Ceramic mass

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the production of building materials and products, in particular to wall ceramic products, and can be applied in the production of ceramic bricks and stones. A ceramic mass includes easily fusible clay and carbonate-silicon zeolite-containing rock of a mixed mineral composition and flotation wastes of coal washing - coal slurries, and carbonate-silicon zeolite-containing rock is applied with a degree of milling less than 1 mm, with the following component ratio, wt %: easily fusible clay - 60-75; carbonate-silicon zeolite-containing rock - 20-25; flotation wastes of coal washing - 5-15.

EFFECT: reduction of an average density and heat conductivity, increase of the product durability and reduction of expenditures for burning.

1 ex, 4 tbl

 

The invention relates to the production of building materials and products, in particular to wall ceramic products, and can be used in the production of ceramic bricks and stones.

Known ceramic material for the manufacture of ceramic bricks with carbonate-siliceous zeolite-containing rocks, including, wt.%: clay fusible 15-24; carbonate-siliceous zeolite breed 46-55 and pre-mechano-activated zeolite clay 30-39 composition, wt.%: zeolite 26-36; opal-cristobalite 3-27; calcite 0-5, quartz 1-10; glauconite 0-4; clay minerals 20-65 (patent RU №2197446, C04B 33/00, publ. 27.01.2003).

The closest technical solution is a ceramic material for the manufacture of wall products, including fusible clay and technological mineral Supplement: carbonate-siliceous zeolite mixed breed mineral composition, containing, in wt.%: opal-cristobalite 30-45 clinoptilolite 8-25, calcite 11-28, clay component 15-35, with a particle size less than 1 mm, in the following ratio, wt.%: clay fusible 70-75, carbonate-siliceous zeolite mixed breed mineral composition 25-30 (patent RU №2140888, C04B 33/00, publ. 10.11.1999).

The disadvantage of ceramic masses are relatively high average is lotnosti and thermal conductivity of the products, low durability and increased fuel consumption on firing.

The present invention is to obtain ceramic products with lower average density and thermal conductivity with high strength and significantly lower costs on firing.

The invention consists in that the ceramic material that includes fusible clay and carbonate-siliceous zeolite mixed breed mineral composition further comprises a flotation waste coal, coal slurries, while carbonate-siliceous zeolite breed used with a degree of grinding of less than 1 mm, in the following ratio, wt.%:

Fusible clay - 60-75;

Carbonate-siliceous zeolite rock - 20-25;

Flotation waste coal - 5-15.

The technical result consists in the following. The introduction of flotation waste coal - coal slurries in the ceramic mass can reduce the average density and thermal conductivity of the products, because the ash slurry is 40-60% and during firing, due to the burnout of the coal component, decreases the density of the paste and its conductivity. Provides enhanced durability of baked products as coal slurries are fusible, contain a large quantity and the creation of wetlands, mostly in the form of hydrolog, which increases the sintering of the ceramic body with the formation of new mineral and vitreous phases and, consequently, increases the strength. Also enter the coal sludge can significantly reduce gas consumption for firing (up to 90%), as their calorific value is 3-4 thousand kcal/kg and they act as fuel additives. Given the high cost of gas and the low cost of coal slime this significantly reduces the cost of products. Fine structure of the coal sludge can improve the molding properties of the ceramic mass, contributes to their uniform distribution in the molding mass and the formation of a uniform porous structure of the ceramic body, which causes the isotropy properties of the products.

Carbonate-siliceous zeolite rock, given its kamnevidnyj structure, is introduced into the ceramic material in powdered form fractional composition of less than 1 mm (table 1).

Table 1
Fractional composition of crushed carbonate-siliceous zeolite-containing rocks
The name of the component of the ceramic materialThe degree of crushing mm The contents of fractions, mm, mass%
3-22-11,0-0,50,5-0,250,25-0,10<0,10
Carbonate-siliceous ceritadewasa breed<38-1210-1612-1814-2216-2420-28
<2-8-1214-1820-2422-2626-30
<1--16-2222-2624-2828-34

Enter this additive may be larger fraction up to 3 mm, but in the process of preparing molding masses it further crushed. Enter carbonate-siliceous zeolite-containing rocks of a given fractional composition reduces air shrinkage, due to the microporous structures which increase moisture and gas permeability of the molding mass and reduce sensitivity to drying, to reduce the average density of the paste and accordingly the conductivity. This also results in the firing process of active interaction of the particles of the carbonate-siliceous zeolite-containing rocks with clay minerals and coal slurries, which promotes education in the firing process of new crystalline compounds unanticipatable minerals, wollastonite (CaO·SiO2), hellenica-melilite Ca2(Al, Mg, Si) Si2O7that contribute to the formation of fine and high-strength structure ceramic crock. This causes the increase of the strength properties of products at a lower average density and thermal conductivity.

The characteristics of the original materials

In the proposed composition of the ceramic material includes the following components: fusible clay, carbonate-siliceous zeolite-containing rocks and flotation waste coal - coal slurries having an average chemical composition presented in table 2.

Table 2
The average chemical composition of fusible clays, carbonate-siliceous zeolite-containing rocks and flotation waste coal, mass%
Material name PPPSiO2Al2O3Fe2O3CaOMgOSO3K2ONa2O
Fusible clay5-1555-727-163-82-100,4-30,3-21-41-3
Carbonate-siliceous zeolite-containing rocks10-2245-655-121-65-170.5 to 30,2-10,4-30,2-2
Flotation waste coal18-4430-426-123-61-60,2-20,4-21-40,5-2

1. Fusible clay

Are sedimentary fine mineral formations with pelitic and aleurolites structure. Macroscopically these clays are very diverse. This is usually linked, porous rocks, painted in light brown, brown, brown, gray, dark gray and greenish tones. Fusible clays are widespread in Quaternary continental sediments and cover vast plains of European Russia, Western Siberia, Central Europe and other Fields fusible mineral clays are very numerous and are found everywhere. They are used for the production of ceramic bricks and coarse ceramics. The main rock-forming minerals are montmorillonite, hydrology, kaolinite, quartz, mica. Usually there are two or three clay mineral and quite often zesannelaynep education. Secondary minerals are feldspars, carbonates, glauconite, chlorites, etc. Some of them contain admixtures or enriched organic matter. Depending on the availability of sand and silt particles and mineral composition they have a high (low impurities) or moderate plasticity (many impurities).

2. Carbonate-siliceous zeolite-containing rocks

Light comparatie breed, the situation is the following mainly from the smallest (less than 0.005 mm) particles opal-cristobalite (30-45%), minerals of the group of zeolites, mainly of clinoptilolite (8-25%), calcite (11-28%), clay component (15-35%). The average density is 1300-1600 kg/m3the porosity is 50% (usually 30-40%). Microscopic analysis shows fine grained structure and mineral composition. The bulk presents globular gel-flake opal with uniformly distributed clay-like substance, zeolites and pelitomorphic calcite chemical and biogenic origin. Meet single organic remains of the wreckage of the spicules of sponges and shells of foraminifera. The grain size of calcite does not exceed 0.1 mm, which prevents the brick popouts after firing. The limit of compressive strength varies from 5 to 20 MPa. In the water not razmokajut or razmokajut by mechanical action. React with hydrochloric acid.

Russia has the largest resource base of carbonate-siliceous zeolite-containing rocks. They are commonly found in the regions of the Volga and the don, Western Siberia, southern Russia, Central and Western regions of the European part of Russia, Leningrad region, Russian far East etc. Diversity determines a wide range of physico-technical and technological properties, and use in many industries. The average chemical composition of carbonate-siliceous C is ridderzaal breeds are shown in table 2. The mineralogical composition is a wide variation in composition and includes, in wt.%: opal-cristobalite 25-45, zeolites, represented mainly by clinoptilolite 8-25, calcite 10-35, clay component 15-35.

3. Flotation waste coal - coal slurries

Represent a fine black powder, dark grey. Their mineral composition determined by the composition of the original coal rocks and the subsequent impact of the processes of coal. Mineral composition is represented by clay minerals, chlorite, micas, feldspars, fine-grained carbonates, quartz and coal substance in the amount of 20-40%. The ash content is 40-60%. The calorific value is 3-4 thousand kcal/kg Averaged chemical composition presented in table 2.

Products of the inventive ceramic material can be produced by conventional manufacturing technologies of ceramic wall as a means of plastic molding, or dry pressing at a temperature firing 950-1050°C. Preparation of carbonate-siliceous zeolite-containing rocks, given its kamnevidnyj character lies in its grinding to particles less than 1 mm, or not more than 3 mm. Preliminary crushing is carried out on jaw crushers, further reduction can be carried out on young people is the same, pendulum crushers, coal mills, disintegrators.

Example. For experimental verification of the claimed compositions of the masses were made to the standard samples of solid and hollow bricks of size 250×120×65 mm with various proportions of the above components. As fusible clay raw materials used loam Rodionovo-Nesvetayskiy field. Carbonate-siliceous zeolite breed was introduced carp-Obrascon field. As waste coal used coal sludge concentrator "Obukhovskaya". The chemical composition of these materials is presented in table 3.

The samples were produced as follows.

Pre-fusible clay, carbonate-siliceous zeolite rock and coal sludge to dry a little before air-dried, then ground to gloryhole, jaw crusher and mill (or a hammer mill), then sifted in a sieve with mesh size 1 mm, Then the required ratio occasioanly components are thoroughly mixed together and weight evenly moist to plastic state. Prepared mass ripen in airtight containers 6-12 hours and arrived at the molding. After forming products podsused who were then fired with exposure at the maximum temperature of 950-1050°C for 2 hours and cooled for 14 hours. Then depended on their physico-mechanical properties and compliance with the requirements of GOST 530-2012 "Brick and ceramic stones. General technical conditions".

Physico-mechanical parameters, confirming the properties of the products obtained on the basis of ceramics, including fusible clay, carbonate-siliceous zeolite-containing rocks and flotation waste coal are presented in table 4.

Ceramic material that includes fusible clay and carbonate-siliceous zeolite mixed breed mineral composition, characterized in that it further comprises a flotation waste coal, coal slurries, while carbonate-siliceous zeolite breed used with a degree of grinding of less than 1 mm, in the following ratio, wt. %:
Fusible clay - 60-75;
Carbonate-siliceous zeolite rock - 20-25;
Flotation waste coal - 5-15.



 

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