing the finished lens is provided, for example, CVI Laser, Inc. (Albuquerque, state of new Mexico, USA). After that focused luminous flux passes through diafragmirovat aperture 740 to set the focusing optical elements 750 a diameter of approximately 5.08 cm (2 inches). Such focusing elements, too, are ready-made optical components, for example, Thorlabs Inc. (Newton, new Jersey, USA). The task of the focusing optical element 750 is in the direction of the flow of radiation in a focal point on a digital mirror device (ZU) 510. On the optical path in the illumination raster lithographic system is completed. There are numerous ways to implement change those or other speakers the projects listed collimating and homogenizing components to achieve the same goal lighting ZU 510 intense uniform radiation flux from the desired Central wavelength and spectral width, which are within the scope of the present invention.
In a preferred embodiment, the elements of the lighting system 520 and 530 directs the flow of radiation (shown as element 820 in Fig.8) in the area in and immediately around the active elements that make up the digital mirror device Texas Instruments 510. Used in the preferred embodiment, ZU was obtained as part of the development kit using ZU - DMD Developer Kit: DMD Discovery 3000, supplied by DLi (Digital Light Innovations, Austin, Texas, USA). The kit includes the card DLi DMD Discovery 3000 installed chip ZU DLPtmXGA DMD by Texas Instruments (768×1024 mirror diagonal) of 1.78 cm (0.7 inch) version with transparent to UV radiation window. The kit also includes a charge of high-performance processing engine light ALP-3 High Speed light Processing, coupled with the card D3000 and act as a liaison between the computer and the card D3000. These components together are indicated as element 810 in Fig.8, which shows the components of the image 800 described the preferred option implementation raster lithographic system. Detailed description ZU DLP™XGA DMD by Texas Instruments can be obtained from Texas Instruments in the form of technical reference guide DMD Discovery™ 3000 Digital Controller (DDC3000) Starter Kit Technical Reference Manual.
Specified ZU 810 can realize the function of the spatial modulation of the intensity of radiation coming from the lighting system. ZU Texas Instruments performs the same function in a digital way, reflecting the light of the individual Micromirror components, each of which corresponds to a unique position on a spatial grid active area of the device. Therefore, the intensity of the radiation reflected ZU 810 and out of the image 800, in General, is not changed, however, by adjusting the duty cycle of the pulses, the switching mirror from on state to off and back again, you can change the time average intensity of the radiation reected from an individual pixel in the working direction.
In other embodiments implement to control the intensity delivered to the individual voxel radiation can be applied spatial light modulator (PSM), for example, supplied by the German company Fraunhofer Institut Photonische Microsysteme, which can realize the function of the component of the spatial modulation of the intensity 810. Percolatedown surface PSM actually consists of many (thousands) of tiny movable mirrors, each of which corresponds to the memory cell from the control integrated circuit. Image intensity profile n Prassede in the device PSM, the individual mirrors in which the result is either bent, or remain flat (unlike ZU of Texas Instruments, in which the mirror is rotated, or skewed). Reflected from a curved mirror, the radiation is scattered in such a way that it does not pass through the optical system and does not reach the photosensitive reaction mixture.
In Fig.8, as described above, it is shown that the active component of the system imaging ZU 810 processes the radiation in digital form, reflecting it in one of two directions. The direction is reflected off of the beam is chosen so that the light never misses a region of space with photochemically active reaction mixture. For full absorption of the light reflected in the direction of the "off" the system forming the image 800 may include a light trap 830. This trap has a surface with a high coefficient of absorption, which absorb almost all of them falling on the radiation, while the reflected light is directed only into the trap. In the preferred embodiment, as a non-limiting example, these surfaces include neutral absorbing glass plate, for example, supplied by Hoya Inc. (Tokyo, Japan).
Light reflected from the one used in the switch is nom the status of mirror elements, sent via another optical path and passes to the focusing elements 840. As with other optical elements, these focusing lenses with a diameter of approximately 2.54 cm (1 inch) are ready-made optical components, for example, Thorlabs Inc. (Newton, new Jersey, USA). Focusing lens 840 focus the radiation received from being in an enabled state elements ZU 810, in the form of the image forming optical element, which gives fotoinitsiatora reaction in the reaction mixture of monomer.
In some embodiments it is preferable to provide the ability to control the generated image and status of the optical path directly, and not to determine the manufactured lenses. In the preferred embodiment described raster optimalisations device provides for the possibility of such direct control. Focus on forming optical element 580 radiation can be intercepted by the mirror 850, which may be installed in or removed from the path of the light beam. Directed thus the flux falls on photodetectors visualization device 860.
As shown in Fig.9, the components forming device 900 direct the flow of radiation to the target point in reaction the th mixture. As indicated above, in some embodiments, the radiation has already been focused with a normal orientation with respect to the surface forming the optical element 930. Presented at the image of the embodiment 900 radiation can fall almost vertically to the surface forming the optical element 930. In an alternative embodiment, the design may be provided by the lens is held by a ring holder or other locking element is represented by a number 921, which supports the desired position specified lenses with respect to forming the optical element 930. From the point of view of community approaches it should be noted that the present invention covers a multitude of embodiments related to the organization of the optical path for the radiation directed to individual voxels along the surface forming the optical element 930.
As shown in Fig.9, since the relative orientation of the vessel with the reaction mixture of monomer and forming the optical element has a value, in some embodiments may provide a mechanism for coordinated placement represented in the drawing as the interaction of the guide element 970 and capacity 950 containing the reaction mixture of monomer. The agreement is intended for the placement of these elements also provides control over the placement capacity 950 by its centering with respect to the surface forming the optical element 930. In some embodiments, the effectiveness of such positioning can be improved by use of a separating ring 951. Formed by the ring gap also allows you to adjust the volume of the reaction mixture of monomer introduced into the tank 950.
In Fig.9 also illustrates an additional aspect of the variants of implementation associated with the control composition of the atmosphere in which the reaction mixture of monomer. Because in some embodiments is present in the atmosphere of oxygen can affect photochemical processes in the monomers and to act as traps photogenerated free radicals, in some embodiments it should be excluded from the atmosphere surrounding the capacity of 950. In shown in Fig.9 embodiment 900 this is accomplished by using the outer shell 990. Purging with an inert gas, e.g. nitrogen, through tubes 960 allows you to remove the oxygen from the working area of the device. In another embodiment, the oxygen concentration in the atmosphere can be maintained at the required level controlled dilution in the gas supplied through the nozzle 960 and blown through the outer shell 990. Standard controls gas flow to obtain a constant level of dilution of the oxygen taken in by the nozzle 960 gas is well known special is the plates and form options implementation falling under the scope of the present invention.
In the capacity of 950 containing the reaction mixture of monomer, may be placed in the appropriate amount specified reaction mixture. In some embodiments, the filling capacity can be made to accommodate the forming of the optical element 930 in working position relative to the capacity of 950. In other embodiments, implementation of the specified forming optical element 930 and the capacity of 950 can be placed inside the outer shell 990 and purged by the flow of gas through the nozzle 960. The reaction mixture may be filtered before use. Then in the capacity of 950 may be submitted in the required number of the reaction mixture of monomer 945.
There are different ways to feed the reaction mixture of monomer 945, including the content manually, automatic dosing of liquid or mixture flow up until the level indicator will not show the necessary level of capacity 950 reaction mixture of monomer 945. From the point of view of community approaches to the person skilled in the art it will be obvious that there are many possible embodiments of the methods of supplying the required quantity of the reaction mixture of monomer 945 in the capacity of 950, all of these methods are within the scope of the present invention.
DL is of such embodiments, in which oxygen levels are critical for the occurrence of photochemical reactions, it is necessary to understand that oxygen may be present in the form of gas dissolved in the reaction mixture of monomer 945. In this embodiment, it is necessary to use means for establishing a certain concentration of dissolved oxygen in the reaction mixture of monomer 945. To achieve this goal, a number of embodiments includes maintaining the mixture in the atmosphere, through which the purge gas flow 960. In alternative embodiments, the implementation can be used for vacuum pumping of dissolved gases in the feed vessel with a mixture of monomer and restore the required level of oxygen at the time of dispensing of the mixture by gas exchange with the metered fluid through the corresponding membrane. In the framework of the present invention should be understood that any means for establishing concentrations, the required dissolved gases at the required level are acceptable. In addition, in a more General sense, other materials can also act as inhibitors in the presence or in the absence of dissolved oxygen. From a more General perspective, the present invention covers all embodiments of using the device for achieving and maintaining the level of inhibitor in the reaction mixture of monomer.
In Fig.10 shows an example of forming the optical element and the holding and positioning device 1000. The structure of the bearing forming the optical element can be a flat glass disk drive 1040. Forming the optical element can be positioned and fixed by means of optically acceptable binder 1020 when using the Assembly of the stand to ensure proper relative position forming optical element and the supporting disk. Flat surface drive provides a direct orientation in the vertical direction, and a positioning slot 1030 and others not shown in Fig.10 a flat surface provide radial and horizontal positioning.
Presented on Fig.11 drive 1000 combined with a system of containers for the reaction mixture of monomer 1100. Flat surface with this set of three paired sites 1130. Some embodiments may also include a spring-loaded positioning pin 1120, which is included in the positioning slot of the disk 1030. Two fixed positioning pin (not shown) included in the clutch with the other two flat surfaces on the Assembly forming the optical element is a combination of pins and corresponding slots kinematically positioning of the btes, the ku forming optical element for all degrees of freedom, providing a reproducible and reliable positioning of the shaping optical element in the path of the radiation. In a number of embodiments may also be provided with the capacity for the reaction mixture of monomer 1110. From the point of view of the common approaches used within the described invention are possible in various embodiments of the methods of forming alignment of the optical element that is obvious to the person skilled in the art, to accommodate such an optical element near the vessel containing the reaction mixture of monomer and one or more similar devices in conditions of controlled environment.
Forming the optical element 1010 provides at least partial transmission of actinic radiation in the desired spectral region. Accordingly, in various embodiments, the implementation of the shaping optical element 1010 can be manufactured, for example, from one or more of the following materials: quartz, plastic, glass or other material transparent in the wavelength range used for the polymerization reaction mixture of monomer. It should also be noted that the geometric shape forming optical element 1010 includes one of the surfaces 1011 with characteristics that are passed to the lens or the lens blank formed by the second surface 1011 by polymerization, initiated forming the actinic radiation, which comes through forming optical element 1010. Numerous embodiments of this geometric shapes are within the scope of the present invention.
In numerous embodiments, which can be used for the design and characteristics of forming the optical element 1010, some examples of these items may have unique aspects, for example, used in the manufacture of the material, process, practice, and / or other aspects. These aspects can interact or not to interact with halftone lithographic system 500, creating a unique set of displacements of the beam intensity profile voxel to voxel, necessary for obtaining a final product with desired characteristics. Thus, some embodiments may include preparation tool forming optical elements 1010 to operate, maintain them in working order and control. As an example, one possible implementation may include the application of coded identification labels in machine-readable form on a flat surface of the carrier forming the optical element 1040. Additional embodiments of mightcreate, for example, the fixing of the chip RFID identification tag is automatically read. Valid well as other embodiments of the methods of identification of individual carriers forming optical elements 1040, which are within the scope of the present invention.
The resulting product, which is obtained using the described raster optimalisations equipment 500 may be represented in the form of various embodiments. In one of the embodiments, as shown in Fig.9, made of optical product 940 is formed on the surface forming the optical element 930, while in the remaining volume of the reaction of chemical mixtures 945. The extraction operation forming optical element 930 with optical 940 product of the chemical mixture 945 involves additional embodiments of the specified device. In some embodiments forming the optical element 930 and held on the surface by the adhesion of the optical product 940 can be extracted from chemical mixtures 945, for example, through the automatic robot arm.
In Fig.12 schematically illustrates some aspects of the implementation of the device to remove fluid chemical material 1200. In the drawing merchantable is and the lens is shown mounted on a shaping optical element 1250, attached to the positioning plate 1260. This combination of elements shown for the variant of implementation, in which the front surface of the workpiece lens facing down. Fluid lesoobrazuyushchaya the reaction mixture 1240 can move under the influence of various forces, including gravity. The capillary device 1210 is placed in close proximity to the fluid lesoobrazuyushchei reaction mixture 1240 beside her and a drop of fluid chemical material that has accumulated at the bottom of the lens surface. In a preferred embodiment, the specified capillary may be a polymer capillary made of raw plastic microhematocrit tube type Safecrit, model HP8U. In an alternative embodiment, the capillary may also be made of glass, metal or any other material compatible with the physical and chemical requirements for removal of fluid chemical material.
Fluid chemical material 1240 is drawn into the capillary 1210 and forms a material volume 1241, which is extracted from the workpiece lenses. In one embodiment, the described process may be repeated several times. After this treatment on the surface of the mold for preform lens 1750, procurement lens 1200 remains reduced fluid lens is prasouda reaction mixture.
Such processing may affect various aspects of fluid lesoobrazuyushchei reaction mixture, including, for example, the separation and removal of the less viscous fluid components lesoobrazuyushchei the reaction mixture. The person skilled in the art it will be obvious that various implementation-related details of the implementation of the removal process chemical material and included in the scope of the present invention.
Generally, options for implementation may include physical methods of implementation of the process of chemical removal of material from the surface. Another example of a variant of implementation can serve as connecting the vacuum system 1220 for more effective removal of fluid lesoobrazuyushchei reaction mixture 1240. As a non-limiting example, in another embodiment, there can be several instances of the capillary device 1210, placed in such a way that the ends of the capillaries repeating geometric shape of the surface forming the optical element 1250. In addition, the destruction of chemical material can be produced by using a material with a large surface area, for example, sponge, or using nanomaterials with high surface area. Returning to the previously described concepts, alternatively realized is I can use the speed control extraction of lens blanks, located on forming optical element 930, from the reaction mixture 945. In this embodiment, surface tension forces can provide a mechanism for removal of chemical material, similar to phase capillary material removal, and lead to a reduction in the number of fluid lesoobrazuyushchei reaction mixture 1710 on the finished lens blank. From the point of view of community approaches, numerous embodiments of a device capable of removing a portion of a fluid lesoobrazuyushchei reaction mixture 1240, are within the scope of the present invention.
Component of the vacuum system 1220 in the preferred embodiment also performs the same function as described above. When processing multiple workpieces lens device removal chemical material 1200 should be removed chemical material repeatedly. The specified component of the vacuum system 1220 may be used for cleaning and pumping of the material of the capillary device 1210. In another embodiment, may be provided passing through the capillary device 1210 flow of cleaning solvent in combination with the component of the vacuum system 1220.
As a rule, is shown in Fig.12 embodiments of 1200 illustrate the principle of operation is Oia removal system chemical material and detail involved in the process components. On the other hand, in Fig.13 presents a more General view of embodiments of components of the system of chemical removal of material 1300 for a more simple description of the equipment used in the preferred embodiment, and possible changes in the system design. In shown in Fig.13 diagram 1300 illustrates the device of the capillary material removal 1305 and procurement lens located on forming optical element carrier plate 1306 in a similar configuration with the workpiece lens facing straight down.
As shown in Fig.13, it is necessary to understand that in alternative embodiments, the implementation of the capillary device 1305 may be shifted from the centre to form the optical element blanks lens 1306. Item number 1330 shows the coordinate table is moved under one of the axes in the XY plane. The moving table is used to output the capillary line passing through the center forming optical element. As an example, the element 1330 is shown as the preferred option implementation manual Vernier mechanism. However, the person skilled in the art it will be obvious that the movement may also be performed automatically by the device, for example, contain stepper motors. In bol is e General sense, in the framework of the present invention to move a coordinate table you can use automatic equipment of different levels of complexity. In a more General sense, to simplify the subsequent discussion, we can assume that any drive unit in the described device provides for a similar freedom of choice possible variants of implementation.
Component 1320 - device holder forming optical element includes a device for flexible hold shaping optical element in a predetermined position. For positioning the component forming the optical element 1000, described above, can be used positioning scheme similar to that used in raster optimalisations device 500 in the present embodiment. Alternative implementation may include moving the device holder forming optical element 1000 using automation. You must understand that alternative ways of holding on to form the optical element and fixed in position in the device to remove fluid chemical material are consistent aspects of the present invention.
Still discussed options for implementation, in which the axis forming) the ski element was in a perpendicular position relative to the horizontal plane and along the direction of gravity. In alternative embodiments, the implementation may provide the ability to rotate the axis of the forming element at an angle perpendicular to the specified position. Component 1350 is a mechanism to change the angle of orientation of the axis forming the optical element relative to the direction of gravity. A fundamental aspect of this change will be to collect the drops of fluid substances 1710 on the work piece lenses in place, are not the center forming optical element. In some embodiments the opportunity of collecting a liquid medium in a non-center point may have some advantages.
The number shown in Fig.13 components is related to the vertical positioning of the capillary device 1306 relative to the fluid on the workpiece lenses. For example, a component 1340 can provide a coarse position of this coordinate by moving the bearing capillary 1306 platform on the vertical axis. In addition, the component 1345 provides precise adjustment of the position of this coordinate. It is also possible to regulate the position of the carrier forming the optical element platform 1310 relative to the capillary device 1306 on the same axis. Component 1370 is an element of precision, intended for these purposes.
As shown in the IG.14, source fixing radiation can be used a source of radiation, similar to that described previously in the context of raster optimalisations system 520. For example, in some embodiments the radiation source AccuCure ULM-2-420 controller Digital Light Lab Inc. (Knoxville, Tennessee, USA) 1460 may be an appropriate source fixing radiation 1461. After setting the required values of the parameters of the stabilizing controller source fixing radiation 1460 means in its on position, directing the flow of the fixing radiation 1461 blank lens and its surroundings and forming an ophthalmic lens in accordance with one variant of implementation. From the point of view of the generality of the approach, there are multiple possibilities of implementation related to stabilization or other fluid redistribution lesoobrazuyushchei chemical mixture on the surface of the mold for preform lens 1730, followed by irradiation of fixing radiation.
As an example, some alternative embodiments of the procedure of processing in the fixing device may include processing forms for procurement lens, with which the fluid material has been removed in the washing system. Because this form for procurement of the lens in a fixed form can transform the conduct of a good lens with predetermined characteristics, in the framework of the present invention provides variants of implementation, in which the locking device can be used in such a way that does not assume the use of the stabilizing device. In a more General sense, in the framework of the present invention provides multiple embodiments of the materials and forms in which the locking device commits materials without the prior flow of fluid material on the surface that needs to be fixed. As an example generated using raster optimalisations system form for procurement of the lens, which was washed away the layer of fluid lesoobrazuyushchei chemical mixture 1710, however, may represent a variant implementation, in which the locking device can perform the workholding lenses with the formation of the finished lens.
Some embodiments include alternative ways to initiate the redistribution of fluid lesoobrazuyushchei chemical mixture 1710. As an example, in some variations the shaking surface of the workpiece lens located on the layer of fluid lesoobrazuyushchei chemical mixture 1710 can provide the necessary redistribution of fluid lesoobrazuyushchei chemical mixture 1710. In addition, for example, in some embodiments, deletelinesmatching rotation of the workpiece lens around the Central axis of the way, reminiscent widely used in the technology of film method of coating by centrifugation.
In other embodiments, the implementation can be used to minimize the current in the layer of fluid lesoobrazuyushchei chemical mixture 1710 gravity by controlled cast billet lens 1410 with some height. In additional embodiments, the implementation of the change in the intensity of gravity can be achieved by changing the level of the surface of 1450, which are harvested lens 1410 forming optical element 1420 and the holder 1430. The change of surface level can lead to changes in the forces acting in the Central optical region of a fluid lesoobrazuyushchei chemical mixture 1710 and, thus, to its redistribution.
In another aspect, some embodiments may include chemical or physical changes in the fluid lesoobrazuyushchei chemical mixture 1710. As an example, in an alternative embodiment, may be used for the introduction of a solvent layer and around the fluid reaction material in such a way as to change its fluid properties. In addition, the injected material may also change the characteristics of the surface energy components of procurement lens 1700. The properties of the fluid reaction Henichesk the th material 1710 can be partially changed by means of the clamping radiation 1461 to change the flow characteristics of the method, other than fixing. In the framework of the present invention may have many alternative embodiments of the General nature, related to the change of fluid properties chemical reaction of the material.
In the mainly fundamental level, the nature of the chemical reaction mixture 945 can interact with different types of exercise devices to achieve different results. You must understand that the nature of the device stabilization and fixation 1400, as well as differences in the variants of implementation related to changes in fundamental chemical components chemical reaction mixtures, are within the scope of the present invention. As an example, such differences may include, for example, changing selected for fixing the radiation wavelength and may be implemented in embodiments of the implementation, providing flexibility in the choice of the wavelength fixing radiation.
Since the material of the workpiece lenses may contain a portion of the finished lens, the person skilled in the art it will be obvious that the control of environmental parameters in and around the device stabilization and fixation is an important aspect of the present invention. For example, the control of the concentration of aerosol particles, for example, using vysokoeffektivnaya air filters (HEPA) for cleaning the air flow, can represent one implementation of the process control environment. As fluid is sensitive to actinic radiation, additional embodiments of the process control environment include control of ambient light in the working area of the device. In addition, water vapor and other impurities in the atmosphere can affect the quality of the lenses, so the process of monitoring these environmental parameters may also include alternative options for implementation. All obvious to the person skilled in the art numerous aspects of the control environment are within the scope of the present invention.
Product workpieces lenses in embodiments implementing the present invention on the device stabilization and fixation can be a device that is similar or are forms of ophthalmic lenses. In many ways, this material has characteristics similar to the characteristics of the finished hydrated ophthalmic lens. However, in many cases implementation of the procedure of stabilization and fixation of the item is created, located on forming the optical element and the holder 1430, which in UN-hydrated form can be measured in various ways.
In Fig.15 p is edstaven variant implementation of the measuring device, allows you to determine the optical characteristics and properties of material goods. You must understand that measurements can be carried out with "dry" lenses, for example, obtained by processing the above-described fixing device 1400, and hydrated lenses. However, this version of the implementation focuses on the measurement of "dry" lenses, which are preferably located on forming optical element. In Fig.15 presents the "dry" lens 1520, which is located on forming optical element 1530 and relevant components of the holder 1540. For example, the holder 1540 can be mounted on a pair of fastening components 1550 and 1560, which together provide the opportunity for controlled rotational movement of the lens around a Central axis.
In some embodiments, the interaction of laser radiation 1515 from the laser displacement sensor 1510, such as a model LT-9030 company Keyence (Osaka, Japan), with the surface of the sample lens 1520 occurs when the rotation of the sample 1520 forming optical element 1530 and retainer holder 1540 axis. The servomotor is a rotary actuator 1570 drives mounted on the bearings of the rotary table on which stand the sample. For the stability of the rotation center of mass of the stand with the sample if the threat in a number of embodiments is possible as close as possible to the center point. During the rotation of turntable laser displacement sensor 1510 determines the offset of a set of points along the axially symmetric rings on the lens surface 1520. After passing a table full of turnover displacement sensor 1510 is moved along the azimuthal coordinate. Each move creates a new circular profile along the surface of the analyzing lens. Described in this embodiment, the process is repeated until then, until you have obtained the profiles over the entire surface of the lens. By similar measurements of a specific form element without 1530 located on it lens 1520 can be obtained map of the surface forming the optical element in the same format of spherical rotation. Subtract this result from the measurement installed on the forming element lens gives a map of the thickness of the lens. There is also a unique identification used forming optical element in an electronic format, using the put RFID tags or other means may be an additional option to the implementation of the described device.
In some embodiments of this type is associated with the vibration displacement of the surface of the analyzed sample 1520 relative to the sensor 1510 may introduce significant error in the offset of the measured system is emnd. Thus, it may be provided vibromassage and damping. Accordingly, in some embodiments to minimize the effects of vibration can be used in a massive Desk 1580 mounted on the elements vibromassage 1590. Some options for implementation may be less sensitive to vibration noise than others, but in General the various ways to minimize the effectiveness of possible channels of transmission of the vibration energy in the working area of the detectors and the positioning of the sample include options for implementation, within the scope of the present invention.
In other embodiments, the implementation for determining the characteristics of the lens can be used in different measuring systems, in some cases, in addition to the above-described laser displacement sensor. As a non-limiting example, in some embodiments to determine the thickness of the array formed lens may be used wavefront sensor the Shack-Hartmann supplied by Thorlabs Inc. (Newton, new Jersey, USA).
From the point of view of the generality of the approach, in the framework of the present invention may use a wide variety of measuring devices, including, partly as an example, the device is defined for the I of the refractive index, the coefficient of optical absorption and density. Also assumed the aspects related to the control of the environmental conditions of the measuring system, for example, detection of aerosol particles. Different functions can be implemented directly in the same working area, where the measuring device 1500, or, in the alternative implementation, they can be implemented in a separate nodes inside or outside the total working area of the system.
The collection, storage and transmission of measured and identification data related to specific designs and components used in the manufacture of concrete samples constitute a General principle of embodiments of the present invention. These various data can be useful when organizing feedback systems to control the characteristics of the manufactured lenses. In an exemplary and preferred embodiment, the result of the measuring device based on laser displacement sensor 1500 for sample lens 1520 is transmitted and stored in a computer system. Similar measurements using laser displacement sensor can be performed in advance for each forming optical element, in one embodiment, the designated number 1530, before it is used in the manufacture of the decree of the frame of the sample lens 1520. Using computer data processing, the results of measurement of the displacements can be processed in such a way as to gain some idea of the thickness of the fabricated image of the reference lens.
In computer data processing system may perform the mapping of the corresponding model sample of the lens used to define the initial set of parameters for the various components of manufacturing lenses, the results of the data offsets for the analyzed sample 1520 and shaping optical element 1530. In some embodiments different points of the model can be mapped or correlated with the individual elements of the system of image formation, and in the preferred embodiment, with individual voxels in raster optimalisations system. By adjusting parameters such voxel following sample lenses or lens blanks may be made to reflect the adjusted characteristics in comparison with the previous sample. With respect to the various embodiments of the measurement procedure, calculation algorithms and devices, the person skilled in the art it will be obvious that alternative embodiments of the methods of obtaining, processing, modeling, used to organize the system of the feedback and data are within the scope of the present invention.
In some embodiments the quality of the measurement data for the system in relation to the thickness of the manufactured sample lens 1520 may be improved by use of the adjusting elements entered in the profile form for procurement lens 1720. In shown in Fig.4 example implementation 400 thickness data were obtained in a manner analogous to that described above. The variant example implementation 400 is described also in other parts of this application, however, for understanding the case for alignment element can be considered an element 440. Element 440 may be a recess on the surface of the sample lens 1520 with a relatively large depth. Introduction to the design of this element can be useful for the orientation of the product during processing steps carried out on the described device. In one embodiment, the signal related to the element 400 may be emitted or detected by some algorithm or during processing of the measurement data. Such selection can be useful when determining the position of points of different devices that are near or produce processing at the point of the product relative to the specified alignment element 440. The person skilled in the art it will be obvious that various embodiments of the adjusting element is s, including, without limitation, the use of marking materials and introduction to design of topological elements that are within the scope of the present invention.
In some alternative embodiments of the complex data of the measuring system 1500 data obtained may be used for the diagnosis and management of the entire system of manufacturing ophthalmic lenses, in whole or in separate devices that are included in its composition. As a non-limiting example, the process of storing the above measurement results forming optical element 1530 allows the history of such measurements. Using an alternative calculation method and data processing, it is possible to provide a comparison of the characteristics of the surface over time and use changes such characteristics, smooth or abrupt, to reduce the need for diagnostic interference of any kind. In one example, a possible cause of such changes, the signal may be a scratch on the surface forming the optical element. In additional embodiments, the implementation can be used in algorithms for process control on the basis of statistical data as to establish the limits of the ranges of measured values, and DL is automatic alarm statistically significant changes of the measured value. In additional embodiments, the implement may be provided with means for automatic response system automated control of these signals. However, from the point of view of the generality of the approach, in the framework of the present invention may use these and a wide variety of embodiments for using measurement data, for example, received from the system 1500, for the diagnosis and management of the system as a whole.
Described embodiments of the measuring device as a whole can be used to characterize samples "dry" lens 1520 or formative element 1530. From the point of view of community approaches, possible similar or additional embodiments of systems measurements to determine the characteristics of other forms in the system. As a non-limiting example uses the "dry" lens in some embodiments may be subjected to subsequent processing steps and may result become hydrated lens. The process of measuring the characteristics of this new model 1520 may represent an example of a discussion of a more General variant of implementation. Another example is the process of measuring the characteristics of the sample workpiece lenses 1700. Thus, in a General sense is the framework of the present invention there are multiple possibilities of implementation for the characterization of materials of different shapes, used in the manufacture or components of the finished product in the production system such ophthalmic lenses.
In Fig.16 shows an example of option exercise device to perform steps 1600, for simplicity, referred to as the Hydra device. The device includes contains hydrating fluid vessel 1610, liquid bath 1620, in which are immersed lens 1630 and the holder forming optical element 1640, and the device controlling the temperature of 1650 to maintain a constant temperature bath.
In a preferred embodiment, the specified liquid bath 1620 consists of deionized water with the addition of surfactants. In the art for such baths are applicable to numerous embodiments of which are consistent with the objectives of the present invention. In an alternative embodiment, the specified liquid bath 1620 may consist of a mixture with an organic alcohol, sometimes from a mixture of ethanol with deionized water and surfactant. Thus, in some embodiments the vessel 1610 can be made from materials that retain a volume of water or organic alcohols and to transfer heat between the device temperature regulation 1650 and liquid bath 1620. From the point of view of the generality of the approach, there are many possible options ASU is estline such device including different materials of the vessel, vessel design and methods of filling and emptying of the vessel, which is consistent with the objectives of hydration and cleaning lenses and are within the scope of the present invention.
In some embodiments, to accelerate the operations of hydration, purification and separation bath is used with a high temperature. In one embodiment, the implementation of high temperature can be maintained using tiles with built-in temperature controller 1650. In more advanced versions of the implementation can be used an alternative means of heating fluid, including alternative emitting and heat-conducting materials and devices. Furthermore, in additional embodiments, the implementation can be used different ways of measuring the temperature of the bath and maintaining it within a specified temperature range. In other, more advanced options may not be possible changes or programming temperature liquid bath during operation. The person skilled in the art it will be obvious that there are many embodiments for temperature control hydrating baths, and all such ways of implementation are within the scope of the present invention.
In the process lyderic the lens 1630 and shaping optical element 1640 in a liquid bath, accompanied by hydration of the lens, in some embodiments the lens swells and eventually separates from forming optical element 1640, therefore, in some embodiments may be provided with means of catching the separated lens for transferring it to the appropriate storage and packaging. In additional embodiments, the implementation can be provided by being separated lenses and its removal from the environment of liquid baths 1620. Alternatively, to separate the lens from the liquid in the variants of implementation can be used filtering specified environment liquid baths 1620 in the process of draining. From the point of view of community approaches, different ways of finding lenses and transfer it to the appropriate storage media represent embodiments of which are within the scope of the present invention.
In Fig.17 presents the workpiece lens 1700 generated by bitmap bitmap polymerization voxels 1704. Some embodiments may include a lens blank containing fluid lesoobrazuyushchei the reaction mixture, or capable of cross-linking of the material 1704 formed during polymerization voxel to voxel. After extracting forming optical element and placer was generated is in the process bitmap bitmap polymerization structure of a vessel with the reaction medium, on the surface, formed by bitmap bitmap polymerization forms for procurement of lenses, may be a layer of viscous material. This combination forms for procurement lenses with on her fluid layer lesoobrazuyushchei reaction medium 1704, which in the further processing may be formed in part of the device - eye lens, is the lens blank.
In some embodiments the specified workpiece lens has a spatial geometric shape, however, due to the fluid nature of the layer covering the reaction medium, the entire component is not rigidly defined spatial forms.
This lens blank may also include a first surface 1701, which may be formed along the media 1705, for example, media with optical surface quality. Specified the first surface 1701 contains a portion of the reaction medium with the first degree of the density of cross-linkage, at least partially polymerized next point of gelation. This blank lenses 1700 also has a second surface 1702, the second degree of the density of cross-linking during polymerization which is approximately at the point of gelation or does not reach the point of gelation.
In some embodiments, the portion of the fluid lintop is based on the reaction medium may be removed from the workpiece lenses. As a non-limiting example, the specified fluid lesoobrazuyushchaya the reaction medium can be removed by using a capillary device. In some embodiments, the described method may include the step of exposure to collect part of the fluid lesoobrazuyushchei reaction medium in a drop before performing capillary material removal. In other embodiments, the implementation of the surface of the lens may be located such that the axis of the surface is inclined relative to the direction of gravity. You must understand that there are multiple possibilities of implementation relating to a method of removing fluid lesoobrazuyushchei reaction medium by capillary devices that are within the scope of the present invention.
In other embodiments, the implementation of this technique is the removal of fluid lesoobrazuyushchei reaction medium may include alternative arrangements, other than those described capillary equipment. For example, in some embodiments may be used a method involving the use of an absorbent surface to remove fluid. Additional options for implementation may relate to methods of using the device, with many capillary needles, unlike described in detail in the above device with a single capillary. In additional embodiments, the implementation can be used ways rotational workpieces lenses to remove fluid material. As will be obvious to the person skilled in the art, any method of applying the device to remove part of the fluid material are aspects that are within the scope of the present invention.
Another type of variant of the method of removing material from the top surface of the workpiece lens may include a method of creating a topographic elements in the body of the lens. In embodiments, the implementation of this type in the design of the lens can be entered items similar to the above drain channels, to create points, which allows relatively low-viscosity fluid to drain, thereby freeing up space, which can move relatively more viscous fluid. In additional embodiments, the implementation of the removal lesoobrazuyushchei environment in addition to creating topographic elements for flow of material can also be applied rotational processing. The person skilled in the art it will be obvious that the options for implementation, including various embodiments of topographic elements are within the scope of the present invention.
In the process of stabilizing fluid lesoobrazuyushchaya reacts the organizational environment flows under the action of different forces to achieve status, with minimal energy and relative stability on the surface of the mold for lens blanks.
You must understand that at the microscopic level, the surface forms for procurement lenses may have some local irregularities. The nature of these irregularities is determined by many aspects of the case for the formation of lenses, for example, in one case it is the effect of the inhibitor to a relatively sharp stop the reaction near the point of initiation. Surface tension of the fluid, the friction force and diffusion, gravity and other forces in many variants of implementation, together, provide smooth flowing on the surface of the covering layer. Defining force method may include a number of embodiments that are within the scope of the present invention.
In some embodiments, the configuration of the workpiece lenses can be made with the possibility to allow fluid lesoobrazuyushchei reaction medium to flow under the force of gravity. The way to achieve this may include changing the orientation of the lens to facilitate the flow. In alternative embodiments, the implementation can be used the opposite strategy of maintaining the workpiece lens in a fixed condition is extremely achievable minimum of movement. In additional embodiments, the implementation can be applied impact on the fluent material forces caused by rotation of the workpiece lens around an axis. In some embodiments, this rotation can be performed around an axis passing through the center of the lens blanks. In alternative embodiments, the implementation of the specified rotation may be a rotary lens around an external axis with the upper part of the workpiece lens facing the axis of rotation or axis of rotation, as well as many intermediate positions. In additional embodiments, the implementation for information, the impact of gravity to minimize the lens blank can be processed under conditions of free fall. The person skilled in the art it will be obvious that various applications providing fluidity forces to the workpiece lens in the stabilization process.
In other embodiments, the implementation can be applied methodology changes the fluid nature of the fluid. In some embodiments, the viscosity of the medium can be changed by dilution or solvation. In alternative embodiments, the implementation of the possible evaporation of part of the solvent for increasing the viscosity. Another way of modifying the viscosity of these films is the exposure to a certain dose of actinic radiation. There are many possible VA is Ianto implementation associated with changes in viscosity of the fluid.
In other embodiments, the implementation can be used technique changes acting on the fluid lesoobrazuyushchei reaction medium forces associated with the energy of surface tension. In some embodiments this may be achieved by introducing a surfactant into the composition of the initial reaction mixture of monomer. In alternative embodiments, the implementation of additives or chemicals may be introduced into the material of the lens to change its surface energy.
In Fig.18 shows that in some embodiments in construction procurement lens 1801 can be introduced artifacts 1802 to facilitate flow lesoobrazuyushchei reaction medium. As a non-limiting example, the channels 1802 may include funds outflow fluid lesoobrazuyushchei reaction medium from the area of the workpiece lenses. In alternative embodiments, the implementation methods design using a sharp change of the thickness profile can provide a method for creating a modified stable States. These artifacts can be almost any type, shape and configuration, which may be placed in the area of procurement lenses. In some embodiments artifact 1803 includes some label, for example, one or more alphanumeric si the oxen. Other labels can be alignment marks. These artifacts 1803 and 1802 are formed in accordance with CMU script.
From the point of view of common approaches, such different ways of implementation should not limit the generality of ways to create a fully stabilized, partially stabilized or unstabilized nature fluid lesoobrazuyushchei reaction medium in the method, including stabilization. Combinations of the various embodiments, for example, in the form of additional embodiments of the foregoing methods may be apparent to a person skilled in this field.
After stabilization in some embodiments the fluid material may be subjected to the next processing stage shown in Fig.1 number 133 - fixing, to translate it into non-leaking condition. In some embodiments at commit time possible using actinic radiation of different nature. One of the options for implementing the described techniques may be, for example, the selection of appropriate spectral region or regions. The subject of alternative embodiments may be the intensity of the applied radiation. In alternative embodiments, implementation of various aspects of the clamping radiation may include the temporary dependence. As a non-limiting example, the first processing stage can be used radiation with a single wavelength, which is then changed to a radiation with a different wavelength. The diversity of options for implementing the method for determining the conditions of actinic radiation that will be apparent to the person skilled in the art, is within the scope of the present invention.
In some embodiments of block 133 used method of fixation may include various optical path, which passes actinic radiation. In the variant example of implementation of such radiation can get to the front surface of the workpiece lens or, alternatively, on its rear surface. Other options for implementation may be obtained by using multiple sources of radiation, presumably with different characteristics of the generated radiation, to provide different effects of actinic radiation on the workpiece lenses. In additional embodiments, the implementation for fixing can be used form of energy other than radiation. From the point of view of the generality of the approach, all the many ways, providing the commit phase, is within the scope of the present invention.
In some embodiments, after the FIC is then processed workpiece lens 130 is completed. In some embodiments, the finished product may be subjected to further processing. The product of this type is a good example of a product shown in Fig.1 number 120 - alternative shaping the workpiece. As a non-limiting example, the introduction of the product after fixing the device bitmap lithography allows the second layer processing. This embodiment of the numerous passages opens up opportunities to create embodiments of the method.
In some embodiments, the formation of a complex workpiece lenses in several passes, as a non-limiting example includes the first phase, which is formed by the surface of the ophthalmic lens and the second stage, which is formed on the surface introduces topographic elements. More complex embodiments of the described techniques may include, for example, the first pass through the raster lithographic system described in several previous examples of conditions for the formation of isolated columnar elements of the voxels along the surface of the mold for lens blanks. The second stage bitmap lithography may include filling gaps formed between the columnar members voxels material with other features : the ticks. Third pass through the system may ultimately form the ophthalmic lens. You must understand that the generalization of the method of mnogoplemennosti through the system, in which each stage there are many possible embodiments may provide a variety of embodiments, each of which is within the scope of the present invention.
In some other embodiments, the lens blank can be formed by applying a fluid lesoobrazuyushchei reaction medium to form the workpiece lenses. For example, raster formed by lithography form for procurement lenses can be put through the washing system as the most effective method of removing fluid lesoobrazuyushchei reaction medium. By the end of the cycle will be obtained pure form for procurement lenses. In some embodiments the surface forms received for the procurement of lenses using a certain method may be applied a layer of fluid lesoobrazuyushchei reaction medium. The technique used for overcoating fluid lesoobrazuyushchei reaction medium on the surface of the mold, in some embodiments may provide immersion and subsequent extraction of the workpiece lens by methods similar to those described in embodiments implementing unit 117. The village is e resulting billet lenses may have a different distribution of Monomeric and multimeric molecules. In addition, in some embodiments it is possible to use polymers of the chemical composition, different from that used when forming the mold for the lens blanks. The person skilled in the art it will be obvious that numerous embodiments of constituting a method of applying fluid lesoobrazuyushchei environment on the form to blank lens of various embodiments are within the scope of the present invention.
In the alternative, some embodiments form for procurement of lenses can be formed using methods that are different from raster lithography. In the first non-limiting example, as the basis for the formation of forms for procurement lenses can be used in various embodiments of the method of stereolithography. In some embodiments, the produced stereolithography method form for procurement of the lens may be on the surface of the layer of fluid lesoobrazuyushchei reaction medium obtained using the same as described for block 117 removing fluid material, however, in other embodiments, the implementation can be provided by applying a layer of fluid lesoobrazuyushchei reaction medium on the basis formed by stereolithography method. Alternative implementation is possible, if PR is the process of mask lithography to define the form for the procurement of lenses, which is then used in the above-described methods. In additional embodiments, the implementation may use forms for procurement lenses made by standard methods, injection molding, widely used in the manufacture of ophthalmic lenses, and the subsequent formation of the workpiece lens according to the above methods. You must understand that different ways of implementation to create forms for procurement lens may include methods of forming the billet lenses.
In Fig.19 shows the lens 1901, formed from blanks of the lens by exposure to a sufficient dose of actinic radiation for polymerization of the unreacted polymerized capable of cross-linking material. Appropriate options for implementation may include the first section of the lens 1903, contains many of voxels polymerized cross-linked material, and the second section of the lens 1902, containing a layered volume is capable of cross-linking material, polymerized next point of gelation specified capable of cross-linking of the material.
As the source of actinic radiation 1904 may be used, for example, the radiation source 1904, generating radiation 1905 sufficient intensity and of the desired wavelength to initiate the expression in able to perechnoi-linking of the material. In some variants of implementation specified actinic radiation may come from multiple point-sources (as shown). In other embodiments, the implementation can use a single light source, generating actinic radiation.
In some embodiments formed or fixed lens can stick to the surface forming the optical element by adhesion. In some embodiments this lens can be gidratirovana. Hydration may be, for example, immersion in a solution such as an aqueous solution or a solution of isopropyl alcohol. In some embodiments this solution can be heated to a temperature in the range from 60 to 95 degrees Celsius.
These methods immersion in some embodiments allow you to clean the lens and body to hydrate the lens. In the process of hydration of the lens swells and separates from the surface form of the medium in which it was located.
1. Ophthalmic lens, comprising:
the first area of the optical zone, containing a number of voxels polymerized capable of cross-linking material containing photoglossy component, while the section of the optical zone has a first region containing the first record of prelamin is, and a second area containing a second refractive index; and
the second section containing a layered volume is capable of cross-linking material, polymerized next point of gelation is capable of cross-linking of the material.
2. Ophthalmic lens under item 1, additionally containing a third area containing one or more additional layered volumes capable of cross-linking of the material.
3. Ophthalmic lens under item 1, in which the layered volume capable of cross-linking material contains a diagram of the cross-linkage other than the linkage voxel to voxel.
4. Ophthalmic lens under item 1, in which the second section further comprises a silicone.
5. Ophthalmic lens under item 1, in which the first section includes the first optical surface.
6. Ophthalmic lens under item 5, in which the second section contains the second optical surface.
7. Ophthalmic lens under item 3, in which the first section is formed by irradiation of the reaction mixture by many rays of actinic radiation, each beam of actinic radiation comes from a source and is reflected toward the target area capable of cross-linking of the material within a specified period of time.
8. Ophthalmic lens under item 7, in which ka is every beam of actinic radiation, reflected toward the target area capable of cross-linking of the material within a specified period of time, contains a specified wavelength.
9. Ophthalmic lens under item 8, in which the second segment is formed by irradiation of the reaction mixture by many rays of actinic radiation emanating from a variety of points.
10. Ophthalmic lens according to p. 7, optionally containing one or more recessed areas formed by the voxels polymerized capable of cross-linking of the material.
11. Ophthalmic lens according to p. 7, optionally containing one or more raised areas formed by the voxels polymerized capable of cross-linking of the material.
12. Ophthalmic lens according to p. 10, in which a layered volume is capable of cross-linking material, polymerized next point of gelation, repeats the form of recessed areas formed by the voxels polymerized capable of cross-linking of the material.
13. Ophthalmic lens according to p. 10, in which a layered volume is capable of cross-linking material, polymerized next point of gelation, does not repeat the form of recessed areas formed by the voxels polymerized capable of cross-linking of the material.
14. Oftalmol the strategic lens on p. 1, in which each voxel contains a first end and a second end, and a second section containing a layered volume is capable of cross-linking material, polymerized above the point of gelation, essentially covers each second end.
15. Ophthalmic lens under item 5, in which the first section contains a discrete pattern is formed along the surface of the media.
16. Ophthalmic lens under item 5, in which the perimeter of the lens actually has a non-circular shape.
17. Ophthalmic lens under item 5, in which the perimeter of the lens has an essentially oval shape.
18. Ophthalmic lens under item 5, in which the lens has a toric shape.
SUBSTANCE: ophthalmic lens for myopia delay comprises a central optical area, a peripheral area surrounding the optical area, and an edge area surrounding the peripheral area. A lens power profile in the central optical area gradually increases from the lens power required for the far vision correction to the lens power at least 0.5 dioptres more positive than the lens power required for the far vision correction. The lens power profile has its maximum in the central optical area. The lens power in the peripheral area has a value required for the far vision correction, or has a profile produced by an extrapolation of the lens power profile of the central optical area.
EFFECT: delayed myopia progression.
15 cl, 20 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for stabilising contact lenses involves providing a lens structure with a set of stabilisation area parameters and creating the contact lens structure with the improved stabilisation on the basis of a characteristic of the lens structure parameters in the form of a mathematical construction, modelling the lens structure with the use of a model which provides achieving balanced momentums and model spinning effects, viscous friction effects and elastic energy yield, and selecting a structure on the bases of the modelling procedure. The stages of modelling and selecting the structure are repeated; the virtual model simulating the eye mechanics effects are used to ground the contact lens structure. The above mathematical construction involves the Bezier curve coefficients describing an upper portion of an angular thickness profile, so that inclinations are negative to provide a decreased thickness of an upper portion of a lens periphery, herewith preserving a desired thickness difference of various portions.
EFFECT: optimising the process of the contact lens stabilisation by balancing forces, acting on the lens.
8 cl, 14 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to polysiloxane copolymers with one or two hydrophilic terminal polymer chains and their application for obtaining contact lenses. Claimed is actinically-linked linear polysiloxane copolymer, obtained by mixing hydrophilic vinyl monomer and/or vinylacetate with radical-generating polysiloxane of particular structure with obtaining capable of polymerisation composition, by irradiation of composition by ultraviolet radiation and covalent binding of ethylene-unsaturated group to polysiloxane copolymer with extended chain by realisation of reaction between it and vinyl monomer functionalised by ethylene bond. Also claimed is contact lens, obtained with application of said polysiloxane copolymer.
EFFECT: claimed actinically-linked polysiloxane copolymer can be applied for obtaining contact lenses on the basis of silicon hydrogel, which have hydrophilic surface, without surface processing, carried out after hardening.
11 cl, 1 tbl, 46 ex
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions refers to medicine. A system represents a lens or a set of lenses, wherein the lens has: central optical zone with distribution of ADD power varying from the maximum falling within 0 to 2.4 dioptres to the minimum making 0 to 0.2 dioptres; a peripheral optical zone having the distribution of power providing a negative spherical aberration between an internal semi-diameter of 2 mm and an external semi-diameter of 3 mm; a transient zone between the central and peripheral optical zones adjoining thereto and providing a transition in between. A difference of the negative spherical aberration on the internal semi-diameter of the peripheral optical zone and the negative spherical aberration on the external semi-diameter of the peripheral optical zone is within the range from the absolute minimum of approximately 0.65 dioptres to the absolute maximum of approximately 1.25 dioptres. The distribution of power in the transient zone is continuous. A proper member representing a continuous displacement is included into the specified distribution of power for each lens from the set so that the distribution of power is identical for all the lenses from the set except when the members representing the continuous displacement are different for all the lenses.
EFFECT: using the given group of inventions enables the higher therapeutic effectiveness in presbyopia without reduction in a patient's intermediate or far vision at different stages of presbyopia.
20 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of selecting multifocal contact lenses according to the invention includes the following steps: a) estimating potential success in selecting multifocal lenses for a specific patient, which involves calculating a satisfactory index using conventional vision correction means; b) determining the primary and secondary eye of the patient; c) measuring apparent refraction for each eye of the patient; d) determining the required additional optical power for the patient; e) selecting a multifocal contact lens for each of the primary eye and secondary eye of the patient; f) estimating visual needs of the patient depending on lifestyle and specifying lens selection performed at step (e) for the primary eye, for the secondary eye or for both eyes based on results of said estimation.
EFFECT: faster lens selection with more success compared to standard methods.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine. A system comprises: an energised ophthalmic lens with a power supply; the lens is adapted so that wearing the lens provides an eyelid representing one or more of: a screen on the way from an external light source to the above lens, and an aid generated by a mechanical contact of lens compression, an actuator electrically connected to the power source and capable to detect a signal supplied by the power source external to the lens; and an element electrically connected to the power source for generating the power from the power source on the basis of detection of the external signal by the actuator. The method involves: providing the external signal source and changing the condition of at least one element being a part of the lens.
EFFECT: provided effective fulfilment of the ophthalmological lens functions.
21 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: lens structure having composite front and back surfaces is made. Optical characteristics of the lens structure given at the previous step are determined. A second lens structure having at least one simple surface is made and the second lens structure is redefined such that elevation parameters of said lens provide it with optical characteristics obtained at the previous steps. At least one surface of said lens is a simple surface and the last step is an iteration process.
EFFECT: obtaining lenses having a simple surface which are equivalent to lenses having two composite surfaces on optical characteristics.
14 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method according to the invention includes the following steps: providing a mould for making a soft contact lens, the mould having a first mould half which forms a first moulding surface, which forms the front surface of the contact lens, and a second mould half which forms a second moulding surface, which forms the rear surface of the contact lens, said first and second mould halves configured to be connected to each other such that a cavity forms between said first and second moulding surfaces; feeding a mixture of monomers of lens forming materials into the cavity, where said mixture of monomers includes at least one hydrophilic amide-type vinyl monomer, at least one siloxane-containing (meth)acryalide monomer, at least one polysiloxane vinyl monomer or macromer and about 0.05 to about 1.5 wt % photoinitiator, where the lens forming material is characterised by the capacity to be cured by UV radiation having intensity of about 4.1 mW/cm2, in about 100 s; and irradiating the lens forming material in the mould for 120 s or less with spatially confined actinic radiation in order to cross-link the lens forming material to form a silicone hydrogel contact lens, where the contact lens made has a front surface, formed by the first moulding surface, opposite the rear surface formed by the second moulding surface, and a lens edge formed in accordance with spatial confinement of the actinic radiation.
EFFECT: making silicon hydrogel contact lenses whose edges are defined not by touching moulding surfaces, but by spatial confinement of radiation, which enables to reuse the mould to make high-quality contact lenses with good reproducibility.
SUBSTANCE: area of a toric optical zone of the back surface of lenses, which are the subject of the present invention, is equal to or greater than 50% of the total area of the back surface of the lens.
EFFECT: reduced undesirable or excessive loads on cornea which increase colouring of the cornea.
8 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method according to the invention involves adding to a reaction mixture an effective amount of a compound which reduces protein absorption, hardening said mixture in a mould to form a contact lens and removing the lens from the mould with at least one aqueous solution.
EFFECT: making silicone-hydrogel contact lenses with low protein adsorption, which are comfortable and safe to use, and do not require high production expenses.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of sandwiched materials used in thin-film instruments and devices. Proposed levelling film comprises levelling ply containing binding polymer resin and inorganic filler as components, at least, on one side of transparent polymer substrate. Note here that the number of foreign particles with mean diameter of 20-100 mcm on levelling air surface does not exceed 5 per m2.
EFFECT: decreased amount of linear defects at production of thin-film transistor on film surface.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex, 2 dwg
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to producing a terbium aluminium garnet monocrystal which can be used as a Faraday rotator for optical insulators. In the terbium aluminium garnet monocrystal, a portion of aluminium is at least replaced with scandium and a portion of at least aluminium or terbium is replaced with at least one component selected from a group consisting of thulium, ytterbium and yttrium, wherein the garnet monocrystal has the general formula (Tb3-x-zSczMx) (Sc2-yMy) Al3O12 (1), where M represents at least one component selected from a group consisting of Tm, Yb and Y, and x, y and z satisfy the following relationship: 0<x+y≤0.30 and 0≤z≤0.30.
EFFECT: present monocrystal has a high light transmission factor in a wide wavelength range and a wide Faraday rotation angle with cracking-resistance.
8 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 12 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to polymers for producing ionic silicone hydrogels suitable for making ophthalmic devices. Disclosed are polymers obtained from reactive components comprising at least one silicone-containing component which includes at least one trimethylsilyl group and at least one ionic component comprising at least one anionic group, which is a carboxylic acid-containing component. Also disclosed is a contact lens made from the disclosed polymers.
EFFECT: disclosed polymers demonstrate improved thermal stability and desirable protein uptake.
24 cl, 5 dwg, 10 tbl, 18 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to ophthalmic devices and methods for preparing them. What is presented is a soft silicone hydrogel contact lens which possesses an ability to deliver a hydrophobic comfort-maintaining agent (phospholipid, glycolipid, glyceroglycolipid, sphingolipid, sphingoglycolipid, fatty alcohol containing 8 to 36 carbon atoms, or a mixture thereof) into the user's eye gradually releasing it from a polymer matrix consisting of hydrophobic chains formed of a silicon monomer or macromere, and hydrophilic chains formed of a hydrophilic monomer or macromere when in use. What is also presented is a method for making the above contact lens.
EFFECT: in the presented soft silicone contact lens, the hydrophobic comfort-maintaining agent is not covalently bond to the polymer matrix wherein it is distributed and can be released from the soft hydrogel contact lens into the user's eye when in use reliably for a long period of time and thereby reinforcing and stabilising a lipid layer of the lachrymal fluid film and reducing eye dryness.
16 cl, 2 tbl, 7 ex
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: device has a base and a plurality of convex and concave structural elements arranged on the surface of the base with spacing which is equal to or less than the wavelength of visible light. The structural elements form a plurality of tracks and form a structure of a quadrangular or quasi-quadrangular array. In one version, each structural element has the shape of an elliptical or truncated elliptical cone, the long axis of which is parallel to the track. In another version, the ratio ((2r/P1)×100) of the diameter 2r to the spacing P1 is 127% or higher, where P1 is the spacing between structural elements on the same track, and 2r is the diameter of the lower surface of the structural element in the direction of the track. The method is carried out by forming a resist layer on the peripheral surface of a columnar or cylindrical standard mould, forming latent images via interrupted irradiation of the resist layer with a laser beam while rotating the standard mould with relative displacement of the laser beam spot parallel to its central axis, forming a resist structure via development thereof and forming structural elements by etching using the resist structure as a mask.
EFFECT: improved antireflection characteristics.
12 cl, 6 tbl, 67 dwg
SUBSTANCE: initial raw material in the form of a briquette of a powder of aluminium-magnesium spinel with stoichiometric composition, alloyed with 1 wt % of lithium fluoride is sintered in vacuum at a temperature of 1100-1500°C. The obtained briquette with a diameter equal to the diameter of the mould is loaded into the mould, with its further compression at a temperature of 1550-1600°C for 5-30 minutes under pressure of 350-500 kg/cm2, kept for 30-55 minutes and cooled.
EFFECT: obtaining a polycrystalline optical material from aluminium-magnesium spinel.
1 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: described are novel derivatives of benzotriazole of general formula , where X is C3-C4 alkenylene, C3-C4 alkylene, CH2CH2CH2SCH2CH2 or CH2CH2CH2SCH2CH2CH2; Y is hydrogen, if X is C3-C4 alkenylene, or Y is -O-C(=O)-C(R1)=CH2, if X is C3-C4 alkylene, CH2CH2CH2SCH2CH2 or CH2CH2CH2SCH2CH2CH2; R1is CH3 or CH2CH3; R2 is C1-C4 alkyl, and R3is F, Cl, Br, I or CF3.
EFFECT: compounds are absorbers of UV/visible light and can be applied in production of materials for ophthalmological lenses.
5 cl, 3 dwg, 5 tbl, 6 ex
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to means of displaying on liquid crystals. The electroconductive optical device has a base element and a transparent electroconductive film formed on the base element. The structure of the surface of the transparent electroconductive film includes a plurality of bulging portions with antireflection properties and arranged with spacing equal to or less than the wavelength of visible light.
EFFECT: improved antireflection properties of the electroconductive optical device.
16 cl, 57 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to space engineering and concerns creation of a temperature-regulating material for applying to a space object (SO) surface. The temperature-regulating material contains a substrate in the form of an optically transparent glass, a highly-reflective layer of silver, a protective layer. The highly-reflective layer of silver has a width of 0.10÷0.15 micron. For the protective layer stainless steel with thickness of 0.10÷0.20 micron is used. On the protective layer an epoxy varnish with thickness of 20÷30 micron is applied. Prior to covering the substrate with the highly-reflective silver layer, the substrate chemical cleaning is performed with simultaneous ultrasound treating for 3 minutes. Then the substrate is removed from the solution, rinsed successively with warm, cold and distilled water, each time for 1-1.5 min, and dried in the air. The surface is treated with glow discharge for additional purification and activation of the substrate surface. Then, the highly-reflective layer and the protective layer is successively applied in a vacuum chamber by magnetron sputtering without the vacuum chamber unsealing in one technological cycle successively positioning the substrate under the sources with a silver target and a stainless steel target. On the substrate with the highly-reflective layer and protective layer, the epoxy varnish layer of 20÷30 micron in thickness is applied for additional protection against atmospheric corrosion and for better adhesion of the coated substrate to adhesive composition. During temperature-regulating material attachment, material bonding using an adhesive composition with an electroconductive filler is performed with the help of weights. As the electroconductive filler, aluminium or silver powder is used in a quantity of 20±5% and 10±5% respectively. This powder provides required electroconductive properties of the temperature-regulating material surface.
EFFECT: better radiant heat characteristics of material, higher processability of coating, higher adhesion values of the coated substrate to the SO body surface.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: anti-reflective optical element has a base and a plurality of structures situated on the surface of the base and in form of cuts or protrusions with a conical shape. The structures are arranged with a spacing which is less than or equal to the wavelength of light of the wavelength range in the ambient environment using said element. Lower portions of structures lying next to each other are connected to each other. The effective refraction index in the direction of the depth of the structures gradually increases in the direction of the base and corresponds to an S-shaped curved line. The structures have a single step on the lateral surface of the structures.
EFFECT: improved anti-reflective characteristics.
19 cl, 60 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: blank ophthalmological lens unit comprises the mould for blank lens, containing hydrogel medium with photoabsorbing component and capable to cross linkage. Besides, the unit has the first and second surfaces. Meanwhile the first surface contains a part with the first degree of the density of cross linkage, partially polymerized above the gel formation point using the principle of 3D bitmap. The second surface contains the material with the second degree of density of the cross linkage hardened approximately above or below the gel formation point.
EFFECT: simplification of finishing of fabricated ophthalmological lens to obtain the individual lens to achieve a specific goal and satisfy the demands of certain patient.
16 cl, 19 dwg, 3 tbl, 1 ex