Nano-structured water-phosphorite suspension as phosphorus fertiliser for corn

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. A nanostructured water-phosphorite suspension, which consists of nanoparticles with the size less than 100 nm and which is obtained from natural phosphorites as a phosphorus fertiliser for corn.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to create the phosphorus fertiliser for corn, based on natural phosphorites, with considerably smaller consumption per a unit of the sown area with the preservation of high yield of the said culture.

1 tbl, 16 ex

 

The invention relates to the field of creation of inorganic fertilizers and biologically active substances and can be used in agriculture to increase yields of a number of forage crops, in particular corn.

As phosphate fertilizers for various crops, in particular maize, known phosphorite powder, which is introduced into the soil before sowing in combination with phosphogypsum and ammonia water [1]. The disadvantage of this substance in the specified quality is relatively large flow rate per unit area of forage crops.

Also known phosphorite flour as phosphate fertilizers for various crops, in particular maize by entering it into the soil before sowing in the quantity necessary to obtain the programmed high productivity of this crop [2]. The disadvantage of this substance, which in composition and achieved technical effect is the closest to the claimed our object and our chosen as a prototype, is also a relatively large flow rate per unit area of forage crops.

The purpose of the present invention is the creation of phosphorus fertilizer for corn-based natural phosphates significantly less (not less than three times) consumption per unit of sown area while maintaining privateframeworks high productivity of this crop.

The declared objective is achieved by using as phosphate fertilizers nanostructured water-phosphate suspension comprising the nanoparticles with sizes less than 100 nm, obtained from natural phosphate rock by grinding, mixing with water and subsequent ultrasonic dispersion. The use of such substances as phosphate fertilizers is a sharp (8-10 times) reduction of consumption of phosphate rock per unit of sown area compared with their consumption with the use of the substance of the prototype [2] while maintaining the same yield.

So far in the literature was not someone described nanostructured water-phosphate suspension comprising nanoparticles smaller than 100 nm, as phosphate fertilizers under any crops. This circumstance gives us grounds to assert that the claimed us the object corresponds to the first set of patent legislation of the Russian Federation criterial feature of the invention is a novelty. A map of known characteristics of the substance of the prototype [2] and the distinctive features that characterize declare our object (namely, suspending phosphate with water and crushing of particles to the nanoscale level by ultrasonic dispersion), do not allow to predict a priori p the phenomena he is new in comparison with the substance of the prototype properties namely, the above significant reduction in the consumption of phosphate while maintaining the same level of productivity it is corn. This fact allows us to conclude that we declare our object is not obvious from the well-known in the industry technology level and therefore corresponds to the second set by the legislation of the Russian Federation criterial feature of the invention is an inventive step. We offer phosphate fertilizer - nanostructured water-phosphate suspension is quite easy can be obtained as in small-and large scales; therefore, declare our object is inherent in the third set by the legislation of the Russian Federation criterion characteristic of the invention and industrial applicability.

Declare on the subject of the invention nanostructured water-phosphate suspension comprising nanoparticles smaller than 100 nm, as phosphate fertilizers can be illustrated by the following examples.

Example 1 (preparation of nanostructured water-phosphate suspension)

Phosphorite flour, obtained from natural phosphates Surdukowski deposits of the Republic of Tatarstan, mixed with distilled or deionized (demineralized) water at the rate of 20 g flour 100 ml water. This mixture is then treated with ultrasound in ultrasound is m disperser the TGS-0,25-80 watts at a frequency of 18.5 kHz with the amplitude of the ultrasonic waveguide 5 μm for (5-20) min at room temperature, resulting in a suspension with a particle size of phosphorite (5-95) nm. Thus obtained water-phosphate, the suspension is then used for a purpose as phosphate fertilizers for corn.

Example 2

Prepare nanostructured water-phosphate suspension as described in example 1 technology at the time of water-phosphate mixture in an ultrasonic disperser for 5 minutes, then it evenly disperse throughout the area planted to maize (Zea mays L. the rate of 100 kg per 1 ha and plowed into the soil with the seeds of this crop with the help of cultivators. Cultivation of this crop (at the rate of 50,000 plants per 1 ha) are the traditional way before the formation of the green mass within 3 months after sowing, and then remove the crop and determine the yield of green mass of corn on the whole and parts of plants (cobs, stalks, leaves) in kg/ha yield Data for this case are shown in Table 1.

Example 3

Carried out according to the General scheme of example 2, but the exposure time of the water-phosphate mixture in an ultrasonic disperser is set to 10 minutes yield Data for this case are presented in Table 1.

Example 4

Carried out as described in example 2 technology, but the exposure time of the water-phosphate mixture in an ultrasonic var is gatore is set to 20 minutes Yield data for this case are shown in Table 1.

Example 5 (comparative)

Perform as example 2, but the exposure time of the water-phosphate mixture in an ultrasonic disperser set equal to 1 min. Data on the yield of green mass of corn for this case, see Table 1.

Example 6 (comparative)

Perform as example 2, but the exposure time of the water-phosphate mixture in an ultrasonic disperser is set to 30 minutes yields of green mass of corn for this case, see Table 1.

Example 7

Perform as described in example 4 technology, but nanostructured water-phosphate suspension applied to the soil at the rate of 300 kg/ha yield Data for this case are shown in Table 1.

Example 8

Perform as described in example 4 technology, but nanostructured water-phosphate suspension applied to the soil at the rate of 500 kg/ha yield Data for this case are shown in Table 1.

Example 9

Perform as described in example 4 technology, but nanostructured water-phosphate suspension applied to the soil based 800 kg/ha yield Data for this case are shown in Table 1.

Example 10

Perform as described in example 4 technology, but nanostructured water-phosphate suspension applied to the soil based 1000 kg/ha Data on the against for this case are presented in Table 1.

Example 11 (prototype [2])

Phosphorite flour, obtained from natural phosphates Surdukowski deposits of the Republic of Tatarstan, is mixed with urea and phosphogypsum at the rate of 75 g and 120 g, respectively, per 100 g of flour. Then this mixture in powdered state evenly disperse throughout the area planted to maize (Zea mays L. based 1000 kg of phosphate per 1 ha, and then plowed into the soil with the seeds of this crop with the help of cultivators. Cultivation of this culture are the traditional way before the formation of the green mass within 3 months after sowing, and then remove the crop and determine the yield of green mass as a whole and parts of plants (cobs, stalks, leaves) in kg/ha yield Data for this case are also presented in Table 1.

Example 12 (prototype [2])

Perform General technological scheme of example 11, but specified the mixture is injected into the soil in the amount of 100 kg of rock phosphate on 1 hectare yield Data for this case also, see Table 1.

Example 13 (comparative, the prototype [2])

Perform General technological scheme of example 11, but urea and phosphogypsum in the soil is not administered. Data on the yield of green mass of corn for this case are shown in Table 1.

Example 14 (comparative, the prototype [2])

Perform General technological scheme of example 11, but urea and phosphogypsum in the soil does not enter, and phosphorite flour is injected in the amount of 800 kg/ha yield Data for this case in Table 1.

Example 15 (comparative, the prototype [2])

Perform General technological scheme of example 11, but urea and phosphogypsum in the soil does not enter, and phosphorite flour enter in the quantity of 500 kg/ha yield Data for this case in Table 1.

Example 16 (comparative, the prototype [2])

Perform General technological scheme of example 11, but urea and phosphogypsum in the soil does not enter, and phosphorite flour is injected in the amount of 100 kg/ha Data on the yield of green mass of corn for this case also, see Table 1.

Table 1
# exampleThe number of soilThe yield of green mass of corn, kg/ha
phosphate fertilizers, kg/haearsstemssheetsonly
210020.831.927.1 79.8
310020.732.027.480.1
410021.032.227.480.6
5 (compare.)10017.527.224.669.3
6 (compare.)10021.032.027.380.3
730022.732.230.585.4
850023.335.332.891.4
980024.837.437.199.3
10100026.237.836.6100.6
11 (prototype)100020.431.727.980.0
12 (prototype)10013.817.010.241.0
13 (compare., the prototype)100019.326.523.369.1
14 (compare., the prototype)80018.525.523.767.7
15 (compare., the prototype)50018.324.023.165.4
16 (compare., the prototype)10012.516.0 9.538.0

As you can see from the data in Table 1, the claimed us as phosphate fertilizers nanostructured water-phosphate suspension achieves almost the same yield of green mass of corn, Zea mays L., in comparison to that for phosphate [2] while reducing the consumption of fertilizers per unit of sown area 10 times (see examples 2-4 and 11). Note in this regard that similar data were obtained by us and other maize varieties. That is very important, use declare our object has been significant improvement in working conditions since the introduction of water-phosphate suspension in the soil, in contrast to the introduction in it of phosphate, requires no special respiratory respiratory protection against fine solid particles of phosphorus.

LITERATURE

1. RF patent №2.185.716 (2000).

2. RF patent №2.097.366 (1997)(prototype).

Nanostructured water-phosphate suspension comprising nanoparticles smaller than 100 nm and is produced from natural phosphate as phosphate fertilizers for corn.



 

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