Method to produce electric energy
SUBSTANCE: method to produce electric energy includes installation of two non-polarised electrodes in a zone of continuous water flow in a sea or river at a distance from each other and from the bottom. Current-collecting lines are connected to the electrodes to transfer a difference of values of natural electric field potentials between the electrodes to a coastal station of electric energy collection. At the station they sum up the difference of potentials from all such pairs of electrodes, convert into AC and send to consumers.
EFFECT: provision of the possibility to produce electric energy by simple means.
The invention relates to hydropower, particularly to a method of use of water resources for generating electrical energy, and can be used to produce electrical energy suitable for supplying small villages, stations, observatories and other remote objects.
The known method (see EN 2431758 C1, 20.10.2011) electricity generation and device for its implementation, which consists in the use of water resources in lowland rivers to generate electric energy by the motion of the magnets relative to the coils of conductive drive under the influence applied to the conduit of the flow of water.
However, the method requires the use of a special conduit, special technical equipment and maintenance, which complicates its use.
Also known is a method of obtaining electrical energy, characterized by the movement of charged particles moving under the influence of electric external forces through the magnetic circuit and the electrical energy is removed by winding wound on a magnetic core (see EN 2009105427 A, 27.08.2010).
However, for the application of the method requires a special device, which, as in the first case, complicate the application of the method.
The present invention is the ability to produce electric power, simple and means.
This object is achieved in that in the method of generating electrical energy, including installation in the constant flow of water in the sea or the river two polarizadas electrodes at a distance of 50-300 m from each other and 2-10 m from the bottom, to which are connected the collector line for transmission to the difference of the values of the natural potentials of the electric field between the electrodes on the coastal collection station electric energy, which summarized the potential difference from all such pairs of electrodes is converted into alternating current and is passed on to consumers.
According to the law of electromagnetic induction in a moving stream of water there is an electric field, owes its origin to the earth's magnetic field. This "potential induction obeys the Poisson equation: Δ2F=N×V, where F is the electric potential; H - magnetic field intensity vector; V is the velocity of the stream.
We are interested in the horizontal component of the electrodynamic field. This component also depends on the thickness of the moving layer of water (h (2 to 10 m). The final formula will look like:
where: F is the electric floor is;
h - thickness of the moving layer of water;
Vm - flow rate;
Hz is the vertical component of the magnetic field intensity vector.
The amount of tension electrodynamic electric field will be reduced in the presence of sediments low resistance, while the bedrock high resistance located near the bottom of the can, on the contrary, increase its value.
System for generating electrical energy must be installed in a moving stream of water in the layer with the greatest velocity.
Then, in simplified form, the formula for the tension (Ed) will look like this:
Ed=Hz×L×Vm where: Hz - tension vertical component of the magnetic field, L is a linear plot, which is calculated Ed, Vm is the average velocity.
To obtain the maximum electric power should be placed collector lines (pair polarizadas electrodes) in the straight sections of the water flow in the river or on the site of the permanent sea currents.
If there are multiple identical collector lines tension electrodynamic fields will increase in proportion to their number.
To obtain industrial values should gain collector "bus" of several thousand lines. The line should be a cable core of conductive Mat is the Rial, prisoner in isolation. Ordinary household conductive wires have a core of copper, aluminum, iron or mixed fibres. Thus the energy loss in such wires will be significant. The core is expediently made of modern materials with low electrical resistance.
This method of getting electrical energy is a simple, very cheap and absolutely safe for the environment.
Thus, we propose a method of generating electrical energy based on the occurrence of an electric current between the electrodes attached to the ends of the conductive cable, located in the zone of constant flow of water in the sea or the river, under the influence of earth's magnetic field; different environmental security, capacity increase of the received power, can be used in any area that has a reservoir with a constant flow of water.
Experimental observation method were carried out in the zone of permanent currents in the coastal zone of the Throat of the White sea, in the Eastern part of the Gulf of Finland and on the river Sister Leningrad region. Selected straight water, which at a distance of 5-10 meters from the bottom hung measuring line. Line, consisting of a conducting cable length of 50, 150 and 300 m, the ends were connected to depolarizing electrodes, consisting of ceramic cups, which were placed chlorinated lead rods embedded in a concentrated solution of calcium chloride, high viscosity which was provided by adding agar-agar or gelatin. The resulting difference values of the natural electric field between the electrodes was for the above lines of 0.6; 1.1 and 3,15 MB for sea conditions and 0.32; 0,94 and 2.25 mV - for the river. Doubling equal length lines was made only for the area of the Throat of the White sea. Line length was 150 m Multiple measurements of the potential of the EP showed a mean value of 1.93 MB. Obviously some decrease in value relative to the value of 1.1*2=2,2 mV is associated with the loss in the cables.
The way to obtain electrical energy, including installation in the constant flow of water in the sea or the river two polarizadas electrodes at a distance of 50-300 m from each other and 2-10 m from the bottom, to which are connected the collector line for transmission to the difference of the values of the natural potentials of the electric field between the electrodes on the coastal collection station electric energy, which summarized the potential difference from all such pairs of electrodes is converted into alternating current and is passed on to consumers.
SUBSTANCE: device to convert energy of static electricity comprises serially connected source of static electricity, spark arrester and a step-down transformer. In parallel to the primary winding of the transformer connected to the arrester there is the first capacitor connected. The output of the secondary winding of the transformer via the second capacitor is connected to the load. Frequency of resonance of the first circuit formed by the primary winding of the transformer and the first capacitor connected in parallel to the winding is approximately equal to the frequency of resonance of the second circuit formed by the secondary winding and serially connected to the secondary winding by the second capacitor. The proposed device may be used in a wide spectrum of devices using energy of static electricity, both domestic and industrial ones.
EFFECT: development of a device with high efficiency, simple and small.
SUBSTANCE: substance of the invention consists in using uneven distribution of charge of a cumulonimbus cloud in a horizontal plane in its lower layers. The device comprises two laser plants, the base of which is a laser with an infrared spectrum of radiation, creating an optical breakthrough of air with development of an ionised current-conducting channel. Lasers operate synchronously and interruptedly. The system for charge take off from the laser beam consists of a metal core of round section and a coil wound on it, in which an electromotive force occurs due to varying magnetic zero around the laser beam passing inside the core. The device has a protection against direct lightning strike, and also a system of automatics that analyses intensity of electric zero of air and including all systems.
EFFECT: invention has a system of orientation, capable of analysing distribution of charge in a cloud and rotating plants into an area that is most suitable for removal of cloud charge.
SUBSTANCE: device for usage of atmospheric electricity comprising a receiving unit with an antenna element, connected by a current conductor with a discharge element, the receiving unit comprises a system of vertically oriented triboelemnts arranged below the antenna element, a body of a chamber from dielectric made in the form of a solid of revolution in its configuration. The device differs from the ones available before by the fact that: the lower triboelement has a ball-like shape, and a needle lowers down from it being connected with the upper disc of a capacitor, from the chamber base an earthed needle stretches, on top of which there is a lower disc of the capacitor, to the needles a network is connected, which has on the upper branch a spark discharger, the second electrode of which is connected to an inductance coil, which is connected to the lower earthed needle, the second coil of self-inductance connected to the capacitor, joined to an accumulator.
EFFECT: device has increased capacity to condensate atmospheric electricity and to accumulate it.
FIELD: instrument making.
SUBSTANCE: energy of electric field of atmosphere is converted to energy of ascending stream of air ions, ionised stream is supplied to the charge integrator of atmospheric electricity and stored electric energy is transmitted through the key at resonance frequency through the resonance reducing transformer to the consumer. Device for using atmospheric electricity includes vertically installed conductor connected to the earthing device, electric energy pickup element and semiconductor switch. At that, vertically installed conductor is made in the form of active lightning conductor and includes converter of electric field energy to ionised ascending stream of air ions. Pickup element includes charge integrator of atmospheric electricity, which is connected to converter made in the form of controlled pulse switch connected through resonance reducing transformer to load.
EFFECT: enlarging functional capabilities.
5 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of helium-filled spheres lighter than air is introduced in addition. Conductive sphere shells are separated from sphere surfaces by thermal electric insulators connected through distance controlled knife switches to power conductors and to a reactor. And the reactor is mounted on insulators. A water treatment system is connected to a land pump. The land pump is also connected to a control panel, and on a power cable, there are fastened voltage sensors which are connected to corresponding indicators of the control panel connected to power cable raising and lowering system and connection-disconnection lines of radio signals and laser radiation transfer units. And rings (cylinders) are executed in the form of spiral surfaces with peripheral apertures.
7 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of instrument-making and may find application in design of power supply systems. In order to achieve the result, electric potential is taken off electrodes, one of which is a current conducting capacitance that contacts with natural mineral schungite. At the same time capacitance serves as one of electrodes, and the second electrodes is in contact with water. Method makes it possible to create ecologically pure sources of DC power supply with wide spectrum of application.
EFFECT: expansion of functional capabilities.
12 cl, 1 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to mining and may be used in underground development of mineral resources deposits, additional stripping of their residual stocks within the limits of mining lease, etc. Method includes arrangement and fixation of mine tunnels in subsoil, and provision of various anthropogenic (physical, chemical and other) actions at rock mass, diversion of energy resource to device that generates energy. Method provides for achievement of technical result due to the fact that energy resource used is represented by energy of mineral resources massif deformations caused by gravitation-tectonic and anthropogenic stresses, and anthropogenic actions are executed through dynamic loads, at the same time device that generates energy is located in mine tunnel of developed massif, besides working surfaces of energy-generating device are oriented perpendicularly to maximum compressive forces.
EFFECT: improved completeness of complex extraction of mineral product energy resources.
FIELD: instrument engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to instrument engineering and can be used for conversion of natural power sources. The presented effect is ensured by series conversion of electricity particularly stored into high-pressure air system energy by means of to For achievement of a given result in process of accumulation of an to its certain size by means of electrohydraulic gaps. When pressure is attained, energy of the air system is converted to electric power with using a wind power generator.
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to devices for converting telluric energy of the earth's crust into electric current. According to the invention, the telluric current source has battery from two or more electrically connected telluric energy elements. Each telluric energy element consists of electrodes, made from a magnetic permeable alloy with an electroconductive anticorrosion coating, connected to electrodes of insulated wires, connected a single-wire power transmission device, as well as permanent magnet components with protective dielectric covers. Electrodes are in contact with the south pole of one or more permanent magnet components. The single-wire power transmission device is connected to a rectifier. Electrodes, together with the permanent magnet components and partially together with the insulated wire, are dipped into the earth. The global negative bus and the global polar bus of the battery of telluric energy elements are connected to switching devices with external users.
EFFECT: increased output electrical energy of the telluric current source with reduction of its overall dimensions.
SUBSTANCE: in compliance with the proposed invention, mineral shungit is used as a natural carbonaceous mineral substance placed in nonconductor vessel and covered by a water layer. Note here that electric potential is picked off two electrodes. The first of them is locked to get in contact with shungit. The surface of the electrode that passes through water layer is insulated, while the second electrode is fixed so that its vertical position can be varied on the water-shungit interface.
EFFECT: expanded performances.
10 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: pumped storage plant on plain streams comprises riverbed hydraulic power units, including axial pumps, which are rotated by riverbed water wheels via multipliers. Riverbed hydraulic power units serve for filling of an upper accumulating pond made in the form of a water reservoir with dam walls along the perimeter. Upper and lower accumulating ponds are connected to each other by discharge pipelines with pumps-turbines in the lower part connected mechanically with electric motors - generators in a turbine room. The upper accumulating pond covers a river bed by half.
EFFECT: prevention of flooding of plains and land plots, free navigation and fish passage along entire length of a river, increased depth of a fairway and higher speed of water flow.
5 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power generator exploiting the water stream. Invention aims at production of power generator which can be immersed to required depth, lifted and stretched by running water. Power generator 10 comprises blades 12 secured to revolving closed chain 14 and at least one generator 60 designed to generate electric power and connected with closed circuit 14. Chain 14 extends between rotary discs 24 and moves in circles owing to thrust created by blades 12 under effects of surrounding water. Rotary discs 24 are fitted in appropriate frames 16, 18 which can be strongly secured together. Chain 14 moves freely between frames 16, 18 and around rotary discs 24. Drive 28 connected with universal joint 50 is connected to at least one rotary disc, generator 60 being connected to said joint.
EFFECT: continuous power generation.
19 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: hydroelectric plant for power generation comprises a block of blade screws 6 of axial type placed inside a body 7 and a nozzle. Screws 6 transmit rotation by geared wheels directly, one screw 6 to another one. Screws 6, according to their principle of operation, are master, and when engaged with each other, they rotate in different directions. The nozzle is made with a mixing chamber and is located outside the body 7 to provide for suction of the output flow from the body 7, increasing number of rotations of screws 6. Front ends of the screws 6 are installed in sliding bearings, and the rear ones are placed in thrust sliding bearings of horizontal arrangement, resting on conic journals providing for alignment of screws 6 relative to the body 7. Screws 6 are made with right and left rotation.
EFFECT: provision of continuous operation of a hydroelectric plant.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: run-of-river micro station comprises hydraulic turbine with blades 1, generator 7 fitted at pontoon 8 with anchor pole 9. Diverging blades 1 are curved in conical screw line or in conical logarithmic spiral. Front ends 2 of blades 1 bent through 90 degrees are secured inside hear case 3 at shaped bush 4. Rear ends 5 of blades 1 are secured to spider 6.
EFFECT: fast-assemble-disassemble portable run-of-river plant.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: movable flow-through hydraulic power station contains pontoon 1, fixed with anchors 2, body of water pipeline, hydraulic drive, electric current generator, control mechanisms. Body is made in the form of two hollow cylindrical pipelines 5 and 6 arranged coaxially one after another. First of the pipelines of larger section is turned by its free front end towards the water stream, the rear end of which is connected by means of cone hollow insert 7 to the front end of the pipeline of smaller section, the second end of which is open. Body is mechanically coupled with the energy unit 8. Hydraulic drive and electric current generator, the shafts of which are interconnected, are located inside this unit. Body and energy unit are attached to the bottom of the pontoon 1. Pressure tube 46, made in the form of Pitot tube, the free bent end of which is turned towards the moving water stream, and the other end through the stopcock 47 is connected to the inlet tube of turbine of hydraulic drive and its outlet tube is connected to the interior cavity of housing of minor section, is installed inside the housing of larger section.
EFFECT: design simplification, increase of efficiency, improvement of air-tightness and increase of quantity of power supplied to the consumer.
FIELD: engineering industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed to convert the energy of the fluid medium. The device of outfeed of energy of fluid medium, immersed in the latter along the flow stream, comprises the working element in the form of an endless flexible chain covering the spaced apart from each other at least two toothed pulleys 2 or sprockets, or in the form of a belt 1 covering the spaced apart from each other at least two pulleys, parachutes 4 connected with the endless flexible chain or belt 1. At least one toothed pulley 2 or a sprocket of the endless flexible chain or belt of the pulley 1 is fixedly connected to the power takeoff shaft. The parachutes 4 are made with the ability to open under the pressure 5 of the medium flow and fold during the backward motion. The toothed pulleys 2 or the sprockets of the endless flexible chain or the pulleys of the belt 1 are positioned in the flow medium in the horizontal direction from each other with the ability to rotate around its axis, and each of them is made with the elements of engagement with the said chain or the said belt 1, in which the sleeves are mounted or fixedly attached to. In each sleeve the rod element is mounted with the ability to rotate about the vertically oriented axis, which is attached to a corresponding parachute 4.
EFFECT: invention is aimed at improving operating characteristics by providing a guaranteed engagement of the flexible element with the pulleys, and avoiding the braking of the flexible element and the parachutes when passing the pulleys or the sprockets.
2 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: hydraulic power plant of conveyor type submerged into a fluid medium comprises a frame with at least two pairs of guides and shafts installed on it at the opposite sides as capable of rotation. One of the shafts is kinematically connected with a power generator. A flexible element that embraces the shafts is made in the form of a closed chain gear with fixed blades equipped with axes and rollers. The hydraulic power plant is placed in a channel equipped with gateways along the flow with partial submersion of the body into the fluid medium. The flexible element comprises joined links-carriages with combined blades, which consist of at least four V-shaped plates arranged in pairs opposite to each other. Plates in each pair are parallel to each other. Shafts are placed at different levels, and wheels are installed at their ends. Wheels of the shaft arranged below are made as geared and of smaller diameter compared to wheels of the other shaft. The shaft with wheels of the smaller diameter is arranged upstream compared to the shaft with wheels of larger diameter.
EFFECT: increased reliability and capacity of a hydraulic power plant.
4 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: hydro-electric pontoon power plant includes anchored floating shell and vane wheels 6 linked to electric generators. Shell is made in the form of two parallel pontoons 7 attached rigidly to each other with wheels 6 mounted between them. Each pontoon 7 has parallelogram cross-section in longitudinal direction. Gap between pontoons 7 is limited in the front and rear ends by shields 10 and 2 connected rigidly to pontoons 7. At the top, pontoons 7 are rigidly connected by two cross-ties 9 and 3 I the form of stripes adjoining shields 10 and 2. Rectangular gap is formed between stripes 9 and 3 and pontoons 7. Equal angles 5 are positioned vertically in each corner of that rectangle, with their bottom ends connected rigidly to side surfaces of pontoons 7. Top ends protrude above pontoons 7. Cap 4 is mounted above wheels 6.
EFFECT: possible application of plant both in summer and in winter.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: conversion device of incoming water flow to electric energy includes a ship brought into movement with a propeller screw, which is made in the form of a catamaran ship, a conveyor with shafts 8 and an endless belt with blades fixed on it. Belt edges are perforated. Shafts 8 are equipped with radial pins entering perforation holes and connected to electric generator 3 shaft. An operating channel is formed with two conveyors with endless belts on vertical shafts 8 in cutouts of housing 1 on each of the catamaran ship semi-housings below the water line. Each of the catamaran ship semi-housings is fully enveloped with its endless belt with the blades fixed on it and made from material with positive buoyancy. In nose subsurface part of housing 1 there located is water intake 6 with water drains to the rear part of the ship. Storage battery 2 with electric motor 5 having an actuator on line of shafts 8, and control system 4 are located in housing 1.
EFFECT: increasing efficiency, improving operating reliability and power of the ship's power plant and associated generation of electric energy for different consumers.
SUBSTANCE: submersible microhydro power plant for electric energy generation includes hydraulic turbine with vertical rotation axis connected to electric generator, also it includes water flow formers and device protecting against floating objects. Lower end of runner shaft 3 is connected directly to generator shaft 17 by means of splined joint. Thrust bearing of runner is rigidly fixed in upper cover of electric generator housing 15 so that it is simultaneously a pilot bearing for electric generator. Electric generator is end-type, water-filled and is located under hydraulic turbine. Hydraulic turbine housing 1 and electric generator housing 15 form single structure monoblock.
EFFECT: reducing dimensions and weight, generating cheaper electric energy due to absence of investments to plants building, simplifying structure and erection works method, reducing maintenance costs.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering and may be used in construction of hydraulic power plants in any area. The method includes construction of a cascade of water reservoirs with small capacity that are built at side river affluents, in area folds or in ravines, aside from the main river bed. Water reservoirs and their dams are arranged at one or both sides of the river at such distance from each other so that water horizons of each subsequent water reservoir of the cascade, starting from the river head, are lower than the bottom of the previous one. All water reservoirs of the cascade are connected to each other by discharge water conduits, water intakes of which are arranged in the lowest points of the dam of the previous water reservoir, and the end, with a hydraulic turbines or hydraulic turbines, for instance, active, cone and generators, on the dam or shores of the subsequent water reservoir, with drainage of water in it from the turbines. The first water intake of the HPP cascade is made, for instance, as a side one from the main river bed.
EFFECT: invention provides for river protection as an HPP is constructed on it in its original form, reduced adverse effects from water reservoirs, preserved ecology of the area, where the HPP is being built, provides for the possibility to obtain high HPP capacities from the river without accumulation of high amount of water in water reservoirs, and elimination of domino effect in damage of one or several dams of the HPP cascade.