Method for determining balance of chemical composition of swamp waters from their hydrodynamic conditions

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydrodynamic and hydrochemical tests of waters of peat soils. According to the method, there determined is a law of distribution of a set of balance coefficients during different periods of unidirectional processes characterising relationship between chemical and hydrodynamic processes flowing as to thickness of a peat deposit. Flow rates of the incoming water are determined with a sampling complex. A calculation of balance coefficients of the obtained data is carried out by a unification method. They are brought to a uniform dimensionless form by a mathematical generalisation method. Change of a set of balance coefficients allows efficient assessment of a degree and dynamics of change of chemical water composition and its hydrodynamic mode due to duration and intensity of processes. Persistent interaction of balance coefficients distributed in time and depth shows balance of a swamp ecosystem.

EFFECT: determination of change of chemical composition of swamp waters as to depth of a peat deposit under conditions of their hydrodynamic mode in time.

8 tbl, 9 dwg

 

The invention relates to hydrodynamic and hydrochemical studies of the waters of the peat soils.

Hydrodynamic (filtration) characteristics of peat, in addition to physical parameters, determine the chemical composition of the dispersion medium and the degree of acidity. Based on these studies determine the chemical composition of different genetic properties of the deposits. Research Churaeva N. In., Volarovich M. P. and others published in the article "Influence of the composition of the dispersion medium by filtration peat", "Colloid journal", 26,1, 1964

It is known that a more modern and comprehensive studies of the marshes. The findings suggest that marshes have a specific resistance as compared to fluctuations in water levels and meteorological conditions. Measure the pH and conductivity of wetland waters show that marshes can gidrohimicheskii differ both in area and depth of the stratigraphic profile. Due to their specific relationships with external and primarily hydro-meteorological conditions - this is an interesting object of analysis of stability of swamp ecosystems. Research Visloguzova nutrient content, and other Ecological and hydrological observations on karst wetlands of the Tula region (on the example system of wetlands in the village. lake)". //Exploring the nature of Tula is blasty and adjacent territories. Sat. scient. Tr. -Tula. 2008. Vol. 1, S. 130-133.

However, in such studies the practical significance of these studies was reduced to the possibility of increasing the efficiency of the reclamation work. The mechanism of influence based filtration characteristics and chemical composition of different genetic layers of peat were not determined.

The main task is to determine changes in the chemical composition of wetland water depth of peat deposits in terms of their hydrodynamic regime in time.

The way to determine the distribution pattern of the set of factors of equilibrium for different periods of unidirectional flow processes. They characterize a relationship between chemical and hydrodynamic processes on the thickness of peat deposits. Reveal the dependence of the distribution coefficients of the equilibrium depth of peat deposits method to the periodic determination of the variability of chemical properties of bog water with fixed depths belonging to different genetically heterogeneous layers of peat, forming peat Deposit from the hydrodynamic regime of these waters. Complex for water sampling to determine the costs of the incoming water. Method of unifying the calculation of the coefficients of the equilibrium of received data. Lead them in a uniform, dimensionless with protrans the public distribution of one-way graphically by the method of mathematical generalization.

The amount of water coming into the well with different fixed depths of peat deposits in one period of sampling are represented as the relative intensity of the filtration flow rate ofaboutandf=ViVmaxwhere Vivolume coming into the well water from the i-th interval peat deposits, ml/min, Vmax- the maximum amount flowing into the well water on all vertical intervals peat deposits, ml/min

Hydrodynamic characteristics and chemical characteristics of water expressed through the modular ratio

M=CiCcp

to build and combine graphically expressed the investigated variables that have different dimensionality,

where Ci- the actual content of the chemical indicator and cost values for each vertical interval peat deposits,

Ccf- the average content of chemical indicator and cost values for all vertical intervals peat deposits.

For typing curves dependencies characterizing the presence with the connection between the hydrodynamic characteristics and chemical indicators they lead to the same total average

PR=investment Fund management companiescf×finvestment Fund management companies,

where Cf- the actual content of the chemical indicator, some conducted by the analysis of selected samples,

investment Fund management companies - the relative intensity of the filtration flow rate at each vertical interval peat deposits,

investment Fund management companiescf- the average value of the relative intensity of seepage flow on all vertical intervals peat deposits.

On the values of the chemical parameters and the relative intensity of the filtration flow build communication graph that defines the correlation and compute the value of the correlation coefficient. Communication is considered close enough, if

r ≥±0,80.

The ratio of equilibrium is calculated with respect to two main factors - module relative intensity of the filtration flow rate to the module mineralization:

ToRS=Mi.investment Fund management companies/Mi.min,

where Mi.investment Fund management companiesmodule relative intensity of the filtration flow rate of the i - th interval,

Mi.minmodule salinity - the amount of the major ions of the i-th interval.

Changing the set of factors of equilibrium allows to effectively assess the extent and dynamics of changes in the chemical composition of water and its hydrodynamic regime on the duration and intensity of the processes that affect the environmental situation of the evolutionary processes of raised and transitional bogs - anthropogenic pressures. The remaining correlation coefficients of equilibrium, distributed in time and depth, shows the equilibrium of the ecosystem of the wetlands.

One of the tasks of studying the chemical composition of bog water is periodic sampling of water from fixed points along the thickness of peat deposits throughout the year without disrupting the structure of the peat mass and flowing them in hydrodynamic conditions.

Table 1 shows the intensity of the filtration volume of water, mg/ml, coming into the borehole at the depth of peat deposits for the observation period;

Table 2 shows the relative intensity of the filtration flow rate (investment Fund management companies) on the depth of peat deposits for the observation period;

Table 3 shows the sum Σ of the main ions, mg/DM3,i.e. the sum of the concentrations of the major components of the mineral composition: cations (calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium) and anions (sulfates, chlorides);

Table 4 shows the module Σ major ions(the module of the sum of the concentrations of the major components of the mineral composition);

Table 5 shows the modules relative intensity of the filtration flow rate along the depth of peat deposits for the observation period;

Table 6 shows the value of the sum Σ of the major ions (CCRthe main components of the mineral composition);

Table 7 shows the average distribution of the coefficients of the equilibrium distribution in time for the six periods of observation;

Table 8 shows the average distribution coefficient of equilibrium in space (depth).

In Fig. 1 shows a graph of communication that defines the correlation between the sum Σ of the major ions and the relative intensity of the filtration costs;

In Fig. 2 shows a graphical dependence of changes in the amounts of major ions in wetland waters at the depth of peat deposits (from the surface), the natural dimension, where 1 is the sum Σ of the major ions mg/l32 - intensity of the filtration flow rate, mg/l;

In Fig. 3 presents a graphical dependence of a change in the number of major ions in wetland waters at the depth of peat deposits (PR Σ major ions) and the relative intensity of the filtration costs (investment Fund management companies), where 1 is the present value of the sum Σ of the main ions, 2 - the relative intensity of the filtration costs;

In Fig. 4 shows a graphical dependence of the Ummah major ions in wetland waters at the depth of peat deposits, in modular coefficients,where 1 is the module of the sum Σ of the main ions, 2 - module relative intensity of the filtration costs;

In Fig. 5 shows the graphical dependence of the change amount of the major ions in wetland waters at the depth of peat deposits denominated in units from the values of mineralization to the relative intensity of the filtration costs investment Fund management companies, where 1 - the module of the sum Σ of the main ions, 2 - module relative intensity of the filtration costs;

In Fig. 6 presents a graphical dependence of the coefficient of equilibrium time, where 1 is the depth of 0.5 m, 2 - depth of 2.0 m, 3 - depth of 4.0 m;

In Fig. 7 shows the average, over the period of observations, the dependence of the coefficient of equilibrium from time to time;

In Fig. 8 presents a graphical dependence of equilibrium from the depths, where 1 - 25.04.11 year, 2 - 04.11.11,, 3 - 31.07.12 year;

In Fig. 9 shows the average, over the period of observations, the dependence of the coefficient of equilibrium from the depths.

For comparison of the investigated variables and identify dependencies among, if it is impossible graphical display of typical characteristics of changes of the chemical composition of bog water under the typical conditions of the hydrodynamic mode (typing), unify data, lead them in a uniform, dimensionless with prostranstve the th distribution of one-way mathematical generalization and determine the correlation of the obtained values.

- Coming into the borehole volumes of water with different fixed depths of peat deposits over one period of the sampling are represented as the relative intensity of the filtration costs. This is a comparative characteristic, the greatest expenditure of measured vertically in the period of the measurements taken for the unit, and lower costs determined relative to this unit. The relative intensity of the filtration costs possible in the range from 0 to 1. Volume coming into the well water indirectly reflects the filtration properties of peat. The relative intensity of the filtration costs expressed as

aboutandf=ViVmax,

where Vivolume coming into the well water,

Vmax- the maximum amount flowing into the well water, ml/min

- Hydrodynamic characteristics and chemical characteristics of water expressed through the modular ratio

M=CiCcp

to build and combine graphically expressed the investigated variables having different sizes, most,

where Ci- the actual content of the chemical indicator and cost values for each vertical interval peat deposits,

Ccf- the average content of chemical indicator and cost values for all vertical intervals peat deposits.

In this approach, analyzed thtee values at different quantitative values determines the direction of change of these quantities in terms of the variability of their forming processes.

For typing curves dependencies characterizing the relation between the hydrodynamic characteristics and chemical indicators lead to the same total average

With app=aboutandfwith ap×With afaboutandf,

where Cf- the actual content of the chemical indicator, some conducted by the analysis of selected samples,

investment Fund management companies - the relative intensity of the filtration flow rate at each vertical interval peat deposits,

investment Fund management companiescf- the average value of the relative intensity of seepage flow on all vertical intervals peat deposits.

- On the value of the m build schedule communication determining correlation, and compute the value of the correlation coefficient r. The magnitude of the correlation coefficient r varies from+1 to-1. The closer r is to unity, the closer the relationship between the analyzed variables. When r=1 the link is functional. The relationship is quite close, if r ≥±0,80.

The ratio of equilibrium is calculated with respect to two main factors: the module relative intensity of the filtration flow rate to the module mineralization:

ToRS=Mi.investment Fund management companies/Mi.min,

where Mi.investment Fund management companiesmodule relative intensity of the filtration flow rate of the i-th interval,

Mi.minmodule salinity - the amount of the major ions of the i-th interval.

Changing the set of factors of equilibrium allows to effectively assess the extent and dynamics of changes in the chemical composition of water and its hydrodynamic regime on the duration and intensity of the processes that affect the environmental situation of the evolutionary processes top or transitional bogs of anthropogenic load. The remaining correlation coefficients of equilibrium, distributed in time and space - depth talks about the balance of the ecosystem of marshes.

Specific example

The volume of water coming into the well with different fixed depths of peat C which lie in one period of sampling (table.1), imagine how the relative intensity of the filtration costs. Volume coming into the well water indirectly reflects the filtration properties of peat. The relative intensity of the filtration costs calculated (table.2) according to the formula

aboutandf=ViVmax

For the possibility of combining graphically expressed the investigated variables (hydrodynamic characteristics and chemical indicators of water)with different dimensionality (PL.2 and 3), using the modular ratio

M=CiCcp

(PL. 4 and 5).

For typing curves dependencies characterizing the relation between the hydrodynamic characteristics and chemical indicators, they lead to the same total average

With app=aboutandfwith ap×With afaboutandf,

(PL.6).

Below is the values that build communication graph, determining correlation and compute the value of the correlation coefficient.

So make typing curves dependencies. Build correlation (Fig. 1). Calculate the correlation coefficient R=- 0.82, which indicates the presence of a link.

In the dependences (Fig. 5) module of the intensity of the filtration flow rate and module lists the sum Σ of the main ions from the depths (over time) shows typical trends multidirectional variability of hydraulic properties and chemical indicators of water depth. In Fig. 2 to 4 is constructed according to (2) in the physical dimension, (3) the sum Σ of the major ions to the relative intensity of the filtration costs investment Fund management companies, and (4) the sum Σ of the major ions and the relative intensity of the filtration costs investment Fund management companies, expressed in units.

The ratio of equilibrium calculated with respect to two main factors - module relative intensity of the filtration costs to the module of the sum Σ of the main ions:

ToRS=Mi.investment Fund management companies/Mi.min.

Graphs (Fig. 6) Express the distribution coefficients of equilibrium for the six periods of observations (timing) (table.7).

Graphs (Fig. 8)Express the distribution coefficients of equilibrium in eight intervals, depth, relating the I these six periods (PL.8).

Graphs (Fig. 7 and 9), characterize the average distribution coefficient of equilibrium in space, depth and time. The constructed graphs show changes over time that occur on the depth of peat deposits. Peat thickness swamp is a system vzaimodeystvuesh heterogeneous layers of peat and passing between processes, aimed at creation of conditions of stability of this system. The remaining correlation coefficients of equilibrium (KRS), distributed in time and depth, shows the equilibrium of the ecological system.

Development of a method to determine the equilibrium of a comprehensive study of the chemical and dynamic properties of water on the example studied in-situ object allows you to effectively assess the extent and dynamics of changes in the chemical composition of water from changes in the intensity and duration of anthropogenic load on the environment and the natural object.

The results concluded between the chemical properties of water and the hydrodynamic conditions of each genetically heterogeneous layer of peat there is a state of equilibrium, which is expressed by the existence of a relationship between all factors in the spatial-temporal changes. The composition and concentration of the chemical properties of wetland water contained different is lubing peat thickness, characterized by species composition of peat, which is limited to layers of other types and kinds of varieties of peat. Because the type of peat and its species composition determines the filtering mode, and hence the hydrodynamic conditions, the chemical properties of water, enclosed in layers of peat, are self-regulating system, with a certain homeostasis. The equilibrium state can change from its defining conditions. The ratio of equilibrium calculated with respect to two main factors - module relative intensity of the filtration cost module mineralization.

How to determine the equilibrium chemical composition from the hydrodynamic conditions of the bog water, which determine the distribution pattern of the set of factors of equilibrium for different periods of unidirectional flow processes that characterize the relationship of chemical and hydrodynamic processes on the thickness of peat deposits, identify dependencies in the distribution of the coefficients of the equilibrium depth of peat deposits method to the periodic determination of the variability of chemical properties of bog water with fixed depths belonging to different genetically heterogeneous layers of peat, forming peat Deposit from the hydrodynamic regime of these waters, and complex for selection is Rob determine the cost of water supplied to the water sample, method of unifying calculate the coefficients of equilibrium data, bring them in uniform, dimensionless with the spatial distribution of one-way graphically by the method of mathematical generalizations and determining the correlation of the obtained values by the formula:
the amount of water coming into the well with different fixed depths of peat deposits in one period of sampling, is presented as the relative intensity of the filtration flow
aboutandf=ViVmax,
where Vivolume coming into the well water from the i-th interval peat deposits, ml/min,
Vmax- the maximum amount flowing into the well water on all vertical intervals peat deposits, ml/min;
hydrodynamic characteristics and chemical characteristics of water expressed through the modular ratio
M=CiCcpto build and combine graphically expressed the investigated variables with different RA is the dimension,
where Ci- the actual content of the chemical indicator and cost values for each vertical interval peat deposits,
Ccf- the average content of chemical indicator and cost values for all vertical intervals peat deposits,
for typing curves dependencies characterizing the relation between the hydrodynamic characteristics and chemical indicators, they lead to the same total average
With app=aboutandfwith apWith afaboutandf
where Cf- the actual content of a chemical indicator, a specific analysis conducted by sampled,
investment Fund management companies - the relative intensity of the filtration flow rate at each vertical interval peat deposits,
investment Fund management companiescf- the average value of the relative intensity of seepage flow on all vertical intervals peat deposits,
on the values of the chemical parameters and investment Fund management companies build communication graph that defines the correlation, and compute the value of the correlation coefficient, the relationship is considered close enough, if r ≥±0,80,
the ratio of equilibrium calc the Ute in relation to two main factors:
module relative intensity of the filtration flow rate to the module mineralization:
ToRS=Mi.investment Fund management companies/Mi.min,
where Mi.investment Fund management companiesmodule relative intensity of the filtration flow rate of the i-th interval,
Mi.minmodule salinity - the amount of the major ions of the i-th interval,
changing the set of factors of equilibrium allows to effectively assess the extent and dynamics of changes in the chemical composition of water and its hydrodynamic regime on the duration and intensity of the processes that affect the environmental situation of the evolutionary processes of raised and transitional bogs - anthropogenic pressures and the continuing relationship of the coefficients of equilibrium, distributed in time and depth, shows the equilibrium of the ecosystem of the wetlands.



 

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25 cl, 15 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: device includes sampling tube mounted in pipeline perpendicular to flow movement and provided with slot-like inlet from side of flow movement. Slots in inlet are made horizontally along the height of pipeline and are directed toward liquid flow. Depth of slots changes from small near pipeline walls to largest near pipeline axis. Opposite to inlet in sampling tube there made is a vertical slot.

EFFECT: increasing sample uniformity and improving accuracy of sample composition determination.

4 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: in addition, analysis of isotopic composition of carbon of sum of hydrocarbons C2-C6 is performed and limits of values of isotopic composition of carbon, methane and isotopic composition of carbon of sum of hydrocarbons C2-C6 for reference horizons are determined. Tables and/or graphs represent ranges of values of isotopic composition of gases from reference horizons and gases are represented from inter-string space of wells or drilling fluid; as per the degree of similarity or coincidence of the above ranges of those values (or individual points) there evaluated is nature of investigated inter-string gas shows.

EFFECT: improving reliability in determination of nature of inter-string gas shows.

1 ex, 2 tbl, 1 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: method for assessing a gas-recovery ratio for the volume drained by at least one productive gas well comprises: calibration of the changes of an isotopic composition of at least one component of the natural gas recovered from the gas well with the gas-recovery ratio gain. Sampling of the natural gas recovered from the production well, and analysis of the sample for preparing the isotopic composition of the component of the natural gas. Use of the previous calibration and the specific isotopic composition for assessing the gas-recovery ratio for the volume drained by the gas well. Use of the assessed gas-recovery ratio and total volume of the natural gas produced from the gas well to determine the volume drained by the gas well.

EFFECT: amended assessment of the gas-recovery ratio which is based on the calibrated relation of the changes in the isotopic composition of one or more components of the produced gas and the gas-recovery ratio for the volume drained by the productive gas well.

3 dwg, 9 cl

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: in process of sampling, values of specific electric conductivity are measured on liquid arriving into a sampling chamber. At the same time measured values of specific electric conductivity and readings of pressure and temperature sensors are recorded with a surface receiving-processing station, and to form a channel of communication with it and to provide for sampler lowering and lifting, an armoured geophysical cable is used, which is withdrawn from a drilling string via a sealing device. Besides, before opening of a potentially producing bed, the sampler at the vibration and impact safe distance from a bit is fixed on the cable in the above-packer space of the above-bit packering unit, providing for direct circulation of the mud. And after opening the sampling operation is carried out by means of multiple sampling and remote express-analysis of fluid composition in every sample according to specific electric conductivity, for this purpose the chamber by means of piston displacement is released from the first sample with fluid discharge into the above-packer space. Then it is put into the initial working condition, and similarly to the first sample taking, further sampling is carried out, until extremum of specific electric conductivity values is achieved, and on the basis of this parameter, a decision is made to lift the last sample from the well or to continue drilling process, and bed parameters are identified on the basis of pressure, temperature sensor readings, and by the value and speed of increments of specific electric conductivity.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of sampling of oil reservoirs opened with drilling, also in abnormal boreholes.

8 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes taking of a downhole sample by a sampler and its transportation to the surface. At that at the surface the sealed sampled chamber is set in different positions under vertical angles less than 180 degrees and measurements of the fluid are made by primary detectors installed inside the chamber on the surface of a dividing piston; then content of the downhole sample is analysed and calculated.

EFFECT: checkout of parameters for the total downhole sample, acquisition of reliable data on the fluid, creation of cost-effective control method.

7 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: method and tool that implements the method involving the measurement of viscosities and flow rates of fluid media of the formation and obtainment of the ratio of relative permeabilities of formation fluid media and formation wetting ability using those viscosities and flow rates of the formation fluid media.

EFFECT: testing of bottom-hole formation for determination of relative permeability under bottom-hole conditions.

18 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas extractive industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes picking a sample of bed fluid under pressure by means of pump. Sample of fluid is then compressed by moveable piston, actuated by hydrostatic pressure in well through valve. Compressed sample of bed fluid is contained under high pressure inside the chamber with fixed volume for delivery to well surface. Moveable piston is in form of inner and outer bushings, moveable relatively to each other. At the same time several tanks for picking samples from several areas may be lowered into well with minimal time delays. Tanks may be emptied on well surface by evacuation pressure, to constantly provide for keeping of pressure of fluid sample above previously selected pressure.

EFFECT: higher reliability.

6 cl, 14 dwg

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