Charged particle accelerator

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the systems of obtaining of charged high energy particles and is intended for the use in the field of nuclear physics and atomics. The charged particle accelerator contains an evacuated chamber with the shape of the section of the ring pipe, inside which at the end faces a source of charged particles and a target are located. The source of charged particles is designed as axially located cylinders with the edges having the shape of razor. Outside of the evacuated chamber there is the system generating an alternating magnetic field in the form of electric loops, connected with a high-frequency alternator, with a possibility of obtaining of focusing and simultaneously accelerating alternating magnetic field depending on the radius ρ of the orbit of charged particles according to expression H~ρ, where H - magnetic intensity of the field with the frequency 105-107 Hz, α=0.45-0.55. The electric loops are arranged with a possibility of moving in longitudinal and transversal directions. The source of charged particles and the target are arranged with a possibility of move along the orbit of charged particles. The axially located cylinders are arranged with a possibility of move with reference to each other along the generatrix.

EFFECT: obtaining of greater density of intensity of flow of charged particles on the target, that expands the functionalities of the accelerator use in the field of nuclear physics, for example for technologies of obtaining of transuranium materials.

4 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the production of charged particles of high energy and is intended for use in nuclear physics and nuclear technology.

Known electronic magnetic spectrometer (RF patent No. 2338295, publ. 2008), containing a vacuum chamber in the form of an annular pipe (Torah), placed it under axial angle relative to each other by the source and detector of charged particles. A focusing magnetic field is an electric paths made with the possibility of creating in a vacuum chamber of a magnetic field, depending on the radius ρ of the orbit of the electrons in accordance with the expression N~ραwhere H is the magnetic field strength, α=0,62-0,76.

The electrons emerging from the analyzed sample (source), under the action of the axially symmetric magnetic field are subjected to a double focusing (on the radius R and the Z-axis of the coils), the division of energy and, after ~0.7 turnover along a fixed trajectory (circle of radius ρ0), focus and fall on the detector electrons and the system of registration of spectra.

The shortcoming of the spectrometer is that a high degree of focus, corresponding to the small size of focal spot is achieved by reducing the linear dimensions of the source of electrons and is maksimalnaya using point sources, but in this case decreases the intensity (voltage) of the electron flow. Another disadvantage of the design is the lack of electron acceleration in the process of movement inside the vacuum chamber.

Know the source of charged particles (patent RF №2389105, publ. 2010), in which the emitting electrode (anode) used plate-blade. The performance of the electrode in the form of a thin plate-shaped blade with radius edges ~1 μm leads to an increase in current of the ion beam. When this inevitable reduction of electrostatic fields, preventing the formation of a flow of ions is compensated by an increase of the order of the potential difference between the plate and the exit electrode.

The disadvantage of this source of charged particles is the inability to obtain a stream of charged particles with energies exceeding 10 Kev without the use of powerful accelerators, resulting in large dimensions of the structure. Another disadvantage is the presence of inlet and accelerating electrodes, which increases the dimensions of the system and, in addition, makes the fulfillment of the terms precision magnetic focusing.

The closest technical solution (prototype) is the betatron accelerator induction type (TSB, v.27, Third edition, M.: Izd. "Soviet encyclopedia", 1977, p.10), designed to accelerate electrons (beta particles)moving in a vacuum chamber in an alternating magnetic field and for receiving the threads of γ - quanta and neutrons. The vacuum chamber of the betatron has the form of a circular pipe (Torah)in which the source and target of charged particles. The magnetic field of the betatron is created located outside the vacuum chamber solenoid, which consists of conductive windings and a ferromagnetic core cores. The electromagnet is connected to the AC generator and creates in the field of motion of the electrons inside the vacuum chamber AC axially symmetric magnetic field, the induction of which falls in the plane of symmetry of the device is proportional to the distance ρ from the axial axis according to the law N~ρand-0.6. The rate of change of the field is 10-103Hz. The alternating magnetic field induces in the field of motion of the vortex electric field which accelerates the electrons. Additional requirement, providing a constant radius of stationary trajectories in the betatron is the so-called betatron condition, that is, the magnetic field H0on the stationary trajectory is a circle of radius ρ0should be half of the average magnetic field H0inside this circle. Generated by a source of electrons moving scoren is along the stationary trajectories - the circle of radius ρ0making the order of 105-106speed, and after reaching the required energy 1-150 MeV derived from the field of stationary trajectories to the target. Disadvantages technical solutions betatron:

1. A large number of turnovers committed by the electrons during acceleration, in the absence of special measures of timing (phasing) of the oscillations relative to the stationary trajectory, does not allow precise focusing of electrons on the target. The radius of the focal spot is equal to the amplitude of the oscillations of the electrons relative to the stationary trajectory, so that it is impossible to obtain a large surface power density on the target.

2. Electrons in motion repeatedly cross the region of the source, which reduces the intensity of the flow and the occurrence of unwanted brake gamma radiation.

3. There are significant difficulties beam of electrons from the acceleration region to the target.

4. The use of an electromagnet is not possible with high accuracy to reproduce a desired magnetic field required for precision focusing.

5. The presence of bulky ferromagnetic core does not allow a technical solution with a radius of stationary trajectories is significantly greater than 1 m, for the same reason betatron can be used for acceleration of heavy particles (protons and ions), for which the radius of the stationary trajectory must be more than 1 m

The task of the invention is to obtain a large power density stream of charged particles on the target through the use of powerful sources, precision systems focus and expedite the flow of charged particles that extends the functionality of the application accelerator for nuclear physics, for example the technology for transuranic materials.

Its objective is achieved by the fact that the accelerator of charged particles includes a vacuum chamber with the source of charged particles, the target of charged particles and a system that creates an alternating magnetic field. The source of charged particles is made in the form of coaxially arranged cylinders with edges in the form of a blade. Create an alternating magnetic field is done in the form of electrical circuits connected to a high frequency alternating current generator. The contours with the current set can be moved in longitudinal and transverse direction to more accurately reproduce the size and shape of the magnetic field. An alternating magnetic field is focusing and simultaneously accelerating and depends on the radius ρ of the orbit of the electrons in accordance with the expression N~ραwhere H is the magnetic field strength frequency driver is 10 5-107Hz, α=0,45-0,55.

The vacuum chamber is made of a dielectric material and has the shape of a section of a circular pipe, the ends of which are the source of charged particles and the target, which provides easy access to the area of their installation and maintenance.

The execution of the source of charged particles in the form of coaxially arranged cylinders with edges in the form of blades, which have a radius of 10-6m, increases the linear length of the emitting electrons to the surface and, therefore, proportionally increases the flow of charged particles in 103-104times compared with the source, in which the emitting surface is made in the form of plate-blade (patent RF №2389105, publ. 2010).

The cylinders are positioned so that the trajectory of charged particles coincide with lines of tension induction accelerating electric field. To configure the parameters of the magnetic field and high-precision focusing of a stream of particles, you can change the location of the source of charged particles and the target using micrometer screws.

The implementation of a system of generating an alternating magnetic field in the form of a high-frequency generator and the electric circuits with the ability to create in a vacuum chamber of the high-frequency magnetic field dependent for the sa of the orbit of electrons ρ in accordance with the expression N~ραwhere H is the magnetic field strength, α=0,45-0,55 allows high-frequency magnetic field simultaneously to produce the acceleration of charged particles during a single turnover and allow precise focusing. In this case, the excluded secondary intersection of the charged particle source area, also in this case, the induction accelerating electric field is created directly between the source and the target, replacing him inlet and accelerating electrodes. Selecting and less than 0.45 and greater than 0.55 is a material breach dual focus.

The rate of change of the magnetic field depending on the mass of the accelerated particles is 105-107Hz, while charged particles receive the necessary energy and focus on the target, making less than one turnover. The energy of accelerated particles can be varied by changing the frequency and amplitude of the magnetic field. By reducing the rate of change of the magnetic field of less than 105Hz double focusing is carried out by more than one revolution of the motion of charged particles, and the frequency of more than 107Hz leads to a significant increase in unwanted sinhrotronnogo radiation.

The invention is intended to obtain, acceleration and precision focusing of charged particle fluxes pain is Oh power on the surface of the atomic target. In particular, for e-flows when the radius of a stationary trajectory 1 m and the amplitude of the magnetic field of 1 T is achieved, the power density on the target up to 1020W/m2.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 shows a General view of the device in plan, figure 2 - in the section.

The design of the accelerator of charged particles includes a vacuum chamber 1 with the source of charged particles 2 and the target 3. The AC magnetic field is an electric circuits 4, 5, connected to a high frequency alternating current generator (not shown).

The accelerator operates in pulsed mode as follows. High frequency alternating current generator creates electric 5 circuits 4, 5 axially symmetric alternating magnetic field inside the vacuum chamber 1 induces an electric field between the source of charged particles 2 and the target 3. Due to the smallness of the radius of the edges of the cylinders of the source of charged particles 2, the electric field near the edges is sufficient for the occurrence of a tunneling electron emission (field emission) or ions (liquid metal field emission). Emitted charged particles under the action of the induction electric field move to expedite the i.i.d. stationary trajectories in an axially symmetric magnetic field, which focuses them on the target 3, using the effect of double focus. Adjusting the intensity of the flow in the device is installing diaphragms (not shown).

When using the invention as a source of γ - rays and neutrons from the target 3 is made with two layers, where the first layer consists of a heavy metal type uranium, lead. The flux of relativistic electrons interacting with the nuclei of the first layer of the target, generates bremsstrahlung γ - rays directed movement of electrons. In the interaction of γ - rays with the nuclei of deuterium, beryllium, uranium, included in the second layer of the target is generated neutron fluxes.

1. The accelerator includes a vacuum chamber with the source of charged particles and a target, the system generates an alternating magnetic field, wherein the vacuum chamber has the shape of a section of a circular pipe, the ends of which are the source of charged particles and the target, the source of charged particles is made in the form of coaxially arranged cylinders with edges in the form of a blade, a system that creates an alternating magnetic field, is made in the form of electrical circuits connected to a high frequency alternating current generator, with the ability to obtain focus and at the same time accelerating variable mage is itogo field, depending on the radius ρ of the orbit of the charged particles in accordance with the expression N~ραwhere H is the magnetic field strength at the rate of 105-107Hz, α=0,45-0,55.

2. The accelerator of charged particles according to claim 1, characterized in that the electrical circuits mounted for movement in longitudinal and transverse directions.

3. The accelerator of charged particles according to claim 1, otlichayushiesya the fact that the source of charged particles and the target set can be moved around the circumference and radius of a section of the ring pipe.

4. The accelerator of charged particles according to claim 1, wherein the coaxially arranged cylinders mounted for movement relative to each other along a generatrix.



 

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