Device for synthesis of coatings
SUBSTANCE: device for synthesis of composite coatings contains a working vacuum chamber 1, an emission net 2 from a precipitated metal, a hollow cathode 3, limited by the emission net 2, an anode 4 inside the hollow cathode 3, a source 5 of an electric discharge supply, with a positive pole connected to the anode 4, and with a negative pole connected to the hollow cathode 4, a target 6, installed on the bottom of the hollow cathode 3 opposite to the emission net 2, a source 7 of high voltage, with a positive pole connected to the hollow cathode 3, and with a negative pole connected to the target 6, a source 8 of net voltage, with a positive pole connected to the anode 4 and with a negative pole connected via a high voltage diode 9 to the emission net 2, and a generator 10 of high voltage impulses, with a positive pole connected to the anode 4 and with a negative pole connected to the emission net 2.
EFFECT: creation of a device for synthesis of both conductive and dielectric coatings on products from conductive and dielectric materials, which would ensure the reduction to zero of current of accelerated ions on the surface of the product and impulse-periodical bombing of a synthesised on it coating by molecules of gas with energy of tens of keV.
The invention relates to a vacuum-plasma technique, namely the sources of metal atoms, mainly for the synthesis of wear-resistant nanocomposite coating in a vacuum chamber, and to the sources of the fast gas molecules, mainly for cleaning and heating products before synthesis of coatings to improve their adhesion to the product, as well as for bombarding the surface of the coating in the process of synthesis of fast molecules in order to give coverage required properties and further improve the adhesion by increasing the width of the interface (transition layer between the coating and the product) to several micromeres.
Known planar magnetron, in which the flat target of the necessary sprayed metal ions from a plasma glow discharge in the arched magnetic field near the surface of the target, which is the cathode discharge (U.S. patent No. 3878085, 1975). At the bombardment of the target ions, it emits electrons that are accelerated in the layer of positive space charge between the plasma and the cathode to energy eUtowhere Uto- the potential drop between the plasma and the cathode. Every electron that flew into the plasma, moving it along the segment of a circle, the perpendicular magnetic field is returned to the layer and reflected it back into the plasma. As a result, he passes through a closed polyline of kivalina the second path near the surface of the target path, exceeding the size of the target in hundreds and thousands of times. This allows you to maintain the discharge at a gas pressure of 0.1-1 PA transport of sputtered atoms to products.
Properties of the coating synthesized using a planar magnetron, strongly depend on the density allocated to its surface energy and the method of its supply. If, for example, when using a mixture of argon with nitrogen on a conductive substrate that is installed near a titanium target, serves the pulse voltage up to 50 kV negative polarity with a duration of 20 μs, following each other with a frequency of 25 Hz, instead of the standard coating of titanium nitride with a hardness of 2500 HV synthesized more viscous nanocomposite coating thickness up to 50 microns with a microhardness 5000 HV and the width of the interface is greater than 5 microns (C. Ruset, E. Grigore The influence of ion implantation on the properties of titanium nitride layer deposited by magnetron sputtering // Surface and Coating Technology. 2002. V.156. P.159-161).
The main disadvantage of the planar magnetron is the low utilization of the target material, spray only in a small area of its surface in the area of the arched magnetic field. In addition, the degree of ionization of the sputtered metal atoms does not exceed 10%, and the concentration of the discharge plasma is reduced outside the arched magnetic field at the surface of the substrate by several orders of magnitude. When the distance IU the control target and the product of 0.2 m and above it is impossible to provide the necessary current density bombarding floor ions, accelerated from the plasma acts on the substrate to a negative voltage. Therefore, to make the coating of the required properties are sources of ions or fast atoms and molecules.
Known sources of broad beams of fast molecules, in which the emitter of ions is plasma, glow discharge at a gas pressure of about 0.1 PA with electrostatic confinement of electrons in the trap formed by a hollow cathode and a negative attitude emission mesh (U.S. patent No. 6285025, 2001). Ions are accelerated between the plasma emitter and a secondary plasma in the vacuum chamber, separated from each other emission grid source with an opacity of 80%. Mesh absorbs 20% of the accelerated ions, but the rest come through its hole in the camera and as a result of collisions with the gas molecules become fast molecules. The number of fast molecules bombarding the surface of the product that is installed at a distance of 0.2 m from the grid source, exceeds the number of accelerated ions.
The main disadvantages of these sources are limited energy of fast atoms and molecules and the inability to reduce to zero the contents of the beam of charged ions that charge the surface of the dielectric products, which leads to uneven current density distribution of ions on the surface of the product and reduction and the energy consequently, unevenness of the surface treatment.
The closest solution to the technical nature of the invention is a device for the synthesis of coatings containing the working vacuum chamber, the emission grid, hollow cathode covered by the emission grid, the anode inside the hollow cathode, the power source of the discharge, a positive pole connected to the anode and the negative pole - hollow cathode, a target mounted on the bottom of the hollow cathode opposite the emission grid, high voltage source, the positive pole is connected to the hollow cathode, and the negative pole with the target and the source of grid voltage, a positive pole connected to the anode and the negative pole - emission net (Grigoriev S., Miller Y.A., Blizzard A.S. Discharge source of metal vapor and fast gas atoms // Instruments and experimental techniques. 2013. Issue 3. S-135. Fig.16). The device generates a mixed flux of metal atoms and bombarding synthesized floor fast molecules of the gas generated in the working vacuum chamber in the charge-exchange ions accelerated by the voltage between the plasma emitter inside the hollow cathode source and the secondary plasma inside the vacuum chamber, which are separated from each other emission grid. The metal atoms are formed as a result is asplenia target by argon ions from the plasma emitter, accelerated voltage of up to several kilovolts between the anode gas discharge chamber and a target. These atoms pass through the plasma emitter, and then together with accelerated ions fly through the emission grid with an opacity of 80% at the camera. From metal atoms and added to the argon reactive gas on the surface installed in the camera dielectric or conductive products synthesized wear-resistant coating, and the resulting recharge fast ions molecules bombard the coating in the process of its synthesis. The device allows to synthesize as conductive and dielectric coatings.
The disadvantage of this device is the inability to increase the energy of the bombarding synthesized floor fast gas molecules to 0.5 Kev and above due to the fact that during the continuous bombardment by argon atoms with such energy, all deposited on the product atoms are sprayed, as well as to reduce to zero the content in the mixed flow of metal atoms and fast gas molecules, ions that charge the surface of the dielectric products, which leads to uneven current density distribution of ions on the surface of the product and reduce their energy, and hence the unevenness of the surface treatment.
The technical task proposed solution is the creation of devices is to synthesize as conductive, and dielectric coating of conductive and dielectric materials, which would provide a pulse-periodic bombardment synthesized on her coverage of gas molecules with energies of tens of Kev and the reduction to zero of the current of accelerated ions on the surface of the product.
The problem is solved in that the device for the synthesis of coatings containing the working vacuum chamber, the emission grid, hollow cathode covered by the emission grid, the anode inside the hollow cathode, the power source of the discharge, a positive pole connected to the anode and the negative pole - hollow cathode, a target mounted on the bottom of the hollow cathode opposite the emission grid, a source of high voltage, positive terminal connected to the hollow cathode, and the negative pole with the target and the source of grid voltage, a positive pole connected to the anode, characterized in that it further comprises a generator of high voltage pulses, positive pole connected to the anode and the negative pole with the emission grid, and a high voltage diode, the positive output of the diode is connected to the emission grid, the negative output of the diode is connected to the negative pole of the source of grid voltage and the anode of the device connected to the working vacuum chamber.
The invention explains what I'm drawing in figure 1, which shows the diagram of a device for the synthesis of coatings.
A device for the synthesis of coatings contains a working vacuum chamber 1, the emission grid 2 of the deposited metal, the hollow cathode 3, a limited emission grid 2, the anode 4 inside the hollow cathode 3, the power source 5 of the discharge, a positive pole connected to the anode 4, and a negative pole connected to the hollow cathode 3, target 6, installed on the bottom of the hollow cathode 3 opposite the emission grid 2, 7 high-voltage source, the positive pole is connected to the hollow cathode 3, and a negative pole connected to the target 6, the source 8 of the grid voltage, a positive pole connected to the anode 4 and a negative pole connected through a high voltage diode 9 with the emission grid 2, and the generator 10 pulses of high voltage, a positive pole connected to the anode 4 and the negative pole is connected with the emission grid 2.
A device for the synthesis of coatings is as follows.
The working vacuum chamber 1 with the processed dielectric product 11 inside her pumped up to a pressure of 1 MPa, and then served in the camera 1 working gas, for example a mixture of argon with nitrogen (15%), and increase the pressure in the chamber 1 to 0.5 PA. Switching on the power source 5 is applied between the anode 4 and the hollow cathode 3 voltage UK of about 300 C. switching on the power source 8 is relativit between the anode 4 and the emission grid 2 voltage U cseveral times the voltage Utothat is necessary to prevent leaving a hollow cathode 3 issued them fast electrons through the holes of the grid 2. Using a control device (not shown) to ignite the gas discharge between the anode 4 and the hollow cathode 3. In the hollow cathode 3 is filled with a homogeneous plasma emitter 12 is separated from the surface of the hollow cathode 3 with a layer of positive space charge 13, from target 6 - layer 14, and from grid 2 - layer 15.
When Uwithfor ≥1 kV and 50 a/m2current density of argon ions from the plasma emitter on the cathode 3, the target 6 and the grid 2, the width d of the layer 15 between the grid 2 and the plasma emitter 12 exceeds the radius of 2.3 mm hole grid 2, drilled at a distance of 5 mm between their centers, which eliminates the leakage of plasma 12 of the hollow cathode 3 in the chamber 1. At an energy of 1 Kev accelerated in the layer 15 of the ions and the density of molecules no=1020m-3(suitable at room temperature, the gas pressure of 0.4 PA) length of the charge exchange ions of argon λp=1/σpnowhere σp=2,7×10 m2- cross recharge argon ions with an energy of 1 Kev, equivalent to 37 mm, which is 16 times greater than the width d of the layer 13. Ions 16, accelerated in the layer 15 and passed through the holes of the grid 2, decelerated in the layer 17 between the grid 2 and the secondary plasma 18 in the chamber 1 and go back to CE is ke 2. The boundaries between the layers 15 and 17 when the voltage on the grid of 1 kV is shown in figure 1 by the dashed lines. Plasma 18 is formed by the low-voltage discharge between the grid 2, a cathode, and the camera 1, which is its anode. Therefore, the concentration of plasma 18 is significantly less than the plasma concentration is 12, its potential is almost equal to the potential of the grounded chamber 1, and the width of the layer 17 is several times greater than the width d of the layer 15. After a few oscillations through the grid 2 all ions fall on its surface, whereas the average it does not exceed 1 see This is substantially less than the length of the recharge λp=37 mm, which almost completely eliminates the formation of the layers 15 and 17 fast neutral atoms and molecules.
When applying to the target 6 voltage 2 kV from source 7 ions 19 are accelerated in the layer 14 and with energies > 2 Kev and bombard spray the target 6. Resulting from its sputtering atoms 20 metal through the holes of the emission grid 2 is flown into the chamber 1 and are deposited on the article 11.
When applying for grid 2 voltage pulse amplitude 40 kV width d of the layer 15 between the plasma emitter 12 and the grid 2 at the same current density of ions 50 a/m2increases to d=0,037 m At an energy of argon ions ε=40 Kev, the cross section of their recharge is reduced to λp=10 m, and the length of the recharge increases to λp=1/σpno=0,1 m Is greater than the width d=0,37 m the Loya 15, but less than the sum of the widths of the layers 15 and 17. Therefore, when the migration of ions between 16 shown in figure 1 by solid lines the boundaries of the plasma emitter 12 and the secondary plasma 18 almost all of them become as a result of collisions with the gas molecules in the fast atoms and molecules 21 bombarding synthesized on the product 11 floor. Only a small number of ions, which has landed to the border of the secondary plasma 18, is reflected from it and returns to the grid 2. Since the energy of fast atom or molecule corresponds to the potential difference between the emission grid point in the layer 15 or layer 17 where there was a recharge, this energy is distributed continuously from zero to 40 Kev, and at a length of recharge λpgreater than the width d of the layer 15 in a few times, the maximum of the distribution is shifted towards the maximum ion energy ε=40 Kev.
The use of the generator high-voltage pulses connected to the positive terminal to the anode and the negative - emissions grid, allows to increase the total width of the layers between the plasma emitter and emission grid, and between the emission grid and a secondary plasma in the chamber to a value greater than the length of the charge exchange ions, which enables the generation of a neutral gas molecules with energies of tens of Kev and pulse-periodic bombing them as the wire is common, and dielectric coating of conductive and dielectric materials.
The use of high-voltage diode, the positive terminal of which is connected to the emission grid and the negative output is connected to the negative pole of the source of grid voltage, protects the source of grid voltage from the negative effects of pulses with amplitude up to 40 kV, which ensures trouble-free operation.
The connection of the anode of the device with the working vacuum chamber ensures the equality of the potentials of the plasma emitter ions and secondary plasma in the working vacuum chamber and reflected by the boundary of the secondary plasma accelerated ions, not turned into a fast neutral atoms and molecules, back in the direction of emission of the grid, which reduces the current of accelerated ions on the surface of the product to zero.
Compared with the prototype of the proposed device for the synthesis of coatings allows to synthesize viscous nanocomposite coatings with increased microhardness and interface width of up to 5 microns, and more. It provides superior adhesion and wear resistance of the coatings.
Analysis of the claimed technical solution for compliance with the conditions of patentability showed that specified in the independent claim, the symptoms are significant and inter is vasani between the formation of stable aggregates, unknown at the date of priority from the prior art, the required characteristics, sufficient to obtain the desired synergistic (sverhsummarny) technical result.
Thus, the above data confirm that the implementation of the use of the claimed technical solution the following cumulative conditions:
object embodying the claimed technical solution, it is suitable for synthesis of both conductive and dielectric coating of conductive and dielectric materials;
for the declared object as it is described in the following formula, confirmed the possibility of its implementation using the above described in the application or known from the prior art on the priority date tools and methods;
object embodying the claimed technical solution, its implementation is able to achieve perceived by the applicant of the technical result.
Therefore, the claimed object meets the requirements of patentability "novelty", "inventive step" and "industrial applicability" under the current law.
A device for the synthesis of coatings containing the working vacuum chamber, the emission grid, hollow cathode covered by the emission grid, the anode inside the hollow Kato is a, the power source of the discharge, a positive pole connected to the anode and the negative pole - hollow cathode, a target mounted on the bottom of the hollow cathode opposite the emission grid, a source of high voltage, positive terminal connected to the hollow cathode, and the negative pole with the target and the source of grid voltage, a positive pole connected to the anode, characterized in that it further comprises a generator of high voltage pulses, a positive pole connected to the anode and the negative pole with the emission grid, high voltage diode, the positive output of the diode is connected to the emission grid, the negative output of the diode is connected to the negative pole of the source of grid voltage and the anode of the device connected to the working vacuum chamber.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method includes radiation of a light-emitting semiconductor heterostructure by a beam of electrons and excitation of cathode luminescence, besides, excitation of cathode luminescence is carried out by radiation in a pulse mode with pulse duration from 10 ns to 400 ns. Energy of electrons is provided preferably as 18 keV and higher.
EFFECT: reduced impact of heterogeneity of ionisation losses and elimination of deterioration of active layers of semiconductor light diode heterostructures during measurements.
SUBSTANCE: high-voltage pulse is transmitted from a pumping oscillator, said pulse having amplitude higher than breakdown voltage Ubr of the active gaseous medium and duration of not more than 100 ns with voltage rising edge of not more than 30 ns, an exciting inductor 6 with overall inductivity which satisfies the relationship 50 nH≤L/n≤500 nH, where L is inductance of one solenoid, n is the number of solenoids 5 connected in parallel and lying from each other at a distance h<H. The exciting inductor ensures efficient transmission of energy from the pumping oscillator to the gaseous medium in form of an alternating magnetic field. As a result of movement of changes, circular electric currents are induced, which form inductive vortex discharge in the gas within the width of the solenoids 5. In that case, the plasma of the inductive discharge takes the shape of a cylinder near the inner surface of the discharge tube, and then begins to interact with plasma of neighbouring solenoids, thereby increasing the total discharge length to n×H+(n-1)×h. If h>H, vortex discharge takes place only inside the solenoids of the exciting inductor and not in spaces between the solenoids.
EFFECT: high functional capabilities expressed in the increase in length and volume of exciting gaseous media with pulse transverse-longitudinal inductive discharge and improved operational characteristics of said radiation sources.
5 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: between electrodes at fixed distance between them there supplied is voltage; appearing current melts and evaporates thin wire which is arranged between electrodes; distance between electrodes is chosen so that discharge does not occur spontaneously without wire, and conditions for avalanche breakdown of discharge gap are created between electrodes. At that, electrodes are placed in chamber with holes for suction and passage of gas through discharge gap and serve as heat source at combustion of metal of electrodes in air.
EFFECT: development of self-sustained arc discharge.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of ball lightning, which can be used for creating extremely high pressure during cold fusion reactions, where there is transmutation of one chemical element into another and considerable amount of heat can be released. Ball lightning can also be used as an energy accumulator with extremely high specific capacitance. Two electrodes, between which electrical gas discharge takes place, are used to produce ball lightning. For ball lightning to form from this discharge, in which considerable amount of energy is stored, evaporant is fed into the discharge region. In one of the devices which use the proposed method, electrodes are made in form of rectangular plates, inner surfaces of which are coated with evaporant. In another device liquid evaporant is fed into the gas discharge region using a pipe.
EFFECT: improved method and device.
8 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. A nanostructured water-phosphorite suspension, which consists of nanoparticles with the size less than 100 nm and which is obtained from natural phosphorites as a phosphorus fertiliser for corn.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to create the phosphorus fertiliser for corn, based on natural phosphorites, with considerably smaller consumption per a unit of the sown area with the preservation of high yield of the said culture.
1 tbl, 16 ex
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions can be used in the production of catalysts, in particular, for the selective NOx reduction. A catalytic composition contains at least one oxide on a carrier, consisting of zirconium oxide, or titanium oxide, or mixed zirconium and titanium oxide, or of zirconium oxide and an oxide of at least one oxide of other element, selected from praseodymium, lanthanum, neodymium and yttrium, applied on a silicon oxide-based carrier. After burning at 900°C for 4 hours the oxide on the carrier has a shape of particles applied on the carrier. The size of the said particles constitutes not more than 5 nm, if the oxide on the carrier is obtained on the basis of zirconium oxide, not more than 10 nm, if the oxide on the carrier is obtained on the basis of titanium oxide, and not more than 8 nm, if the oxide on the carrier is obtained on the basis of mixed zirconium and titanium oxide. After burning at 1000°C for 4 hours the size of the particles constitutes not more than 7 nm, if the oxide on the carrier is obtained on the basis of zirconium oxide, not more than 19 nm, if the oxide on the carrier is obtained on the basis of titanium oxide, and not more than 10 nm, if the oxide on the carrier is obtained on the basis of mixed zirconium and titanium oxide.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to reduce the size of the particles in the catalytic composition, their aggregation and sintering at high temperature.
10 cl, 1 tbl, 9 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of plasmochemistry and can be applied for production of fullerenes and nanotubes. A carbon-containing raw material is decomposed in a gas discharge. For this purpose, first, inflamed is a volume glow discharge in a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons and inert gas under pressure of 20-80 Torr. Then, under visual observation burning of the glow discharge with a constricted cathode area and diffuse positive column is obtained. Products of decomposition are precipitated in the form of soot.
EFFECT: carrying out process in a strongly non-equilibrium electric discharge makes it possible to increase the speed of soot obtaining and 9,6 times increase the output of nanotubes and fullerenes per unit of put in energy.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in manufacturing polymer-based composites. Carbon nanotubes are functionalised by carboxyl and/or hydroxyl groups and processed by ultrasound in an organic solvent in the presence of products of reaction of tetrabutyltitanate with stearic or oleic acid at a temperature from 40oC to the temperature of the solvent boiling.
EFFECT: obtained dispersions of the carbon nanotubes are stable in non-polar organic solvents.
2 cl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in manufacturing composites, containing organic polymers. A dispersion of carbon nanotubes contains 1 wt.p. of oxidised carbon nanotubes and 0.25-10 wt.p. of a product of interaction of organic amine, which contains in a molecule at least one hydroxyl group and at least one amino group, with tetraalkyltitanate.
EFFECT: dispersion is stable with the high content of nanotubes and minimal content of ballast substances.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a fuel composition, which contains hydrocarbon fuel, components, which arise at a high-voltage electric discharge, additional carbon-containing additives and a disperse phase. As the carbon-containing additives the composition includes nanoparticles in the form of carbon nanotubes, obtained by catalytic pyrolysis of acetylene on nanoclusters of iron and cobalt in an aluminium oxide matrix and having a structure of twisted balls with a diameter over 2 mcm with an average external diameter ~20-30 nm, or nanoparticles in the form of graphene, which has a layered structure with the granule size ~ 400 nm and obtained by a chemical method, consisting in oxidation of graphite layers with the following reduction and obtaining nanometer layers of a carbon product. The quantitative ratio of components, included in the composition, constitutes: hydrocarbon fuel - 100 g; carbon nanotubes or graphene - 0.5 g, remaining part - disperse phase.
EFFECT: composition makes it possible to reduce the time of delay of fuel ignition and increase stability of the flame burning.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: part is rotated and its surface is processed by an ultrasonic finish processing device with a deforming element. The ultrasonic finish processing device with a deforming element is moved along the part, is imparted with ultrasonic vibrations and multiple shock treatment by the deforming element is carried out with the ultrasonic frequency of 20 kHz and amplitude of 5-40 mcm. Herewith the deforming element and the part are partially immersed in the bath with kerosene to cool the processed part surface thus providing for the creation of gradient submicro- and nanocrystalline structures on it.
EFFECT: high strength and hardness of the part surface.
4 cl, 6 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method includes forming a film with thickness of not more than 200 nm from semiconductor nanoparticles of SnO2 with size of not more than 50 nm. The film of SnO2 nanoparticles is then annealed at temperature of 330±20 K or 500±20 K for at least 15 min in an oxygen-containing atmosphere, followed by cooling to room temperature at a rate of at least 10 K/s.
EFFECT: broader functional capabilities of the material.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in making catalyst supports, sorbents, electrochemical catalysts and lithium-ion batteries. The method includes reacting, at 700-900°C, a calcium salt, e.g., calcium tartrate or calcium tartrate doped with a transition metal, which is a template precursor, and liquid or gaseous carbon-containing compounds or mixtures thereof as a carbon source. The obtained product is treated with hydrochloric acid. Concentration of the doped transition metal is not more than 1 at%.
EFFECT: obtaining a homogeneous mesoporous carbon material characterised by specific surface area of 850-930 m2/g, pore volume of 2,9-3,3 cm3/g and average pore diameter of 10-30 nm.
4 cl, 3 dwg, 9 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nanotechnology. The graphene structures in the form of flat carbon particles with the surface of up to 5 mm2 are obtained by burning in air atmosphere or inert gas of composite press material produced from micro- and nanodisperse powders of active metals such as aluminium, titanium, zirconium, nanodisperse powders of silicon or aluminium borides taken in an amount of 10-35 wt %, and fluoropolymers such as polytetrafluoroethylene or a copolymer of tetrafluoroethylene and vinylidene fluoride, taken in amount of 90-65 wt %.
EFFECT: increased yield of graphene.
3 tbl, 4 dwg, 5 ex
FIELD: carbon materials.
SUBSTANCE: weighed quantity of diamonds with average particle size 4 nm are placed into press mold and compacted into tablet. Tablet is then placed into vacuum chamber as target. The latter is evacuated and after introduction of cushion gas, target is cooled to -100оС and kept until its mass increases by a factor of 2-4. Direct voltage is then applied to electrodes of vacuum chamber and target is exposed to pulse laser emission with power providing heating of particles not higher than 900оС. Atomized target material form microfibers between electrodes. In order to reduce fragility of microfibers, vapors of nonionic-type polymer, e.g. polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinylbutyral or polyacrylamide, are added into chamber to pressure 10-2 to 10-4 gauge atm immediately after laser irradiation. Resulting microfibers have diamond structure and content of non-diamond phase therein does not exceed 6.22%.
EFFECT: increased proportion of diamond structure in product and increased its storage stability.
FIELD: production of new materials.
SUBSTANCE: proposed nanocomposite can be used as component contributing to charges of consumer properties of materials made on its base. Nanocomposite includes fibrils of filler-chitin individualized to nanosizes with distance between fibrils from 709 to 20-22 nm and water-soluble polymeric matrix in interfibril space. Degree of filling of nanocomposite is 0.05-0.25% mass. Fibrils are arranged in parallel and they have cross size of 4 nm. Method of production of nanocomposite comes to the following: free-radical polymerization in water medium of at least one monomer of row of acrylic acid, salt of acrylic acid, acrylamide is carried out in presence of filler. Initiator is chosen from the row of water-soluble peroxides, hydroperoxides or their salts, potassium persulfate. Individualization to nanosizes of fibrils is done simultaneously with process of polymerization and/or with combination of said process with mechanical disintegrating action by disintegrating or pressing, or pressing with abrasion shift. Nanocomposite is obtained in form of film, being pervaporation membrane.
EFFECT: enlarged range of filling, ease of production.
22 cl, 1 tbl, 9 ex, 2 dwg
FIELD: carbon materials.
SUBSTANCE: powderlike catalyst is continuously fed into tubular reactor and displaced along reactor axis. Following composition of catalyst can be used: 70-90% Ni and 10-30% MgO or 40-60% Co and 40-60% Al2O3, or Mo, Co, and Mg at molar ratio 1:5:94, respectively. Process is carried out continuously at countercurrent catalyst-hydrocarbon contact. In the first zone(s) catalyst is activated by gases leaving hydrocarbon pyrolysis at 450-600°C. Residence time of catalyst ranges from 5 to 180 min. Activated catalyst is passed into pyrolysis zone(s) at 550-1000°C. Into the same zone(s), hydrocarbons, e.g. methane, are countercurrently passed. Residence time of catalyst in pyrolysis zone(s) ranges from 0.5 to 180 min. Invention can be used in sorbent, catalyst, and composite manufacturing processes.
EFFECT: enabled continuous manufacture of layered nanotubes or bent hollows fibers, reduced number of stages and consumption of reagents.
4 cl, 2 dwg, 7 ex
FIELD: production of anti-bacterial and sterilizing substances, conducting adhesives and inks and protective screens of graphical displays.
SUBSTANCE: proposed colloidal solution is prepared through dissolving the metal salt and water-soluble polymer in water and/or nonaqueous solvent. Then, reaction reservoir with solution thus obtained is blown with gaseous nitrogen or argon and is subjected to radioactive radiation, after which solution is additionally diluted and treated with ultrasound. Used as metal salt is silver salt, for example nitrate, perchlorate, sulfate or acetate. Use may be also made of nickel, copper, palladium or platinum salt. Used as polymer is poly vinyl pyrrolidone, copolymer of 1-vinyl pyrrolidone with acryl or vinyl acetic acid, with styrene or vinyl alcohol. Used as nonaqueous solvent is methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol or ethylene glycol. In production of metal-polymer nano-composites, use may be made of polymer stabilizer, for example, polyethylene, polyacrylonitrile, polymethyl methocrylate, polyurethane, polyacrylamide or polyethylene glycol instead of water-soluble polymer. In this case, surfactant may be additionally introduced into reaction reservoir for obtaining the emulsion. Solution remains stable for 10 months at retained shape of particles and minor increase of their size. Freshly prepared colloidal solution contains nano-particles having size not exceeding 8 nm.
EFFECT: smooth distribution of nano-particles of metal in polymer.
24 cl, 13 dwg, 1 tbl, 7 ex