Methods of inhibiting polymerisation of vinyl aromatic compounds during extractive distillation
SUBSTANCE: method of inhibiting polymerisation of vinyl aromatic compounds during extractive distillation includes the following steps: a) providing a mixture containing styrene; b) adding one 2-sec-butyl-4,6-dinitrophenol (DNBP) inhibitor to the mixture; and c) performing extractive distillation of the mixture after step b) to of separate styrene; d) forming less than 200 ppmw of a polymer from the styrene.
EFFECT: minimum polymer formation.
5 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
This application claims the priority of provisional patent application U.S. 61/226628 from July 17, 2009, patent application U.S. No. 12/705937 from February 15, 2010, each of which is included in the description of the invention by reference in full.
The technical FIELD TO WHICH the INVENTION RELATES.
Styrene and related aromatic compounds are the building blocks of many types of industrial products, such as, for example, polymers and resins. Styrene can be obtained as a commercial chemical product by selection from a stream of hydrocarbons (for example, from a pyrolysis gasoline) or by dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene. Vinylaromatic compounds (e.g. styrene) are usually isolated from pyrolysis gasoline extraction distillation, in which vinylaromatic connection is typically exposed to elevated temperature and/or oxygen. Both these factors can initiate undesirable thermal or free-radical polymerization or oligomerization. Polymerization can lead to loss of product and often leads to clogging of the equipment used to allocate vinylaromatic compounds from a stream of hydrocarbons.
To reduce the risk of polymerization vinylaromatic compounds when released from a stream of hydrocarbon extractive distillation typically Prov is car Ried out under reduced pressure to minimize contact with oxygen and low temperature to minimize heat. However, even in the best case vinylaromatic connection in contact with small amounts of oxygen and heated to temperatures in the range of about 80°C-160°C in a period of time from several seconds to several hours. Thermal polymerization of styrene may occur by heating styrene monomers to a temperature of about 100°C. or higher for several minutes. In addition to the above mentioned interaction with oxygen and thermal effects vinylaromatic compounds can react with various impurities contained in the source of hydrocarbons, such as, for example, sulfur containing compounds and colored impurities that may cause undesired polymerization.
There are various ways to reduce the risk of polymerization vinylaromatic compounds, in particular styrene, by adding small amounts of inhibitor to purified or unpurified vinylaromatic connections. For example, for inhibiting polymerization vinylaromatic compounds during vacuum distillation used dinitrophenol (for example, 2,6-dinitro-and-cresol). Also for inhibiting polymerization vinylaromatic compounds in the absence of oxygen or under atmospheric pressure, used a combination of steric obstruction of phenol (e.g., dinitrophenol), it is interesting hydroxylamine and phenylenediamine. Similarly for inhibiting polymerization vinylaromatic compounds used a combination of dinitrophenol and free radical not containing nitroxyl. In addition, for inhibiting polymerization vinylaromatic compounds used a combination of 2-NITROPHENOL with acid.
Although these systems are quite effective inhibitors in the production and purification of styrene by traditional dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene, the applicants believe that these inhibitors are not suitable in the case of extractive distillation of styrene and other vinylaromatic connections from a source of hydrocarbons, such as pyrolysis gasoline. Therefore, new methods of inhibiting polymerization vinylaromatic compounds in the course of their separation from the stream of hydrocarbons. Recent advances in the development of technologies for extraction allow to obtain styrene from pyrolysis gasoline product from steam cracking of naphtha, gas oil and liquefied natural gas. New types of separation technologies include conditions of heat and contact with oxygen, which are important parameters that ensure the maintenance of styrene and other vinylaromatic compounds in neapolitanum condition. Below effective ways to solve these problems.
The INVENTION<> This results in various embodiments, methods of inhibiting polymerization vinylaromatic compounds during extraction distillation. These methods include the following stages: a) preparation of a mixture containing at least one vinylaromatic connection, (b) adding to the mixture at least one dinitrophenol inhibitor and (C) carrying out the extraction distillation of the mixture after stage b) to allocate at least one vinylaromatic connection. In some embodiments, allocate one vinylaromatic connection. In other embodiments, this only vinylaromatic compound is styrene.
Features of the present invention have been described above in General terms for a better understanding of the subsequent detailed description. The following are additional features and benefits, which are further presented in the claims.
The IMPLEMENTATION of the INVENTION
In the following description summarizes some of the details, such as specific quantities, sizes, etc. necessary for a complete understanding of the disclosed here options. However, experts in this field will be obvious that the present invention can be implemented without these specific details. In many cases, details of such consideration and such they were excluded who, because they were not necessary for a full understanding of the present invention and known qualified specialists in the respective field.
While most used terms understandable to experts in this field, however, it should be borne in mind that unless it is specifically agreed that the terms should be interpreted in the sense which is accepted by specialists in this field. In cases where the expression could be understood as meaningless or completely meaningless, its definition should be taken from Webster's Dictionary Webster's Dictionary, 3rd Edition, 2009. Do not enter the definition and/or interpretation of other related or unrelated patent applications, patents and publications, unless specifically set forth in this description or introduction is necessary to preserve meaning.
Used here, the term "aromatic" refers to aromaticity, i.e. chemical property, which provides a stronger stabilization of the coupled-loop containing unsaturated communication, lone-electron pair or vacant orbitals than would be expected if only one pair. Aromaticity can also be viewed as a manifestation of cyclic delocalization and resonance stabilization. Usually it is believed that this effect is due to free electrons in cycles atoms, which are interconnected alternating ordinary and double bonds.
Used here, the term "aliphatic" refers to compounds with carbon atoms, which can be connected to each other in unbranched chains, branched chains or rings (in this case they are called alicyclic). They can connect ordinary bonds (alkanes), double bonds (alkenes) or triple bonds (alkynes).
Used herein, the term "polymer" refers equally to polymers vinylaromatic compounds, including dimers, trimers, and higher oligomers and polymers.
In addition to working examples, or where otherwise indicated, all numbers, determining the number of components used in all the examples, you can add the word "about".
Variants of the present description generally relate to methods of inhibiting thermal or free-radical polymerization vinylaromatic compounds during extraction distillation. In the methods of extraction distillation vinylaromatic connection can be in contact with oxygen at low concentrations and at high temperatures (about 80°C-160°C) for different periods of time. These conditions contribute to the initiation of the polymerization vinylaromatic compounds. As shown here, high concentrationcontrolled inhibitor can be minimized or substantially inhibit polymerizatio vinylaromatic compounds during extraction distillation under such conditions, when in the absence of inhibitor polymer can be formed within a few minutes. In some embodiments, the dinitrophenol is a 2-sec-butyl-4,6-dinitrophenol (buffen, DNBP), which one is used for inhibiting polymerization.
In various embodiments, the present description discloses methods of inhibiting polymerization vinylaromatic compounds during extraction distillation. These methods include stages: a) preparation of a mixture containing at least one vinylaromatic connection, (b) adding to the mixture of at least one inhibitor of dinitrophenol and (C) carrying out the extraction distillation of the mixture after stage b) to allocate at least one vinylaromatic connection. In some embodiments, at least one aromatic compound is a styrene. In other embodiments, when the extraction distillation allocate only one vinylaromatic connection. In still other embodiments, only vinylaromatic compound is styrene.
In various embodiments, the mixture also includes impurities, which should be separated vinylaromatic connection. Such impurities include, for example, aliphatic compounds, aromatic compounds, other vinylaromatic compounds, sulfur containing compounds, colored impurities and the x combinations.
Later styrene presented as an example vinylaromatic connection, which can be distinguished by the methods described in this invention. However, the person skilled in the art know that other vinylaromatic compounds can be distinguished by the usual experimental modification described herein options that meet the spirit and scope of the present description.
In other embodiments, the styrene can be distinguished from pyrolysis gasoline by methods described in U.S. patent 5849982 and 5877385, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. Among the conclusions of these patents provides a method of obtaining the average fraction of pyrolysis gasoline, which after removal of octane and heptane contains approximately 25-35% of styrene. After selective hydrogenation to remove phenylacetylene conduct extractive distillation for the separation of styrene from the other components of the mixture. Styrene goes into the solvent, which is then fed to the column separation of the solvent to remove the solvent and extraction of styrene. The separated solvent is then returned to the extraction column distillation. During the excretion of styrene temperature can reach at least about 100°C for a long time, especially in the superheating systems and in the lower part of the column is xtraction distillation. In the absence of inhibitor in these conditions can be formed polymer and its accumulation will lead to a complete disruption of the entire system. In various embodiments, the extraction distillation is carried out at a temperature of at least about 100°C. In other embodiments, the extraction distillation is carried out at a temperature from about 80°to about 160°C.
Although dinitrophenol and related NITROPHENOL known in this field, applicants believe that, in this description for the first time shown that the use of these compounds in high concentrations leads to inhibition of the polymerisation conditions, usually implemented with extraction distillation. In various embodiments can be minimized or substantially inhibit polymerization vinylaromatic compounds with additives dinitrophenol or related NITROPHENOL to the flow of hydrocarbons to highlight vinylaromatic compounds from the stream. In various embodiments, the dinitrophenol is a 2-sec-butyl-4,6-dinitrophenol (DNBP). In other embodiments, the flow of hydrocarbons is a stream of pyrolysis gasoline.
In various embodiments, inhibit thermal polymerization. In other embodiments, inhibit free-radical polymerization.
In various embodiments, the concentration DNBF or other dinitrophenol inhibitors in the flow angle is avodarto determines the efficiency of inhibition of polymerization vinylaromatic compounds. For example, in the presented here options DNBF in high concentrations can significantly slow down the polymerization vinylaromatic compounds. Concentration DNBF and other dinitrophenol inhibitors described in the presented here options, considerably higher than the values typically used in other cases when it is necessary to inhibit the polymerization vinylaromatic compounds. In some embodiments described herein, the concentration of DNBF is at least about 10000 mass. ppm relative to at least one vinylaromatic connection. In other embodiments, the concentration DNBF is about 10000 mass. ppm to about 20,000 masses. ppm In the following embodiments, the concentration DNBF is about 10000 mass. ppm to about 15,000 masses. ppm, In some embodiments, the concentration DNBF approximately 14,000 masses. ppm
The following example is provided to further illustrate certain disclosed above options. For specialists in this field it is important that described in this example techniques offer the ultimate model for the practical application of the invention. In light of this description professionals should take into account that in these specific ways you can make many changes, which do not deviate from duhai scope of this invention, with the same or similar result.
In the following example, the analysis for polystyrene was performed using a modified version of ASTM methods D2121 by precipitation of the polymer from a mixture of styrene/reagent for extraction using methanol and then filtering and drying the precipitated polymer. The threshold sensitivity of the assay was 200 mass. ppm polymer.
Example 1. Model raw with dinitrophenol inhibitor, corresponding to the composition of the mixture in the bottom of the column extractive distillation of styrene was prepared by mixing 95% reagent for extraction with 5% of styrene, whether or not containing different doses DNBF, as shown in table 1. Table 1 shows the data obtained after heating 35 g of this mixture at a temperature of 120-160°C for 0-180 minutes. The mixture was heated in a durable sealed tube. Samples for time = 0 minutes was removed from the heating zone, as soon as the sample temperature reached the set temperature. Relative quantity formed by heating the polystyrene is shown by the color of the corresponding cell of the table.
Based on the above description, the person skilled in the art can easily establish the main characteristics of this invention and, without departing from its amnestie volume, to make various changes and modifications to adapt the description to the various applications and conditions. Described above are only illustrative and are not intended to limit the scope of the invention defined by the claims.
1. Method of inhibiting polymerization vinylaromatic compounds during extraction distillation, comprising the following stages:
a) preparation of a mixture which contains styrene;
b) introducing the mixture of one inhibitor 2-sec-butyl-4,6-dinitrophenol (DNBP); and
c) carrying out the extraction distillation of the mixture after stage b) for separating styrene;
d) education less than 200 mass. ppm polymer of styrene.
2. The method according to claim 1 in which the extractive distillation is carried out at a temperature of at least about 100°C.
3. The method according to claim 1 in which the extractive distillation is carried out at a temperature of about 80°C to 160°C.
4. The method according to claim 1, wherein using the extraction distillation to separate the styrene.
5. The method according to claim 1, in which the concentration dinitrophenol inhibitor is at least about 10000 mass. ppm relative to styrene.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a technology of production of polymer granules, used to obtain ion-exchange resins. The method includes supply of an emulsion of monodispersed drops into a reactor, mixing the emulsion until the gelation point is reached and the supply of drops, which have passed forpolymerisation, to further processing. First, a stabiliser is supplied until it fills the reactor and gets into a system of the stabiliser circulation, after which the emulsion of monodispersed drops, displacing an excessive volume of the stabiliser into the circulation system, is supplied into the reactor. Consumption of the stabiliser, supplied through the upper zone of the reactor, is determined basing on condition of formation of an evenly boiling suspended layer of the monodispersed drops, located at 500-700 mm distance above the reactor bottom. Location of the layer of monodispersed drops id controlled by means of a capacity sensor, and in accordance with its readings consumption of the stabiliser is changed. Before filling the reactor with the emulsion is finished, its heating to a temperature, which does not exceed 65°C, is started to reduce the time of reaching the forpolymerisation temperature. After filling the reactor with the emulsion, its temperature is increased to 75°-80° and forpolymerisation is performed with simultaneous soft mixing until the gelation point is reached. After that, without switching off the mixer, the stabiliser circulation is stopped, after the drops accumulate in the upper part of the reactor, an excess of the stabiliser is discharged, after which the drops, which have reached a resilient condition are transferred into a polymeriser to complete the process of obtaining granules of an equal size.
EFFECT: creation of the forpolymerisation method.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of polymer pellets used in fabrication of ion-exchange resins. Reactor comprises housing with at least one inlet for feed of monodisperse particle emulsion in stabiliser water solution, outlet of emulsion containing monodisperse particles in elastic state arranged at housing bottom, stabiliser solution and emulsion mixer and pump. Said housing is composed of cylindrical vessel with conical cover with 60 degrees angle at vertex accommodating gland assembly of said mixer composed by pipe connected with reactor conical cover accommodating mixer shaft and two unions, one for stabiliser solution feed and one for venting. First union is located below the first one. Mixer shaft is arranged in said zone of gland assembly with clearance with gland assembly pipe. Said mixer is composed a low-rpm combined mixer arranged at upper two-thirds of the reactor and including three sets of mixing elements varying in shape and size arranged in different planes to allow soft mixing to preset drop sizes and mixing of bypass flows and dead zones. Mixer central shaft features diameter smaller than that of the first of downstream mixers compared to this of upstream one. Surfaces of the housing cover and mixer in contact with said suspension are made of anti-pickup drops. Heater maintains the reactor operating temperature.
EFFECT: enhanced performances for phorpolimirisation.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an emulsion, including a fatty phase, dispersed in a water phase, where the said fatty phase includes, at least, 53 wt % of one or more organic peroxides, more than 50% of which have the content of molecular active oxygen, at least, 7 wt %, with the said emulsion satisfying classification tests for organic type F peroxide. In addition the invention relates to the application of the said emulsion in a reaction of polymerisation, in particular, of vinyl chloride, and to a method of suspension polymerisation of ethylene-unsaturated monomers.
EFFECT: possibility of safe transportation and storage of organic peroxide emulsions with high content of active oxygen without a need in large ventilation holes or larger calculated pressure in transport cisterns and storage reservoirs.
12 cl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: claimed invention relates to branched polymers and methods of their obtaining. Described is a branched polymer, consisting of 50-99.8 wt % (of the polymer weight) of units, formed by styrene and/or α-substituted alkyl styrenes - α-methyl-styrene, α-isopropyl-styrene and/or alkyl styrenes with substitution in a benzene ring - 4-methyl-styrene, 3-methyl-styrene, 2,5-dimethyl-styrene, p-tert-butyl-styrene, o-ethyl-styrene, m-ethyl-styrene, p-ethyl-styrene and/or halogen-substituted styrenes - 4-chloro-styrene, 4-bromo-styrene, 0.2-50 wt % of units, formed by isomers of divinylbenzene and/or its substituted analogues - o-divinylbenzene, m-divinylbenzene, p-divinylbenzene, and 0.0001-3.52 wt % of peroxide and/or hydroperoxide groups, with a weight part in it of oxygen atoms, present in the composition of functional groups, formed as a result of a radical-chain monomer or a polymer oxidation in the presence of oxygen - carbonyl, carboxyl, ketone, hydroxyl, peroxide, hydroperoxide, ether, ester groups, not more than 21.0 wt %. Also described are versions of methods of obtaining the said branched polymer, characterised by the fact that the methods are realised in the presence of dissolved in a liquid phase oxygen, concentration of which in the liquid phase is supported at the level not higher than 1.0×10-2 mol/l.
EFFECT: obtaining branched polymers with low content of peroxide groups and high molecular weight, which increases their thermal stability and prevents from changing physical-chemical characteristics in the process of storage and exploitation.
6 cl, 8 dwg, 2 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a water polymer dispersion for the application as an additive for compositions, which contain a hydraulic binding substance or a binding substance with latent hydraulic properties, a multi-component composition for obtaining binding solutions, mortars or cement, a hardened composition for the application in civil engineering construction or building construction, to the said building constructions, as well as to the application of the said water polymer dispersion. The water polymer dispersion contains a) dispersed copolymer, consisting of at least two monomers, selected from the group, consisting of ethylene, propylene, butylenes, isoprene, butadiene, styrene, acrylnitrile, acrylic acid, metacrylic acid, alkylacrylate, alkylmetacrylate, vinyl ether and vinyl chloride, b) comb-like polymer, which has side chains, bound with the main chain by means of ether or ester groups and c) water.
EFFECT: obtaining the water polymer dispersion for the addition in hydraulic and possessing latent hydraulic properties binding substances, which makes it possible to achieve an increase of mechanical properties of the said substances and reduce porosity and water absorption by the said substances.
9 cl, 4 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a method of producing polyvinyl chloride (PVC) by polymerisation of vinyl chloride in an aqueous suspension in the presence of an initiator, a protective colloid and a complex stabilising system which includes a calcium salt of stearic acid and glycidyl esters of monoatomic and/or polyatomic alcohols when added to a polymerisation mixture before adding the monomer. The complex stabilising system which consists of a calcium salt of stearic acid and glycidyl esters of monoatomic and/or polyatomic alcohols is used in amount of 0.0792-0.1275% of the weight of vinyl chloride. The calcium salt of stearic acid is added to the polymerisation mixture in amount of 0.072-0.123% of the weight of vinyl chloride. The glycidyl esters of monoatomic and/or polyatomic alcohols are added to the polymerisation mixture in amount of 0.0045-0.0072% of the weight of vinyl chloride.
EFFECT: polymerisation of vinyl chloride using the complex stabilising system produces PVC particles with high thermal stability, good porosity and relatively high packed density; treating compositions based on PVC obtained using the disclosed method using existing methods using plasticisers produces materials with improved dielectric and physical-mechanical properties; when treatment is carried out without plasticisers, the obtained articles demonstrate high resistance to mechanical loads, thermal action and low and high temperatures.
3 cl, 7 tbl, 10 ex
SUBSTANCE: microspheres with sphericity of not less than 0.9, average size of which lies in the range of 0.25-1.1 mm and bulk density in the range of 0.4-0.7 g/cm3 are obtained. The method of producing the microspheres includes preparing a liquid polymer mixture by successively mixing dicyclopentadiene of purity of not less than 98% with a polymer stabiliser, a polymer modifier, a radical initiator and a catalyst. The obtained polymer mixture is held at 10-50°C for 1-40 minutes. Water, which is preheated to a temperature not below the temperature of the mixture and containing cationic and anionic surfactants, is then added in the form of a laminar stream. The spheres are formed while constantly mixing the liquid medium. The formed microspheres are separated from the solution, heated to 150-340°C and held at said temperature for 1-360 minutes.
EFFECT: obtaining microspheres from polydicyclopentadiene with improved physical and mechanical properties and compression strength of not less than 90 MPa.
5 cl, 2 dwg, 32 ex
SUBSTANCE: triple copolymers have the general formula where n=50/0-70/0 mol.%; m=29/0-49/0 mol.%; p=0.3-3.0 mol.%; k=2÷6.
EFFECT: obtained are copolymers, based on which vulcanisates possess improved compression set values together with the preservation of other good physical-mechanical parameters.
3 tbl, 13 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of polymerisation. The method of polymerisation includes the following stages: provision of a polymerisation reactor, which includes a gas-phase reactor with a fluidised bed, a carryover zone, supply of a catalyst to introduce a catalytic system, capable of producing an olefin-based polymer, supply of at least one ethylenediimine additive to supply at least one ethylenediimine additive irrespective of the catalyst mixture; (a) contact of at least one olefin with the catalytic system under conditions of polymerisation in the reactor with the fluidised bed; (b) introduction of at least one ethyleneimine additive into the reactor system at any time before, during or after initiation of the polymerisation reaction, with the ethyleneimine additive including polyethyleneimine, the ethyleneimine copolymer ora mixture of the said above; (c) monitoring a level of electrostatic activity in the carryover zone; and (d) quantity of at least one ehyleneimine additive, introduced into the reactor system, is regulated to support the level of electrostatic activity in the carryover zone close to zero or equal to zero. A version of the method is also claimed.
EFFECT: invention ensures prevention, reduction or reverse development of formation of plates resulting in impairment of the polymerisation method continuity.
14 cl, 7 tbl, 9 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of regeneration of purifying layer, located on vessel, which is applied in processes of olefin polymerisation, as well as to system of regeneration of purifying layer, which is located in vessel when said process is performed. Method applied cycle with open contour. Recirculation of part of medium, discharged from vessel, as composition subjected to recirculation, is realised. The remaining part is removed into atmosphere. Method includes the following stages: a) supply of inert gas, which is under first pressure P1; b) combining inert gas with subjected to recirculation composition, discharged from vessel, with obtaining regenerating composition, which is under second pressure P2; c) supply of regenerating composition into vessel in order to regenerate purifying layer. Subjected to recirculation composition is under third pressure P3 in such a way that P1>P2>P3.
EFFECT: elaboration of method and system of regeneration of purifying layer in one passage, which makes it possible to reduce inert gas consumption.
22 cl, 9 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: composition further contains sulphate turpentine with molar ratio of phenol to turpentine of 1:(1-2), and the solvent used is a C2-C4 aliphatic alcohol or a mixture of a C2-C4 aliphatic alcohol and toluene in ratio of C2-C4 aliphatic alcohol to toluene of (90-50):(10-50) by volume, with ratio of turpentine to solvent of 1:(5-10) by volume, and said composition is treated at temperature of 130°C for 2 hours. The invention also relates to a method of producing said composition and a method of inhibiting polymerisation when processing liquid pyrolysis products by adding said composition to a pyrolysis condensate as an inhibitor.
EFFECT: high stability of the inhibiting composition and high stability of the process of inhibiting polymerisation of liquid pyrolysis products by using a composition containing simple unsubstituted phenols as an inhibitor.
6 cl, 9 dwg, 2 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to a method for increasing the efficacy of laevomycetin. This method consists in the fact that laevomycetin in the amount of 1 g in 8.0 ml of distilled water is detoxified and polymerised at first with 1.0 ml of 1% (0.15+0.05%) glutaric aldehyde at 38-40°C for 3-5 days, then added with 1.0 ml of 1% aethonium or 0.1% alkyldimethylbenzylammonium or 0.1% Biopag-D (polyhexamethylene hydrochloride) at 38-40°C for 3-5 days.
EFFECT: method promotes the bactericidal efficacy 3-4 times higher and provides virusocidal and fungicidal action.
4 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: retardant-containing composition (AB) contains: a solvent (A), which is selected from benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene or styrene, and at least one retardant (B) of formula , where X denotes a group -O-R3, where R3 denotes an alkyl group with 1-15 carbon atoms, an aryl group with 6-15 carbon atoms and a cycloalkyl group with 3-15 carbon atoms, R1 and/or R2 denote a methyl or tert-butyl group, wherein R1, R2 and R3 type substitutes are identical or different, are added to an unsaturated olefin monomer or to a mixture of monomers which contains at least one unsaturated olefin monomer. The invention also relates to compositions for stabilising unsaturated olefin monomers which use said retardant.
EFFECT: improved method.
11 cl, 3 tbl, 25 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of producing oligodiorganosiloxanes, used as working fluid in oil-vapour vacuum pumps for creating moderate and ultrahigh vacuum; as working medium for droplet cooler-radiators of frameless systems for removal of low-grade heat of space nuclear power systems. Disclosed is a method of producing α, ω-bis(methyl diphenylsilyl)oligodiorganosiloxanes of formula (I), where k=1,2; for k=1 R=Me (1a), R=Ph (1b); for k=2 R-Ph (1c), by condensation of diorganodichlorosilane and sodium methyl diphenyl silanolate, involving a step for drying the sodium methyl diphenyl silanolate, which is carried out using dimethyl dichlorosilane which is taken in amount of 0.1-1 mol % of the amount of sodium silanolate.
EFFECT: disclosed method is ecologically clean and reduces power consumption, time and labour costs.
1 cl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a method of producing linear alpha-olefins (LAO) by oligomerisation of ethylene in the presence of a solvent and a homogeneous catalyst. The method involves the following steps: (i) feeding ethylene, solvent and catalyst into an oligomerisation reactor, (ii) oligomerisation of ethylene in the reactor, (ii) outputting a reaction product stream from the reactor through a system of drain pipes of the reactor, (iv) feeding the reaction product stream to a catalyst deactivation and removal step and (v) deactivating and removing the catalyst from the reactor product stream. At least one organic amine is fed into the system of drain pipes of the reactor. Further, the organic amine is extracted from the reaction product stream by distillation, extraction or adsorption, and the extracted organic amine is redirected into the system of drain pipes of the reactor. The amine used is soluble in an organic phase containing LAO and is insoluble or has low solubility in water or a mixture of water and alkali.
EFFECT: method enables to avoid formation of HCl during catalyst deactivation and obtain products with high purity and thermal stability.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing dicyclopentadiene, involving successive thermal dimerisation of cyclopentadiene from material of cyclopentadiene-containing fractions of hydrocarbons containing not less than 15% cyclopentadiene, fractionation and separation of dicyclopentadiene concentrate, monomerisation of dicyclopentadiene in the presence of substituted phenols at temperature 165-185°C to obtain cyclopentadiene, followed by re-dimerisation of cyclopentadiene. The method is characterised by that dimerisation of cyclopentadiene from the material is carried out at temperature 80-110°C, fractionation is carried out in the presence of methanol, taken in molar ratio to ΣC5-dienes, contained in the material, of (1-1.5):1, respectively, monomerisation is carried out in the presence of a mixture of alkyl- and aryl-substituted phenols in ratio (50-70):(50-30), respectively, fed in amount of 10-20% to the dicyclopentadiene concentrate, and re-dimerisation of cyclopentadiene is carried out at temperature 60-80°C.
EFFECT: use of the present method increases output of dicyclopentadiene to 90 wt % with polymerisation purity of not less than 98,5%.
1 cl, 8 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of inhibiting thermopolymerisation when processing liquid pyrolysis products by adding 3,5-di(1-adamantyl)pyrocatechol of general formula C26H34O2 to said products in amount of 0.020-0.030 wt %.
EFFECT: invention increases effectiveness of inhibition.
1 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in the method of inhibiting thermopolymerisation when processing liquid pyrolysis products, the inhibitor used diadamantyl cresol of general formula C27H36O, which is added to the pyrolysis condensate in amount of 0.020-0.040 wt %. The inhibitor used is, for example, 2,6-di-(1-adamantyl)-4-methyl phenol or 2,4-di-(1-adamantyl)-6-methyl phenol.
EFFECT: efficient inhibition of thermopolymerisation when processing liquid pyrolysis products and preventing phenol inhibitors from falling into manufacturing waste water.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises the following steps: a) cooling the olefin stream in a quench system to obtain a first fraction containing olefin and a second fraction containing condensed water and entrained solid matter, wherein the quench system includes a surface structure and at least a part of the surface structure is in contact with the condensed water; b) injecting an anti-clogging agent containing a water-soluble ionic material into the quench system in an amount required to maintain a zeta potential of the entrained solid particles in the second fraction and an effective zeta potential of the surface of the quench system in contact with the condensed water both in a positive range or both in a negative range, and c) separating at least a portion of the second fraction from the first fraction.
EFFECT: use of the present method reduces clogging of olefin streams.
14 cl, 3 ex, 6 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed extruder serves to produce hydrated gas tablets at high pressure. Hydrated gas is formed in reaction between initial gas with initial water at high pressure. Extruder comprises two extruding rollers coupled with revolving shaft and running and bearing, drives of said rollers, screw to feed powder in extruding rollers and high-pressure housing to accommodate bearings, moving screw assembly and extruding rollers. Note here that, at least, one of said drives of extruding rollers and screw assembly drive is arranged in aforesaid high-pressure housing.
EFFECT: low production costs.
1 cl, 6 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of reducing acidity of hydrocarbon raw material, which includes: (a) contact of hydrocarbon raw material, which contains organic acid, with phosphonium ionic liquid, non-mixable with hydrocarbon raw material, including tetrabutyl phosphonium methane sulfonate, with obtaining mixture, which contains hydrocarbon and said liquid; (b) separation of mixture with obtaining effluent, which contains hydrocarbon, and effluent, which contains phosphonium ionic liquid, containing organic acid. In addition, method includes contact of effluent, which contains ionic liquid, with regenerating solvent and separation of effluent, containing ionic liquid, from regenerating solvent with obtaining flow of extract, which contains organic acid, and flow of regenerated ionic liquid, which contains phosphonium ionic liquid, non-mixable with raw material, where regenerating solvent contains water, and flow of regenerated ionic liquid additionally contains water and where effluent, which contains hydrocarbon, contains phosphonium ionic liquid, non-mixable with raw material, additionally including washing of, at least, part of effluent, which contains hydrocarbon, with water with obtaining effluent, containing washed hydrocarbon, and flow of waste water, and flow of waste water contains phosphonium ionic liquid, non-mixable with raw material; with, at least, part of flow of waste water being, at least, part of regenerating solvent.
EFFECT: claimed method can ensure removal of up to eighty percent of organic acids from hydrocarbon.
10 cl, 2 dwg, 5 ex, 1 tbl