Method for making antimicrobial-coated tubular products, method for preparing antimicrobial coating on polyurethane catheters, preferentially multiple-lumen ones, and antimicrobial-coated multiple-lumen catheter

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine. What is described is a method for measuring antimicrobial-coated tubular polyurethane products, including multiple-lumen polyurethane catheters consisting in the three-staged chlorhexidine and/or its salts modification. Chlorhexidine and/or its salts are impregnated on the product surface by processing the products in aqueous-alcohol solutions of chlorhexidine and/or its salts, removing excessive chlorhexidine and/or its salts from the product surface, applying a solution of polyurethane in tetrahydrofurane containing chlorhexidine and/or its salts, and evaporating tetrahydrofurane.

EFFECT: preparing the polyurethane products, eg catheters possessing the prolonged antimicrobial activity being in full accord with the multifunctionality of the multiple-lumen catheters.

9 cl, 1 tbl

 

The invention relates to medicine, namely to methods for antimicrobial coatings PA tubular articles of thermoplastic polyurethanes (catheters, probes, drains etc), including mnogoproletnyh (multichannel) catheters.

Broad introduction to public health practice methods intensive and invasive therapy is inextricably linked with the need for vascular access, the most commonly implemented using catheterization of blood vessels.

In recent years for this purpose abroad is an increasing emphasis on the development and production of mnogoproletnyh (multichannel) catheters, and first of all catheters of thermoplastic polyurethane (hereinafter - PU).

Application mnogoproletnyh catheters allows users to enter incompatible drugs, conduct a blood transfusion, to perform sampling, to monitor hemodynamics, to carry out long-term antibiotic and chemotherapy, as well as certain other transactions that increase defectively and safe treatment of patients.

Meanwhile, despite some obvious advantages that occur when using mnogoproletnyh catheters remain unresolved problems associated with the need to prevent catheter-associated bloodstream infections that accompany Catete is Italy vessels.

Among the effective methods to reduce catheter-associated bloodstream infections include the establishment of catheters with antimicrobial activity.

In known from the prior art counterparts, which describes the ways of imparting antimicrobial properties to the products of PU, including vascular catheters, wall include antiseptic is chlorhexidine (CHG) and/or its salt: the dihydrochloride, dianetic, digluconate, and others (see published applications and patents EN 2457001; EN 2296587, EP 0379269, CA 1341224, CN 1225281, US 6719991, US 5902283, US 5624704, US 5409467).

Of the above methods the closest analogue of the claimed invention is a method presented in the patent RU 2457001 in which to obtain a high antimicrobial activity, while maintaining the required smoothness to ensure high thromboresistance, conduct modification of catheters and other products from PU by applying onto the surface of 0.5-4% solution of PU with a molecular weight of from 10000 to 40000 units in tetrahydrofuran (THF)containing HCG and/or its salt in the amount of 0.25 to 5%(mass.) relative to the mass of dissolved PU, with subsequent evaporation of THF.

The technical solution according closest analogue effectively, because you can get PU catheters with a smooth and controlled by the thickness of the antimicrobial surface layer, provided optimatic - HCG and/or its salts in amounts necessary to prevent bacterial contamination of the catheter during a time interval commensurate with the period of catheterization.

In the patent RU 2457001 indicated that the use of this method provides receiving PU catheters, antimicrobial activity which may occur from one to 15 days.

It should, however, pay attention to the fact that the above time period is optimal only for catheters, as a rule, single-channel, can stay in the body commensurate with the retention of antimicrobial activity, i.e. up to 15 days.

However, for mnogoproletnyh (multichannel) catheters because of their versatility during their stay in the body is often required to extend up to 3-4 weeks (20-30 days).

This raises the need to introduce additional amounts of antiseptics in the superficial layers of the multi-PU catheters.

The solution to this problem by increasing the concentration of HCG and/or its salts in the surface coating of PU catheters, were as shown in the patent RU 2457001, impractical, because a significant impact on the antimicrobial effect was not found.

The latter fact is explained by the saturation of the surface layer of antiseptic and accordingly rapidly the eye its destruction during implantation.

Task to be solved by the claimed invention is to increase the retention of antimicrobial activity of PU catheters more than 15 days.

The problem is solved due to the fact that, in accordance with the first embodiment of the method of making tubular articles made of polyurethane, including mnogoproletnyh catheters with antimicrobial coatings, obtained by extrusion using a screw extruder tube of the required diameter, followed by cutting it into segments of desired length, the surface modification products chlorhexidine and/or its salts is carried out in three stages, including:

- impregnation of the surface of the product chlorhexidine and/or its salts by treatment of the product during the 14-180 minutes water-alcohol solutions of chlorhexidine and/or its salts at a temperature of 20-60C in the following ratio of ingredients, % (wt.):

chlorhexidine and/or salts of chlorhexidine 1-5

ethanol or methanol 85-75

water the rest;

- remove redundant chlorhexidine and/or its salts from the surface of the impregnated product;

- coating the surface of the impregnated product of 0.5-4% solution of polyurethane with a molecular weight of from 10000 to 40000 units in tetrahydrofuran containing chlorhexidine and/or its salt in the amount of 0.25 to 5% (wt.) relative to the weight of the polyurethane, and the evaporation Tetra is drofuran.

At the same time as salts of chlorhexidine use dihydrochloride or diacetate or digluconate. The removal of excess chlorhexidine and/or its salts from the surface of the impregnated product is preferably produced by a single wiping surface impregnated catheters wet cotton or viscose (cellulose) cloth with 50-60%humidity at room temperature, followed by removal of excess moisture is similar, but the air-dry material, by a single wipe.

The claimed method of producing antimicrobial coatings on tubular polyurethane products, mainly multi-channel, modification of the surface of the product chlorhexidine and/or its salts, carried out on pre-fabricated tubular products described above three stages, comprising impregnating the surface, removing the excess of chlorhexidine and/or its salts, the subsequent application of a solution of polyurethane in tetrahydrofuran containing chlorhexidine and/or its salt in the above modes and ratios of ingredients. At the same time as chlorhexidine salts can also be used dihydrochloride, or diabetic, or digluconate, and the removal of excess chlorhexidine and/or its salts from the surface of the impregnated products are PU is eat a single wiping surface impregnated catheters wet cotton or viscose (cellulose) cloth with 50-60%humidity at room temperature, followed by removal of excess moisture similar, but the air-dry material, by a single wipe.

Multi-channel catheter with antimicrobial coating produced by known methods and then applied antimicrobial coating method to obtain anti-microbial coatings on tubular multi-polyurethane products in three stages, including:

- impregnation of the surface of the product chlorhexidine and/or its salts by treatment of the product during the 14-180 minutes water-alcohol solutions of chlorhexidine and/or its salts at a temperature of 20-60C in the following ratio of ingredients, % (wt.):

chlorhexidine and/or salts of chlorhexidine 1-5

ethanol or methanol 85-75

water the rest;

- remove redundant chlorhexidine and/or its salts from the surface of the impregnated product;

- coating the surface of the impregnated product of 0.5-4% solution of polyurethane with a molecular weight of from 10000 to 40000 units in tetrahydrofuran containing chlorhexidine and/or its salt in the amount of 0.25 to 5% (wt.) relative to the weight of the polyurethane, and the evaporation of tetrahydrofuran.

At the same time as salts of chlorhexidine use dihydrochloride, or diacetate or digluconate, and the removal of excess chlorhexidine and/or its salts from the surface of the impregnated product produced by a single wiping surface impregnated catheters wet the th cotton or viscose (cellulose) cloth with 50-60%humidity at room temperature, followed by removal of excess moisture similar, but the air-dry material, by a single wipe.

The introduction of additional quantities of antiseptics in combination with subsequent gradual released from the surface of the catheter to extend antimicrobial action of the latter was achieved by combining the above method of producing an antimicrobial coating (the closest analogue - EN 2457001) and the method of impregnation of catheters HCG and/or its salts (patent RU 2296587).

As it was found, when applied antimicrobial coating on polyurethane catheters, pre-impregnated with an antiseptic according to the method, the output of antiseptic from deeper layers slows down. This phenomenon can be explained by the additional obstacle that is created when applying the antimicrobial coating (essentially a thin polymer film), who in this case the function of the membrane.

As a result, total time period allocation of the total quantity of antiseptic (from the coating and the initial impregnated) can reach 20-30 days or more due to the fact that, as mentioned above, in the modification of the surface of the product chlorhexidine and/or its salts according to the patent 2457001, on the surface of the polyurethane catheter occurs a thin layer of a polymeric film with properties antimicrobial coating, which in the beginning (up to 15 days) operates, as this is described in the patent 2457001, and then this layer begins to perform the function of membranes for antiseptic impregnated previously on the surface of the catheter under the outer thin layer of the polymer film. Impregnated with an antiseptic surface of the catheter at this stage does not show its own antimicrobial activity, as isolated from the environment by a layer of polymer film. The function that performs the impregnated surface of the catheter depot antiseptic is chlorhexidine and/or its salts. As the exhaustion of the antimicrobial activity of the outer polymer film deposited according to the technology described in patent RU 2457001, chlorhexidine and/or its salts, introduced (impregnated) previously, gradually begin to infiltrate into the surrounding polymer film that functions as a membrane, and then released into the environment at a speed determined by the properties of the coating according to the patent RU 2457001.

However, obtaining the necessary properties of PU catheter to increase the retention of antimicrobial activity have any difficulties with the implementation of the above combination methods, the introduction of antiseptics in the walls of PU catheters.

Due to the reduction of adhesion (bond strength) between the markings on the surface of catheters antimicrobial polymer coating and a coating layer coating the surface of the and catheters), on the surface of catheters appeared defects encountered in obtaining catheters with the required properties.

The reason for this decrease in adhesion is the formation of nodules antiseptic HCG and/or its salts on the surface miragliano products mentioned in the patent of Russia RU 2457001.

Strong adherence of the coating to the substrate (the outer surface of the impregnated catheter) was achieved only when removing overlaps an antiseptic. The destruction of the influxes antiseptic (removal of excess chlorhexidine and/or its salts from the surface of the impregnated product) was carried out by a single wiping surface impregnated catheters wet cotton or viscose (cellulose) cloth with 50-60%humidity at room temperature, followed by removal of excess moisture is similar, but the air-dry material, by a single wipe.

Thus were created the conditions for combining two different ways of introducing an antiseptic in wall mnogoproletnyh PU catheters, and the result, which in the long-term allocation of antiseptics during implantation of the catheters and the preservation of antimicrobial action up to 3-4 weeks, that period commensurate with the time of catheterization and substantially exceeding the total time saving catheter antimicrobial AK is Yunosti, if we consider these methods separately. This time period is almost twice the total time of antimicrobial activity for each of the known methods.

General technical result to be obtained by implementing the method of making tubular articles made of polyurethane with antimicrobial coating and method of producing antimicrobial coatings on tubular polyurethane products, mainly multi-channel is the receipt of goods (for example, multi-channel catheter with an increased retention of antimicrobial activity (over 15 days) due to changes in the functions of an outer thin polymer layer containing chlorhexidine and/or its salts, which initially functions as a conventional antimicrobial coating, and then, while using chlorhexidine (and/or its salts), the outer layer functions as a membrane that prevents rapid flow stock chlorhexidine (and/or its salts), members of the impregnated layer under the outer layer.

The technical result from the use of polyurethane multi-channel catheter, obtained by the proposed method of obtaining anti-microbial coatings on tubular poliuretanowych products is to achieve long-term antimicrobial activity that fully meets versatility mnogo the national (mnogoproletnyh) catheters.

The main effect that allows you to retrieve the specified technical result is, as indicated above, the change in the functions of an outer thin polymer layer containing chlorhexidine and/or its salts, which initially functions as a conventional antimicrobial coating, and then, while using chlorhexidine (and/or its salts), the outer layer begins to perform the function of membrane for stock chlorhexidine (and/or its salts), members of the impregnated layer under the outer layer. This impregnated layer of the catheter at the initial stage is not used, coming in only as you use antiseptic from the outer layer. In fact due to the fact that the outer layer performs the function of the membrane, the flow rate of chlorhexidine (and/or its salts) of the coating surface is significantly slower compared to normal for coating the surface of the pace of spending chlorhexidine (and/or its salts). At the same time declared technical result can be obtained only at high adhesion of the coating to the substrate (the outer surface of the impregnated catheter).

The necessity of selection of an operation such as wiping the surface of the catheters wet cotton or viscose fabric due to the fact that the use of these tissues at room temperature is possible within 2-3 with the Kund to remove free (reimpregnation) HCG and/or its salts from the surface of the treated catheter or at least, the basic amount, preventing a solid connection antimicrobial coating.

The use of fabrics made of synthetic fibers for cleaning catheters is not technical interest, since these tissues are, as a rule, unlike cellulose, poorly absorb aqueous antiseptic solution, and the time of removal of antiseptic flows increases significantly, which affects the productivity of workers performing this operation, with the desired surface quality, which provides high adhesion, is not guaranteed.

For illustration of the present invention compared the antibacterial activity of modified mnogoproletnyh catheters obtained in accordance with the proposed method, and the nearest prototype.

Experimental data illustrating the claimed invention, refer to the table "Antibacterial activity mnogoproletnyh WELL catheters with antimicrobial coatings, obtained for various parameters modification".

Microbiological evaluation of antibacterial activity of the product was carried out according to the modified method of Kirby-Bauer. As the test strain was selected St. aureus (Staphylococcus aureus). Sowing dose of bacteria 106KOH/g In surface seeded Petri dishes were placed on 3-4 NEGP is enta catheter length of 10 mm from each test group products. All samples were incubated at 37C for 24 h, and then measured the diameters of zones of growth inhibition of bacteria around samples of the product.

At the same time to identify the duration of preservation of the antibacterial activity of the product samples, around which there was a zone of growth inhibition (even minimal), daily tolerated in newly Cup to complete absence of zones of inhibition of growth of microorganisms.

The results of the assessment of the catheters shown in the Table clearly illustrate the advantage of the proposed method of obtaining anti-microbial coatings.

An example of practical implementation of the invention (see Table, position 5). According to the claimed method is made elements mnogoprofilnogo catheter specified design extruded using a screw extruder tube of the required diameter with the subsequent cutting into segments of desired length and carry out their Assembly. For example, the catheter may include major multi-radiopaque tube, made of PU and connected with the connecting tube through the adapter, connecting tube has connectors for the introduction of various medicines.

Prepare a water-alcohol mixture, containing 85% ethanol in the amount of 960 g and dissolved in 40 g of HG. In the resulting aqueous-alcohol is the second solution HCG immerse the assembled catheter and incubated for 15 min at 20C. The catheter 30 min stand in the air, and then a damp cotton cloth to remove excessive amounts of HCG.

The catheter wipe dry and immersed in the solution for applying an antimicrobial coating. To obtain this solution is performed, the dissolution of PU granules with a molecular weight of 25,000 units in THF in the quantities needed to obtain a 1%solution of the polymer.

Due to the poor solubility of HG in THF, in advance, without making the polymer, carry out the dissolution of HG in THF.

The number of CG is determined by the number of PU, the proposed dissolution, and 5% of its mass. While THF is taken in the same amount as for the dissolution of PU. Upon receipt of homogeneous solutions of cu and HG they are mixed. Received 1% solution of PU with antiseptic applied to mnogoproletnyh catheter by dipping, after which the catheter is dried at room temperature under an exhaust device for 6-8 minutes to remove the principal amount of THF. Then repeat the application of the solution and drying of the catheter. For the conditions adopted in position 5, as a rule, enough for four applications.

The claimed methods also apply to the manufacture of other products of PU, for which urgent task of preventing microbial contamination.

2
Table
Antibacterial activity mnogoproletnyh WELL catheters with antimicrobial coatings, obtained for various parameters modification
Parameters modificationAntimicrobial effect
According to the claimed methodAccording to the known methodsZone size after 24 hours, mmThe duration of the day
No.Patent RU 2296587Patent RU 2457001
1The catheter of the PU. Treated with a solution of HCG in
a mixture of ethanol:water 85:15, the content of HG in the solution of 4%, the solution temperature of 20C, the processing time is 15 minutes
152
2The HCG solution in a mixture of ethanol:water 85:15, the content of HG - 4%, temperature 60C, the processing time is 15 minutes15
3The catheter of PU treated with a solution of PU in THF, the concentration of PU - 1%, the content of HG in solution - 5% relative to the mass of PU in solution.1915
4The PU solution in THF, the concentration of PU in solution - 1%.92

Antibacterial activity mnogoproletnyh PU catheters with antimicrobial coatings, obtained for various parameters modification
Parameters modificationAntimicrobial effect
According to the claimed methodAccording to the known methodsZone size after 24 hours, mmThe duration of the day
No.Patent RU 2296587Patent RU 2457001
the content of HG in solution - 025%.
5The catheter of the PU processing HCG solution in a mixture of ethanol:water 85:15, the HG content in the mixture is 4%, the solution temperature is 20C, the processing time is 15 minutes followed by removal of excess HGH. Application of antimicrobial coating treatment with a solution of PU in THF, pH concentration of 1%, the content of the CG - 5% by weight of PU in solution.2831
6Processing of the catheter with a solution of HCG in a mixture of ethanol:water 85:15, the contents of CHG -1%, the solution temperature to 60C., the processing time is 15 minutes Remove excess HGH. Application of antimicrobial coatings: the solution.115

Antibacterial activity mnogoproletnyh PU catheters with antimicrobial coatings, obtained for various parameters modification
Parameters modify the tion Antimicrobial effect
According to the claimed methodAccording to the known methodsZone size after 24 hours, mmThe duration of the day
No.Patent RU 2296587Patent RU 2457001
PU in THF with a concentration of PU - 1%, the content of HG in solution of 0.25% by weight of PU in solution.
7Processing of the catheter with a solution of HCG in a mixture of ethanol:water 85:15. The HG content in the mixture is 2%, the processing time of 15 min, 20C. Remove excess HGH.
The coating. The concentration of PU in THF - 2%, the content of HG in solution of 2.5% by weight of PU.
2120

1. Method of making tubular articles made of polyurethane with antimicrobial coating, which consists in obtaining a tubular product by extrusion using snagovo what about the extruder tube of the required diameter, followed by cutting it into segments of desired length with the subsequent receipt of antimicrobial coatings on tubular products made of polyurethane by modification of their surface chlorhexidine and/or its salts, characterized in that the modification is carried out in three stages, including:
- impregnation of the surface of the product chlorhexidine and/or its salts by treatment of the product during the 14-180 minutes water-alcohol solutions of chlorhexidine and/or its salts at a temperature of 20-60 degrees Celsius in the following ratio of ingredients, wt. -%:
Chlorhexidine and/or salts of chlorhexidine 1-5
Ethanol or methanol 85-75
Water the rest;
- remove redundant chlorhexidine and/or its salts from the surface of the impregnated product;
- the subsequent application of 0.5-4% solution of polyurethane with a molecular weight of from 10000 to 40000 units in tetrahydrofuran containing chlorhexidine and/or its salt in the amount of 0.25 to 5% (mass.) relative to the weight of the polyurethane, and the evaporation of tetrahydrofuran.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that salts of chlorhexidine use dihydrochloride, or diacetate or digluconate.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the removal of excess chlorhexidine and/or its salts from the surface of the impregnated product is produced by rubbing the surface of the impregnated catheters wet cotton or viscose fabric with 50-60%humidity at room temperature, followed by wiping to remove excess moisture with a dry cotton or viscose is Kanu.

4. The method of obtaining anti-microbial coatings on tubular articles made of polyurethane by modification of the surface of the product chlorhexidine and/or its salts, characterized in that the modification is carried out in three stages, including:
- impregnation on the surface of the products chlorhexidine and/or its salts by treatment of the product during the 14-180 minutes water-alcohol solutions of chlorhexidine and/or its salts at a temperature of 20-60 degrees Celsius in the following ratio of ingredients, wt. -%:
Chlorhexidine and/or salts of chlorhexidine 1-5
Ethanol or methanol 85-75
Water the rest
- remove redundant chlorhexidine and/or its salts from the surface of the impregnated product;
- the subsequent application of 0.5-4% solution of polyurethane with a molecular weight of from 10000 to 40000 units in tetrahydrofuran containing chlorhexidine and/or its salt in the amount of 0.25 to 5% (mass.) relative to the weight of the polyurethane, and the evaporation of tetrahydrofuran.

5. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that salts of chlorhexidine use dihydrochloride or diacetate or digluconate.

6. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that the removal of excess chlorhexidine and/or its salts from the surface of the impregnated product is produced by rubbing the surface of the impregnated catheters wet cotton or viscose fabric with 50-60%humidity is Yu at room temperature, followed by wiping to remove excess moisture with a dry cotton or viscose fabric.

7. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that the antimicrobial coating get on multichannel catheter.

8. Tubular polyurethane product, characterized in that it is manufactured in accordance with the method described in claim 1.

9. Tubular polyurethane product of claim 8, characterized in that it is made in the form of multi-channel catheter.



 

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SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine and tissue engineering, and may be used in cardiovascular surgery for small-vessel bypasses. A vascular graft is made by two-phase electrospinning with the staged introduction of the ingredients into the polymer composition.

EFFECT: making the bioresorbed small-diameter vascular graft possessing the improved biocompatibility ensured by using the polymer composition of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHBV) with oxyvalerate, and epsilon-polycaprolactone with type IV collagen, human fibronectin and human fibroblast growth factor (hFGF) additionally introduced into the composition.

2 cl, 1 ex

FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine. What is described is a biomaterial on the basis of calcium phosphate, preferentially on the basis of hydroxyapatite, or on the basis of a material containing hydroxyapatite, such as diphase calcium phosphates and calcium phosphate cements, and using it for making an implant or for positioning prosthesis for the purpose of osteoanagenesis.

EFFECT: biomaterial provides the excellent properties of biological compatibility and fast osteoneogenesis.

17 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical-pharmaceutical industry and represents artificial dura mater, produced from electrospinning layers by technology of electorspinning, with electrospinning layer, consisting of, at least, hydrophobic electrospining layer, which is produced from one or several hydrophobic polymers, selected from polylatic acid and polycaprolactone.

EFFECT: invention ensures creation of artificial dura mater, which has good tissue compatibility, anti-adhesiveness and possibility of introducing medications, preventing cerebrospinal fluid outflow during regeneration of person's own dura mater.

30 cl, 7 ex, 11 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: claimed invention relates to ophthalmological device, method of its obtaining. Device contains antimicrobial particles of metal salts, which have size less than approximately 200 nm, dispersed throughout polymer mass. Device ensures at least 0.5 log reduction of at least one of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and S.aureus, and opacity value constituting less than 100%, with 70 micron thickness, in comparison with CSI lens.

EFFECT: invention possesses high antibacterial activity 3 independent claims, 34 dependent claims of invention formula.

17 tbl, 46 ex, 5 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions refers to medicine, particularly to ophthalmology, namely: to antibacterial lenses containing metals, as well as to methods for producing them. The method for producing an antibacterial lens containing a metal salt involves the stages: (a) preparation of a hard lens by a salt precursor, as well as (b) preparation of the lens produced at the stage (a) by a disperse additive specified in a group consisting of polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinyl alcohol, glycerol and polyethylene oxide, and a metal-containing agent specified in a group consisting of silver tetrafluoroborate, silver sulphate, zinc acetate, zinc sulphate, copper acetate, copper sulphate, silver nitrate, manganese sulphide, zinc oxide, zinc sulphide, copper sulphide, copper phosphate, silver nitrate, silver sulphate, silver iodate, silver carbonate, silver phosphate, silver sulphide, silver chloride, silver chloride, silver bromide, silver iodide and silver oxide. The other method for producing involves the stages (a) of preparation of a hard lens by a metal-containing agent, and a disperse agent, (b) preparation of the lens prepared at the stage (a) by a salt precursor. The antibacterial lens containing the metal salt is produced by said methods.

EFFECT: group of inventions provides producing the lenses with a decreased degree of opacity.

16 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, namely to textile treatment for cardiovascular surgery. A method involves textile treatment with a composition containing gelatin and intermolecular cross-linking of gelatin by an aqueous solution of glutaric dialdehyde, an antibiotic and 0.9% sodium chloride in certain proportions.

EFFECT: method enables make textiles hermetic and antimicrobial, reduced postoperative chemotherapeutic load on the patient.

5 cl, 11 tbl, 11 ex

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