SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the production of building materials and products, in particular to wall ceramic products, and can be applied in the production of ceramic bricks and stones. A ceramic mass includes easily fusible clay and carbonate-silicon zeolite-containing rock of a mixed mineral composition and flotation wastes of coal washing - coal slurries, and carbonate-silicon zeolite-containing rock is applied with a degree of milling less than 1 mm, with the following component ratio, wt %: easily fusible clay - 60-75; carbonate-silicon zeolite-containing rock - 20-25; flotation wastes of coal washing - 5-15.
EFFECT: reduction of an average density and heat conductivity, increase of the product durability and reduction of expenditures for burning.
1 ex, 4 tbl
The invention relates to the production of building materials and products, in particular to wall ceramic products, and can be used in the production of ceramic bricks and stones.
Known ceramic material for the manufacture of ceramic bricks with carbonate-siliceous zeolite-containing rocks, including, wt.%: clay fusible 15-24; carbonate-siliceous zeolite breed 46-55 and pre-mechano-activated zeolite clay 30-39 composition, wt.%: zeolite 26-36; opal-cristobalite 3-27; calcite 0-5, quartz 1-10; glauconite 0-4; clay minerals 20-65 (patent RU №2197446, C04B 33/00, publ. 27.01.2003).
The closest technical solution is a ceramic material for the manufacture of wall products, including fusible clay and technological mineral Supplement: carbonate-siliceous zeolite mixed breed mineral composition, containing, in wt.%: opal-cristobalite 30-45 clinoptilolite 8-25, calcite 11-28, clay component 15-35, with a particle size less than 1 mm, in the following ratio, wt.%: clay fusible 70-75, carbonate-siliceous zeolite mixed breed mineral composition 25-30 (patent RU №2140888, C04B 33/00, publ. 10.11.1999).
The disadvantage of ceramic masses are relatively high average is lotnosti and thermal conductivity of the products, low durability and increased fuel consumption on firing.
The present invention is to obtain ceramic products with lower average density and thermal conductivity with high strength and significantly lower costs on firing.
The invention consists in that the ceramic material that includes fusible clay and carbonate-siliceous zeolite mixed breed mineral composition further comprises a flotation waste coal, coal slurries, while carbonate-siliceous zeolite breed used with a degree of grinding of less than 1 mm, in the following ratio, wt.%:
Fusible clay - 60-75;
Carbonate-siliceous zeolite rock - 20-25;
Flotation waste coal - 5-15.
The technical result consists in the following. The introduction of flotation waste coal - coal slurries in the ceramic mass can reduce the average density and thermal conductivity of the products, because the ash slurry is 40-60% and during firing, due to the burnout of the coal component, decreases the density of the paste and its conductivity. Provides enhanced durability of baked products as coal slurries are fusible, contain a large quantity and the creation of wetlands, mostly in the form of hydrolog, which increases the sintering of the ceramic body with the formation of new mineral and vitreous phases and, consequently, increases the strength. Also enter the coal sludge can significantly reduce gas consumption for firing (up to 90%), as their calorific value is 3-4 thousand kcal/kg and they act as fuel additives. Given the high cost of gas and the low cost of coal slime this significantly reduces the cost of products. Fine structure of the coal sludge can improve the molding properties of the ceramic mass, contributes to their uniform distribution in the molding mass and the formation of a uniform porous structure of the ceramic body, which causes the isotropy properties of the products.
Carbonate-siliceous zeolite rock, given its kamnevidnyj structure, is introduced into the ceramic material in powdered form fractional composition of less than 1 mm (table 1).
|Fractional composition of crushed carbonate-siliceous zeolite-containing rocks|
|The name of the component of the ceramic material||The degree of crushing mm||The contents of fractions, mm, mass%|
|Carbonate-siliceous ceritadewasa breed||<3||8-12||10-16||12-18||14-22||16-24||20-28|
Enter this additive may be larger fraction up to 3 mm, but in the process of preparing molding masses it further crushed. Enter carbonate-siliceous zeolite-containing rocks of a given fractional composition reduces air shrinkage, due to the microporous structures which increase moisture and gas permeability of the molding mass and reduce sensitivity to drying, to reduce the average density of the paste and accordingly the conductivity. This also results in the firing process of active interaction of the particles of the carbonate-siliceous zeolite-containing rocks with clay minerals and coal slurries, which promotes education in the firing process of new crystalline compounds unanticipatable minerals, wollastonite (CaO·SiO2), hellenica-melilite Ca2(Al, Mg, Si) Si2O7that contribute to the formation of fine and high-strength structure ceramic crock. This causes the increase of the strength properties of products at a lower average density and thermal conductivity.
The characteristics of the original materials
In the proposed composition of the ceramic material includes the following components: fusible clay, carbonate-siliceous zeolite-containing rocks and flotation waste coal - coal slurries having an average chemical composition presented in table 2.
|The average chemical composition of fusible clays, carbonate-siliceous zeolite-containing rocks and flotation waste coal, mass%|
|Carbonate-siliceous zeolite-containing rocks||10-22||45-65||5-12||1-6||5-17||0.5 to 3||0,2-1||0,4-3||0,2-2|
|Flotation waste coal||18-44||30-42||6-12||3-6||1-6||0,2-2||0,4-2||1-4||0,5-2|
1. Fusible clay
Are sedimentary fine mineral formations with pelitic and aleurolites structure. Macroscopically these clays are very diverse. This is usually linked, porous rocks, painted in light brown, brown, brown, gray, dark gray and greenish tones. Fusible clays are widespread in Quaternary continental sediments and cover vast plains of European Russia, Western Siberia, Central Europe and other Fields fusible mineral clays are very numerous and are found everywhere. They are used for the production of ceramic bricks and coarse ceramics. The main rock-forming minerals are montmorillonite, hydrology, kaolinite, quartz, mica. Usually there are two or three clay mineral and quite often zesannelaynep education. Secondary minerals are feldspars, carbonates, glauconite, chlorites, etc. Some of them contain admixtures or enriched organic matter. Depending on the availability of sand and silt particles and mineral composition they have a high (low impurities) or moderate plasticity (many impurities).
2. Carbonate-siliceous zeolite-containing rocks
Light comparatie breed, the situation is the following mainly from the smallest (less than 0.005 mm) particles opal-cristobalite (30-45%), minerals of the group of zeolites, mainly of clinoptilolite (8-25%), calcite (11-28%), clay component (15-35%). The average density is 1300-1600 kg/m3the porosity is 50% (usually 30-40%). Microscopic analysis shows fine grained structure and mineral composition. The bulk presents globular gel-flake opal with uniformly distributed clay-like substance, zeolites and pelitomorphic calcite chemical and biogenic origin. Meet single organic remains of the wreckage of the spicules of sponges and shells of foraminifera. The grain size of calcite does not exceed 0.1 mm, which prevents the brick popouts after firing. The limit of compressive strength varies from 5 to 20 MPa. In the water not razmokajut or razmokajut by mechanical action. React with hydrochloric acid.
Russia has the largest resource base of carbonate-siliceous zeolite-containing rocks. They are commonly found in the regions of the Volga and the don, Western Siberia, southern Russia, Central and Western regions of the European part of Russia, Leningrad region, Russian far East etc. Diversity determines a wide range of physico-technical and technological properties, and use in many industries. The average chemical composition of carbonate-siliceous C is ridderzaal breeds are shown in table 2. The mineralogical composition is a wide variation in composition and includes, in wt.%: opal-cristobalite 25-45, zeolites, represented mainly by clinoptilolite 8-25, calcite 10-35, clay component 15-35.
3. Flotation waste coal - coal slurries
Represent a fine black powder, dark grey. Their mineral composition determined by the composition of the original coal rocks and the subsequent impact of the processes of coal. Mineral composition is represented by clay minerals, chlorite, micas, feldspars, fine-grained carbonates, quartz and coal substance in the amount of 20-40%. The ash content is 40-60%. The calorific value is 3-4 thousand kcal/kg Averaged chemical composition presented in table 2.
Products of the inventive ceramic material can be produced by conventional manufacturing technologies of ceramic wall as a means of plastic molding, or dry pressing at a temperature firing 950-1050°C. Preparation of carbonate-siliceous zeolite-containing rocks, given its kamnevidnyj character lies in its grinding to particles less than 1 mm, or not more than 3 mm. Preliminary crushing is carried out on jaw crushers, further reduction can be carried out on young people is the same, pendulum crushers, coal mills, disintegrators.
Example. For experimental verification of the claimed compositions of the masses were made to the standard samples of solid and hollow bricks of size 250×120×65 mm with various proportions of the above components. As fusible clay raw materials used loam Rodionovo-Nesvetayskiy field. Carbonate-siliceous zeolite breed was introduced carp-Obrascon field. As waste coal used coal sludge concentrator "Obukhovskaya". The chemical composition of these materials is presented in table 3.
The samples were produced as follows.
Pre-fusible clay, carbonate-siliceous zeolite rock and coal sludge to dry a little before air-dried, then ground to gloryhole, jaw crusher and mill (or a hammer mill), then sifted in a sieve with mesh size 1 mm, Then the required ratio occasioanly components are thoroughly mixed together and weight evenly moist to plastic state. Prepared mass ripen in airtight containers 6-12 hours and arrived at the molding. After forming products podsused who were then fired with exposure at the maximum temperature of 950-1050°C for 2 hours and cooled for 14 hours. Then depended on their physico-mechanical properties and compliance with the requirements of GOST 530-2012 "Brick and ceramic stones. General technical conditions".
Physico-mechanical parameters, confirming the properties of the products obtained on the basis of ceramics, including fusible clay, carbonate-siliceous zeolite-containing rocks and flotation waste coal are presented in table 4.
Ceramic material that includes fusible clay and carbonate-siliceous zeolite mixed breed mineral composition, characterized in that it further comprises a flotation waste coal, coal slurries, while carbonate-siliceous zeolite breed used with a degree of grinding of less than 1 mm, in the following ratio, wt. %:
Fusible clay - 60-75;
Carbonate-siliceous zeolite rock - 20-25;
Flotation waste coal - 5-15.
SUBSTANCE: method for producing lightweight ceramic heat-insulating building material, comprising mixture of pre-treated silica-containing component and alkaline component, homogenization of raw mixture, drying of the granulated raw mixture, grinding of dried granules and firing in metal moulds. At that, the preliminary treatment of silica-containing component is carried out at stone-separating rolls in order to remove strong impurities and activate the silicon dioxide, in the drying apparatus to achieve the humidity of 19-25% and in grinding device in order to achieve the maximum particle size of 1 mm. Diatomite o tripoli and/or flask, containing the active silicon dioxide is used as silica-containing component, mixture of caustic soda and soda ash in the ratio of 0.5-0.8/1 is used as alkali component. Mixing of silica-containing component and alkaline component is carried out in the mixer of periodic action, providing the content of mass fraction in dry raw mixture of caustic soda of 6-14% and soda ash of 6-15%. Homogenization of raw mixture is carried out by treatment in strew press with filtering grid with size of cells of 8-25 mm, and drying of granular raw material mixture is carried out in dryer drum until the humidity of 5-7% is achieved. Grinding of dried granules is performed until the achievement of maximum particle size of 3 mm, and firing of silicate mixture, obtained as a result of grinding, is carried out in metal moulds in oven by raising the temperature up to 650°C with speed of 100-120°C/hour, and up to maximum of 680-800°C - with speed of 15-25°C/hour with subsequent isothermal exposure at maximum temperature during 1-3 hours, cooling from the maximum temperature up to 600°C is carried out with speed of 30-50°C/hour and from 600 to 50°C - with speed of 50-60°C/hour.
EFFECT: reduction of energy costs and improvement of hygienic and sanitary conditions of production.
4 cl, 5 ex, 3 tbl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of construction materials, particularly, expanded-clay concrete to be used for production of reinforced concrete articles for building blocks. Proposed method comprises activation of 70% of tempering water by quick-action Portland cement and plasticising additive UP-4 in concrete mixer at 15 rpm for 1 min to get homogeneous suspension. Tempering water remainder is mixed with crushed haydite gravel, haydite and quartz sand with pre-activated tempering water for 0.5 minutes. Obtained haydite mix is subjected to two-step heat treatment at 60°C in summer for 5 hours, in winter for 8 hours. Then, it is treated in secondary heat treatment chamber at 40°C for 4 hours.
EFFECT: better placeability, higher strength, accelerated production.
SUBSTANCE: composition of a haydite-concrete mixture includes, wt %: portland cement 18.87-21.34, haydite 41.13-41.56, superplasticiser LSTM 0.0312, fly ash of TPP 13.92-18.87, gasifying additive PAK-3 0.022-0.025, water - balance.
EFFECT: production of haydite concrete with higher strength and reduced density.
SUBSTANCE: swollen perlite is used, which is first saturated with water, water that is not retained by a swollen perlite granule is filtered, the water-saturated perlite is mixed with gypsum, the produced mix is supplied into a die mould for further pressing, and pressed at 10 MPa at least.
EFFECT: increased strength of a finished product with increased time of mortar hardening.
SUBSTANCE: raw mix for making foam concrete includes, wt %: portland cement 35.0-37.0, foaming agent PB-2000 0.25-0.35, TPP ash 10.65-13.25, crushed foam glass of fraction 5-10 mm 20.0-25.0, mineral wool ground and sifted through sieve No. 2.5 1.0-1.5, haydite sand 5.0-7.0, water 21.0-23.0.
EFFECT: higher heat resistance of foam concrete produced from raw mix.
SUBSTANCE: raw mixture contains the following components, pts. wt.: non-caking acid clay 58.0-61.0; expanded perlite ground to specific surface of 4500-5000 cm2/g 13.0-15.0; chalk stone 1.0-2.0; broken silicate glass ground to specific surface of 4500-5000 cm2/g 14.0-16.0; bentonite and/or kaolin 4.0-6.0; liquid potassium glass 4.0-6.0.
EFFECT: increase of product water-resisting property.
SUBSTANCE: raw mixture for manufacture of foam concrete contains the following components, wt %: Portland cement 35.0-37.0, foaming agent PB-2000 0.25-0.35, TPP ash 15.65-20.25, crushed foamed glass with particle size of 5-10 mm 20.0-25.0, asbestos fibre cut into 5-15 mm pieces 1.0-1.5, and water 21.0-23.0.
EFFECT: improving heat resistance of foam concrete obtained from raw mixture.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction materials, in particular to manufacturing products from ethynol perlite concrete, applied for heat insulation of heat pipelines of heat networks and for manufacturing heat-insulated pipes of full operational readiness with monolithic thermohydroinsulating protection. Ethynol perlite concrete, obtained from composition, which contains perlite gravel with filling agent from inert materials; as such used are dust-like asbestos in form of powder in amount 0.2 ppm, expanded clay aggregate dust in amount 0.2 ppm, and fly ash of thermal power stations in amount 0.2 ppm, and composite cement in form of ethynol enamel based on ethynol varnish in amount 1 ppm and plasticiser, represented by latex SKS-65 in amount 0.1 ppm, and as accelerator of composition polymerisation used is intensive ultraviolet radiation.
EFFECT: increased quality of ethyl perlite concrete due to reduction of water absorption, heat conductivity coefficient, increase of water resistance and acceleration of hardening.
SUBSTANCE: gypsum perlite contains a gypsum binder, such as a processed mechanically activated phosphogypsum ground to 5-40 mcm (active gypsum), hydrophobizated swollen sand, superplasticiser Melflux at the following ratio of components, wt %: active gypsum - 84.8-93.8%, hydrophobizated swollen perlite sand - 6-15%, superplasticiser - 0.2%.
EFFECT: improved heat insulation and strength properties at low prime cost.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of construction materials and can be used for fabrication of ceramic bricks, stones and blocks. Proposed method comprises preparation of foam-ceramic mix from clay stock, water, foaming agent, binding agent, drying, annealing and forming. Note here that, additionally, foaming agent PB-2007 is admixed as a plasticising agent while finished product ground to 1.25-5.0 mm fraction or perlite sand are used as binding additive. Then, obtained mix is poured in flat moulds and dried, first, at 30-35°C and, then at 50-56°C to make an integral blank to be withdrawn from the mould, annealed at 800-1600°C and formed to blocks.
EFFECT: higher heat- and noise-isolation properties, decreased weight.
SUBSTANCE: weight for manufacture of aggloporite comprises, wt %: fusible clay rocks 89.0-90.0; coal slack 2.0-4.0 sifted through the mesh No. 5; mineral wool 6.0-9.0 granulated and sifted through the mesh No. 5.
EFFECT: increase of aggloporite frost resistance.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of construction materials, in particular, to technology of granite-ceramic products, and can be used for manufacturing face ceramic bricks, elements of building decoration, floor tiles, roofing materials, etc. Charge for manufacturing granite-ceramic products includes kaolinite-montmorollonire clay, siftings of crushed granite crushing, boron-containing ampoule glass cullet and sodium polycarboxylate with the following component ratio, wt %: kaolinite-montmorollonire clay - 15-25; siftings of crushed granite crushing - 35-40; boron-containing ampoule glass cullet - 35-50; sodium polycarboxylate (above 100 wt %) - 0.05-0.1 (by dry substance).
EFFECT: increased bending strength, frost resistance and wear resistance of products.
SUBSTANCE: charge for production of porous filler contains, wt %: montmorillonite clay 50.0-65.0, dolomite 5.0-10.0, milled silicate glass 30.0-40.0.
EFFECT: increased strength of porous filler, obtained from the charge.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises dewatering of slime flows, mixing of required components and preparation of aqueous casting slip. Note here that slime wastes represent dewatered and ground slime flows of ceramic and/or refractory productions. Said slime flows are subjected to thermal activation in oxidative medium by increasing the temperature to 450-650°C and cooling down. Thereafter, stock is reground to add clay materials to aqueous slip to up their softening.
EFFECT: higher plasticity and fluidity of slip.
3 cl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: ceramic mass for production of facing tile includes, wt %: kaolin 71.38-74.98; bentonite 3.0-5.0; loess 3.0-5.0; broken tile 0.1-1.0; phosphorite 5.0-6.0; zinc oxide 1.0-1.5; quartz sand 10.0-13.0; saponified rosin 0.02-0.03. Compression resistance of tile constitutes 30 MPa. Moulded by a plastic method tiles are dried and burned at a temperature of 1200 - 1220°C.
EFFECT: increased strength of the products, obtained from the ceramic mass.
SUBSTANCE: charge for production of the porous filler contains, wt %: montmorillonite clay 81.8-82.9, milled to the specific surface of 2500-3000 cm2/g, coal 1.0-2.0, milled to he specific surface of 2500-3000 cm2/g, blast-furnace slag 10.0-12.0, milled to the specific surface of 2500-3000 cm2/g, wollastonite 4.0-6.0, mineral oil 0.1-0.2.
EFFECT: increased frost resistance of the porous filler, obtained from the charge.
SUBSTANCE: ceramic mixture for making structural articles and facing tiles contains high-melting clay, low-melting clay, wollastonite, scrap ceramic tiles and quartz-sericite porcelain stone, with the following ratio of components, wt %: high-melting clay - 20.0-40.0; low-melting clay - 1.2-4.2; wollastonite - 16.0-21.0; scrap ceramic tiles - 1.0-2.0; quartz-sericite porcelain stone - the balance.
EFFECT: high mechanical strength and reduced linear shrinkage of articles.
SUBSTANCE: ceramic mass contains, wt %: plastic clay 82.8-84.8; kaolin 0.4-0.8; swollen ground perlite 0.4-0.8; bone ash 14.0-16.0.
EFFECT: lowering of products burn temperature.
SUBSTANCE: ceramic paste for manufacture of faced tiles includes fusible clay, refractory clay, clay tailings of zircon-ilmenite ore beneficiation and quartz sand at the following ratio of components, pts. wt.: fusible clay - 60.0-65.0; refractory clay - 10.0-15.0; clay tailings of zircon-ilmenite ore beneficiation - 10.0-15.0; quartz sand - 10.0-15.0.
EFFECT: increase of the product frost resistance.
SUBSTANCE: ceramic paste for manufacture of glazed tiles comprises, pts. wt.: high-melting clay 60-65; chamotte powder 5-10; fine quartz sand 15-20; wollastonite 10-15. Heat resistance is of 20 cycles (heating up to 200°C - cooling in water). Components are mixed, mixture is moistened up to 19-23% and glazed tiles are formed from it. Further these tiles are burnt at temperature of 1200-1250°C. Layer of glaze is applied on the surface of burned tiles, and burnt at temperature of 1000-1100°C.
EFFECT: increase of heat resistance of glazed tiles.
FIELD: manufacture of building materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns manufacture of articles for heat-retention of furnace units and power equipment operated at surface temperatures up to 1100°C. Invention provides charge mixture containing, wt %: swollen vermiculite 20-60, refractory clay or kaolin 37-55, electrofilter dust 1-20, chamotte fraction below 0.063 mm 1-30, and structure-forming polyelectrolyte 3-5 (above 100%). Charge is moistened to form mass, which is aged in closed space for at least 24 h, molded into crude article, dried to residual moisture at most 5%, and fired at 1000-1100°C. Aforesaid polyelectrolyte is characterized by having carboxyl, amide, nitrile, and ester groups in polymer molecule.
EFFECT: reduced air and fire shrinkage and service deformations, raised softening point, simplified manufacture, and achieved absence of anisotropy of physicochemical and thermal characteristics with extremely low heat-conduction values.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex