Nano-structured water-phosphorite suspension as phosphorus fertiliser for corn
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. A nanostructured water-phosphorite suspension, which consists of nanoparticles with the size less than 100 nm and which is obtained from natural phosphorites as a phosphorus fertiliser for corn.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to create the phosphorus fertiliser for corn, based on natural phosphorites, with considerably smaller consumption per a unit of the sown area with the preservation of high yield of the said culture.
1 tbl, 16 ex
The invention relates to the field of creation of inorganic fertilizers and biologically active substances and can be used in agriculture to increase yields of a number of forage crops, in particular corn.
As phosphate fertilizers for various crops, in particular maize, known phosphorite powder, which is introduced into the soil before sowing in combination with phosphogypsum and ammonia water . The disadvantage of this substance in the specified quality is relatively large flow rate per unit area of forage crops.
Also known phosphorite flour as phosphate fertilizers for various crops, in particular maize by entering it into the soil before sowing in the quantity necessary to obtain the programmed high productivity of this crop . The disadvantage of this substance, which in composition and achieved technical effect is the closest to the claimed our object and our chosen as a prototype, is also a relatively large flow rate per unit area of forage crops.
The purpose of the present invention is the creation of phosphorus fertilizer for corn-based natural phosphates significantly less (not less than three times) consumption per unit of sown area while maintaining privateframeworks high productivity of this crop.
The declared objective is achieved by using as phosphate fertilizers nanostructured water-phosphate suspension comprising the nanoparticles with sizes less than 100 nm, obtained from natural phosphate rock by grinding, mixing with water and subsequent ultrasonic dispersion. The use of such substances as phosphate fertilizers is a sharp (8-10 times) reduction of consumption of phosphate rock per unit of sown area compared with their consumption with the use of the substance of the prototype  while maintaining the same yield.
So far in the literature was not someone described nanostructured water-phosphate suspension comprising nanoparticles smaller than 100 nm, as phosphate fertilizers under any crops. This circumstance gives us grounds to assert that the claimed us the object corresponds to the first set of patent legislation of the Russian Federation criterial feature of the invention is a novelty. A map of known characteristics of the substance of the prototype  and the distinctive features that characterize declare our object (namely, suspending phosphate with water and crushing of particles to the nanoscale level by ultrasonic dispersion), do not allow to predict a priori p the phenomena he is new in comparison with the substance of the prototype properties namely, the above significant reduction in the consumption of phosphate while maintaining the same level of productivity it is corn. This fact allows us to conclude that we declare our object is not obvious from the well-known in the industry technology level and therefore corresponds to the second set by the legislation of the Russian Federation criterial feature of the invention is an inventive step. We offer phosphate fertilizer - nanostructured water-phosphate suspension is quite easy can be obtained as in small-and large scales; therefore, declare our object is inherent in the third set by the legislation of the Russian Federation criterion characteristic of the invention and industrial applicability.
Declare on the subject of the invention nanostructured water-phosphate suspension comprising nanoparticles smaller than 100 nm, as phosphate fertilizers can be illustrated by the following examples.
Example 1 (preparation of nanostructured water-phosphate suspension)
Phosphorite flour, obtained from natural phosphates Surdukowski deposits of the Republic of Tatarstan, mixed with distilled or deionized (demineralized) water at the rate of 20 g flour 100 ml water. This mixture is then treated with ultrasound in ultrasound is m disperser the TGS-0,25-80 watts at a frequency of 18.5 kHz with the amplitude of the ultrasonic waveguide 5 μm for (5-20) min at room temperature, resulting in a suspension with a particle size of phosphorite (5-95) nm. Thus obtained water-phosphate, the suspension is then used for a purpose as phosphate fertilizers for corn.
Prepare nanostructured water-phosphate suspension as described in example 1 technology at the time of water-phosphate mixture in an ultrasonic disperser for 5 minutes, then it evenly disperse throughout the area planted to maize (Zea mays L. the rate of 100 kg per 1 ha and plowed into the soil with the seeds of this crop with the help of cultivators. Cultivation of this crop (at the rate of 50,000 plants per 1 ha) are the traditional way before the formation of the green mass within 3 months after sowing, and then remove the crop and determine the yield of green mass of corn on the whole and parts of plants (cobs, stalks, leaves) in kg/ha yield Data for this case are shown in Table 1.
Carried out according to the General scheme of example 2, but the exposure time of the water-phosphate mixture in an ultrasonic disperser is set to 10 minutes yield Data for this case are presented in Table 1.
Carried out as described in example 2 technology, but the exposure time of the water-phosphate mixture in an ultrasonic var is gatore is set to 20 minutes Yield data for this case are shown in Table 1.
Example 5 (comparative)
Perform as example 2, but the exposure time of the water-phosphate mixture in an ultrasonic disperser set equal to 1 min. Data on the yield of green mass of corn for this case, see Table 1.
Example 6 (comparative)
Perform as example 2, but the exposure time of the water-phosphate mixture in an ultrasonic disperser is set to 30 minutes yields of green mass of corn for this case, see Table 1.
Perform as described in example 4 technology, but nanostructured water-phosphate suspension applied to the soil at the rate of 300 kg/ha yield Data for this case are shown in Table 1.
Perform as described in example 4 technology, but nanostructured water-phosphate suspension applied to the soil at the rate of 500 kg/ha yield Data for this case are shown in Table 1.
Perform as described in example 4 technology, but nanostructured water-phosphate suspension applied to the soil based 800 kg/ha yield Data for this case are shown in Table 1.
Perform as described in example 4 technology, but nanostructured water-phosphate suspension applied to the soil based 1000 kg/ha Data on the against for this case are presented in Table 1.
Example 11 (prototype )
Phosphorite flour, obtained from natural phosphates Surdukowski deposits of the Republic of Tatarstan, is mixed with urea and phosphogypsum at the rate of 75 g and 120 g, respectively, per 100 g of flour. Then this mixture in powdered state evenly disperse throughout the area planted to maize (Zea mays L. based 1000 kg of phosphate per 1 ha, and then plowed into the soil with the seeds of this crop with the help of cultivators. Cultivation of this culture are the traditional way before the formation of the green mass within 3 months after sowing, and then remove the crop and determine the yield of green mass as a whole and parts of plants (cobs, stalks, leaves) in kg/ha yield Data for this case are also presented in Table 1.
Example 12 (prototype )
Perform General technological scheme of example 11, but specified the mixture is injected into the soil in the amount of 100 kg of rock phosphate on 1 hectare yield Data for this case also, see Table 1.
Example 13 (comparative, the prototype )
Perform General technological scheme of example 11, but urea and phosphogypsum in the soil is not administered. Data on the yield of green mass of corn for this case are shown in Table 1.
Example 14 (comparative, the prototype )
Perform General technological scheme of example 11, but urea and phosphogypsum in the soil does not enter, and phosphorite flour is injected in the amount of 800 kg/ha yield Data for this case in Table 1.
Example 15 (comparative, the prototype )
Perform General technological scheme of example 11, but urea and phosphogypsum in the soil does not enter, and phosphorite flour enter in the quantity of 500 kg/ha yield Data for this case in Table 1.
Example 16 (comparative, the prototype )
Perform General technological scheme of example 11, but urea and phosphogypsum in the soil does not enter, and phosphorite flour is injected in the amount of 100 kg/ha Data on the yield of green mass of corn for this case also, see Table 1.
|# example||The number of soil||The yield of green mass of corn, kg/ha|
|phosphate fertilizers, kg/ha||ears||stems||sheets||only|
|13 (compare., the prototype)||1000||19.3||26.5||23.3||69.1|
|14 (compare., the prototype)||800||18.5||25.5||23.7||67.7|
|15 (compare., the prototype)||500||18.3||24.0||23.1||65.4|
|16 (compare., the prototype)||100||12.5||16.0||9.5||38.0|
As you can see from the data in Table 1, the claimed us as phosphate fertilizers nanostructured water-phosphate suspension achieves almost the same yield of green mass of corn, Zea mays L., in comparison to that for phosphate  while reducing the consumption of fertilizers per unit of sown area 10 times (see examples 2-4 and 11). Note in this regard that similar data were obtained by us and other maize varieties. That is very important, use declare our object has been significant improvement in working conditions since the introduction of water-phosphate suspension in the soil, in contrast to the introduction in it of phosphate, requires no special respiratory respiratory protection against fine solid particles of phosphorus.
1. RF patent №2.185.716 (2000).
2. RF patent №2.097.366 (1997)(prototype).
Nanostructured water-phosphate suspension comprising nanoparticles smaller than 100 nm and is produced from natural phosphate as phosphate fertilizers for corn.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing granular fertiliser containing potassium phosphate. The method of producing solid granular fertiliser based on potassium phosphate with formula K3H3(PO4)2 involves: i) providing agriculturally acceptable raw material essentially consisting of monopotassium phosphate denoted by KH2PO4 or MKP; ii) providing agriculturally acceptable raw material essentially consisting of potassium hydroxide KOH; iii) adding water to said MKP in amount of 20-100 wt % of dry mass of MKP; iv) adding said crude KOH to said MKP and water from step iii) in an amount from about 18 wt % to about 22 wt % of the dry mass of KOH and MKP; v) heating the mixture from step iv) while slowly stirring to temperature between about 90°C and 140°C in a vacuum to obtain a homogeneous material consisting of 0.2 wt % - 8 wt % water; and vi) cooling to ambient temperature, thereby obtaining potassium phosphate-based granular fertiliser which flows freely without a tendency to caking.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain granular, easy to handle, free-flowing solid fertiliser with the desired level of hygroscopicity and a low tendency to caking, which is an excellent source of potassium and phosphorus for plants.
15 cl, 2 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: strain Streptomyces cellulosae WH9, deposited in CGMCC under the number NO.2167 and used to produce a microbial fertiliser. The strain Aspergillus versicolor WH13, deposited in CGMCC under the number NO.2171 and used to produce a microbial fertiliser. The microbial phosphate fertiliser contains a product of fermentation of a microbial composition containing the following four microorganisms: a strain Bacillus subtilis WH2 (CGMCC NO.0395.2), a strain Bacillus licheniformis WH4 (CGMCC NO.0395.4), a strain Streptomyces cellulosae WH9 and a strain Aspergillus versicolor WH13. Also the method is provided to manufacture the specified microbial phosphate fertiliser, where production of the specified microbial phosphate fertiliser may include using the ground phosphate rock containing 8%-12% P2O5.
EFFECT: improved properties of the strain.
8 cl, 3 tbl, 8 ex
FIELD: farming; technology of production of complex fertilizers.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes mixing phosphate meal with waste sulfuric acid solution of ferrous metal pickling process at mass ratio of 1:2; then zeolite with grain fraction of 1.5-3.5 mm is added in the amount of 25-45% of mass of mixture, after which mixture is fed to screw drier where granules are formed and dried at temperature of 130-150°C. Fertilizer thus produced possesses ameliorating and insect fungicide properties.
EFFECT: low cost of process; possibility of utilization of picking solutions.
FIELD: agriculture, agricultural chemistry, fertilizers.
SUBSTANCE: invention elates to methods for producing biologically active phosphorus-zeolite fertilizers containing phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, silicon, trace elements and phosphate-mobilizing microorganisms. Method for producing biologically active phosphorus-zeolite fertilizer involves mixing phosphorites with mordenite-containing tuff using phosphate-mobilizing microorganisms adsorbed on tuff from suspension and phosphorites with fraction size below 0.5 mm are mixed with mordenite-containing tuff with fraction size below 2 mm saturated with phosphate-mobilizing microorganisms in the mass ratio = 1:(0.05-0.1). The prepared fertilizer shows the following composite, wt.-%: P2O5, 2.7-3.5; K2O, 3.5-4.6; sulfur (S), 0.07-0.1; CaO, 6.1-6.8; MgO, 0.2-0.5; SiO2, 60.0-65.0; manganese (Mn), 1.44-2.77; zinc (Zn), 0.017-0.020; copper (Cu), 0.016-0.018; cobalt (Co), 0.0009-0.0013; molybdenum (Mo), 0.002-0.005, and phosphate-mobilizing microorganisms, 107-8 cells/spores/ Using the biologically active phosphorus-zeolite fertilizer in the dose 5 t per hectare increases amount of phosphate-mobilizing microorganisms in chestnut soil by 6-23 times, phosphatase activity by 7-24 times and enhances the content of nitrate nitrogen, mobile phosphorus and exchangeable potassium also.
EFFECT: improved method for producing.
FIELD: production of a complex fertilizer.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertinent to production of a complex fertilizer and the method of production of the complex fertilizer provides, that the ground phosphate admix with a waste pickling solution in a mass ratio of 1:1, then they add perlite of the faction of 1.6-2 mm in amount of 5 % relative to the mass of the mix and the mix is fed into a screw-conveyor drier, where formation and drying of granules at the temperature of 150-180°C is exercised. The produced fertilizer has the insect-fungicidal and meliorating properties at simultaneous fertilizer cost reduction and utilization of the pickling solutions.
EFFECT: the invention ensures production of the fertilizer with insect-fungicidal and meliorating properties at simultaneous reduction fertilizer cost and utilization of the pickling solutions.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions can be used in the production of catalysts, in particular, for the selective NOx reduction. A catalytic composition contains at least one oxide on a carrier, consisting of zirconium oxide, or titanium oxide, or mixed zirconium and titanium oxide, or of zirconium oxide and an oxide of at least one oxide of other element, selected from praseodymium, lanthanum, neodymium and yttrium, applied on a silicon oxide-based carrier. After burning at 900°C for 4 hours the oxide on the carrier has a shape of particles applied on the carrier. The size of the said particles constitutes not more than 5 nm, if the oxide on the carrier is obtained on the basis of zirconium oxide, not more than 10 nm, if the oxide on the carrier is obtained on the basis of titanium oxide, and not more than 8 nm, if the oxide on the carrier is obtained on the basis of mixed zirconium and titanium oxide. After burning at 1000°C for 4 hours the size of the particles constitutes not more than 7 nm, if the oxide on the carrier is obtained on the basis of zirconium oxide, not more than 19 nm, if the oxide on the carrier is obtained on the basis of titanium oxide, and not more than 10 nm, if the oxide on the carrier is obtained on the basis of mixed zirconium and titanium oxide.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to reduce the size of the particles in the catalytic composition, their aggregation and sintering at high temperature.
10 cl, 1 tbl, 9 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of plasmochemistry and can be applied for production of fullerenes and nanotubes. A carbon-containing raw material is decomposed in a gas discharge. For this purpose, first, inflamed is a volume glow discharge in a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons and inert gas under pressure of 20-80 Torr. Then, under visual observation burning of the glow discharge with a constricted cathode area and diffuse positive column is obtained. Products of decomposition are precipitated in the form of soot.
EFFECT: carrying out process in a strongly non-equilibrium electric discharge makes it possible to increase the speed of soot obtaining and 9,6 times increase the output of nanotubes and fullerenes per unit of put in energy.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in manufacturing polymer-based composites. Carbon nanotubes are functionalised by carboxyl and/or hydroxyl groups and processed by ultrasound in an organic solvent in the presence of products of reaction of tetrabutyltitanate with stearic or oleic acid at a temperature from 40oC to the temperature of the solvent boiling.
EFFECT: obtained dispersions of the carbon nanotubes are stable in non-polar organic solvents.
2 cl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in manufacturing composites, containing organic polymers. A dispersion of carbon nanotubes contains 1 wt.p. of oxidised carbon nanotubes and 0.25-10 wt.p. of a product of interaction of organic amine, which contains in a molecule at least one hydroxyl group and at least one amino group, with tetraalkyltitanate.
EFFECT: dispersion is stable with the high content of nanotubes and minimal content of ballast substances.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a fuel composition, which contains hydrocarbon fuel, components, which arise at a high-voltage electric discharge, additional carbon-containing additives and a disperse phase. As the carbon-containing additives the composition includes nanoparticles in the form of carbon nanotubes, obtained by catalytic pyrolysis of acetylene on nanoclusters of iron and cobalt in an aluminium oxide matrix and having a structure of twisted balls with a diameter over 2 mcm with an average external diameter ~20-30 nm, or nanoparticles in the form of graphene, which has a layered structure with the granule size ~ 400 nm and obtained by a chemical method, consisting in oxidation of graphite layers with the following reduction and obtaining nanometer layers of a carbon product. The quantitative ratio of components, included in the composition, constitutes: hydrocarbon fuel - 100 g; carbon nanotubes or graphene - 0.5 g, remaining part - disperse phase.
EFFECT: composition makes it possible to reduce the time of delay of fuel ignition and increase stability of the flame burning.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: part is rotated and its surface is processed by an ultrasonic finish processing device with a deforming element. The ultrasonic finish processing device with a deforming element is moved along the part, is imparted with ultrasonic vibrations and multiple shock treatment by the deforming element is carried out with the ultrasonic frequency of 20 kHz and amplitude of 5-40 mcm. Herewith the deforming element and the part are partially immersed in the bath with kerosene to cool the processed part surface thus providing for the creation of gradient submicro- and nanocrystalline structures on it.
EFFECT: high strength and hardness of the part surface.
4 cl, 6 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method includes forming a film with thickness of not more than 200 nm from semiconductor nanoparticles of SnO2 with size of not more than 50 nm. The film of SnO2 nanoparticles is then annealed at temperature of 330±20 K or 500±20 K for at least 15 min in an oxygen-containing atmosphere, followed by cooling to room temperature at a rate of at least 10 K/s.
EFFECT: broader functional capabilities of the material.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in making catalyst supports, sorbents, electrochemical catalysts and lithium-ion batteries. The method includes reacting, at 700-900°C, a calcium salt, e.g., calcium tartrate or calcium tartrate doped with a transition metal, which is a template precursor, and liquid or gaseous carbon-containing compounds or mixtures thereof as a carbon source. The obtained product is treated with hydrochloric acid. Concentration of the doped transition metal is not more than 1 at%.
EFFECT: obtaining a homogeneous mesoporous carbon material characterised by specific surface area of 850-930 m2/g, pore volume of 2,9-3,3 cm3/g and average pore diameter of 10-30 nm.
4 cl, 3 dwg, 9 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nanotechnology. The graphene structures in the form of flat carbon particles with the surface of up to 5 mm2 are obtained by burning in air atmosphere or inert gas of composite press material produced from micro- and nanodisperse powders of active metals such as aluminium, titanium, zirconium, nanodisperse powders of silicon or aluminium borides taken in an amount of 10-35 wt %, and fluoropolymers such as polytetrafluoroethylene or a copolymer of tetrafluoroethylene and vinylidene fluoride, taken in amount of 90-65 wt %.
EFFECT: increased yield of graphene.
3 tbl, 4 dwg, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: method for synthesis of hollow nanoparticles of γ-Al2O3 is carried out in two steps, the first step including plasma-arc synthesis of an aluminium-carbon material, which includes evacuating a vacuum chamber, filling said chamber with an inert gas, igniting direct-current arc between a graphite electrode and a metal-carbon composite electrode and spraying the composite electrode, which is in the form of a graphite rod with a cavity in which aluminium wire is inserted with weight ratio C:Al of 15:1, and the second step including annealing the synthesized material in an oxygen-containing medium at atmospheric pressure and temperature of 400-950°C for one hour.
EFFECT: obtaining nanodispersed aluminium oxide power, the particles of which are hollow spheres with diameter of 6-14 nm, which is suitable for use in catalytic applications and material science.
2 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: carbon materials.
SUBSTANCE: weighed quantity of diamonds with average particle size 4 nm are placed into press mold and compacted into tablet. Tablet is then placed into vacuum chamber as target. The latter is evacuated and after introduction of cushion gas, target is cooled to -100оС and kept until its mass increases by a factor of 2-4. Direct voltage is then applied to electrodes of vacuum chamber and target is exposed to pulse laser emission with power providing heating of particles not higher than 900оС. Atomized target material form microfibers between electrodes. In order to reduce fragility of microfibers, vapors of nonionic-type polymer, e.g. polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinylbutyral or polyacrylamide, are added into chamber to pressure 10-2 to 10-4 gauge atm immediately after laser irradiation. Resulting microfibers have diamond structure and content of non-diamond phase therein does not exceed 6.22%.
EFFECT: increased proportion of diamond structure in product and increased its storage stability.