Method of moisture reduction of corn grain when harvesting
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, namely to the technology of corn harvesting for grain. In the method of moisture reduction of corn grain when harvesting 8-10 days prior to panicle appearance the spraying of crops is provided with the mixture of Brexile-zinc and para-aminobenzoic acid in a ratio of 1:1, which is dissolved in water per hectare rate.
EFFECT: method enables to obtain grain with optimum moisture content when harvesting, reduction of the cost of agricultural receiving, final drying of grain, reduction of the growing season and saving the environment.
1 tbl, 1 ex
The invention relates to agriculture, namely the technology of harvesting corn.
There is a method in which to reduce the moisture grain corn dried on the vine by removing the upper part of the stem and flag leaf above the top of the cob during humidity 38-45%, and the lower parts of stalks with ears removed during the grain moisture content is not more than 16% (patent 2108023 from 10.04.1998, MRK A01D 91/04).
However, the known method is costly as it requires removal of the upper parts of plants, check the moisture content of the grain before making the cut, which reduces the efficiency of the method.
There is also known a method where used defoliants for drying harvested crops (A.S. 1561230, A01N 57/24, 1988).
High dose of defoliant contaminates the environment and increases the toxicity of Agroecosystems.
The closest technical solution is a technique in which the use para-aminobenzoic acid (PABK) and when ripe, 50-60% of a mixture of defoliants in half dose (patent No. 2267925 from 20.01.2006,).
The disadvantage of the prototype is that the defoliants are toxic to soil microflora. In addition, two-time processing of crops (when ripe 20-30% 50-60% of cases) increases the cost of implementation of the method.
The technical result is reduced costs and pollution of the physical environment.
The method of reducing the moisture content of corn at harvest, involving the spraying of corn crops in a phase of formation of generative organs for 8-10 days before panicle mixture Brexil-zinc and para-aminobenzoic acid in the ratio of 1:1, which is dissolved in water on a hectare norm.
The method is as follows.
Brexil-zinc (10%) contains 8% of microgranules, it is soluble in water pH (1% water solution) is 3.5. In this environment, PABK soluble. Both components are highly synergistic action.
From field crops is greatest demand for zinc is corn. Zinc affects the processes of fertilization of plants and development of the embryo, enhances cell division.
Zinc is part of carbonic anhydrase and carboxylase, involved in the process of plant respiration. He activates enolase, under the action of which leads to the formation of phosphate compounds. Zinc is part and activates oxaloacetic dehydrogenase responsible for the formation of pyruvic acid, which is essential for metabolism in the plant organism.
The synergy of 2 components: Brexil-Zn and PABK explained by the participation of zinc metabolism with the stimulator and activator of growth, which is PABK. Their joint action is determined eno is the principal content of auxin, the main growth driver.
Zinc is actively involved in the synthesis of chlorophyll. This is especially important in the formation of generative organs, when zinc affects the bond strength of chlorophyll with protein-lipid carrier. An important role zinc plays in the process of fertilization. The combined effect of zinc and PABK affects the flow and content of mineral nutrition and metabolism.
PABK - one of the leading factors in stress protection of plants and microorganisms in the corn. PABK - the precursor of folic acid, is involved in the synthesis of purines, which are part of nucleic acids.
Through this synergy of components fertilization and maturation of corn cobs is reduced for a few days, allowing harvesting to reduce the moisture content of the grain. However the quality is much higher than in the control (without fertilization).
Treatment of crops with a mixture PABK and Brexil-zinc provides an increase in the intensity of photosynthesis, has a positive effect on the overall metabolism of plants. Under the action of a mixture shorter vegetation period. By feeding PABK mixed with Brexil-zinc reduces the toxic load on the maize agro-ecosystem. The amplification process of photosynthesis and General metabolism contributes to a more intensive flow of water and thereby reduces humidity the ears.
The parameters of the method (8-10 days before panicle) is explained by the joint action of 2 components to the formation of the generative organs, as Brexil-zinc is not recommended for use on formed fruit formation.
On the corn double interstrain hybrid Krasnodar 385 MB for 8-10 days before panicle (on the basis of the drawing of the main shoot and the development 9-10 sheet, after 50-55 days after sowing) was sprayed crops with a mixture of Braxil-zinc and para-aminobenzoic acid in 150 g of each component. Pre para-aminobenzoic acid was dissolved in Braxil-zinc, since the latter acidic environment (pH of 3.5). Then the mixture of the two components were dissolved in water at the rate of 300 l/ha and sprayed crops cultivated crops.
The results of the experiments are summarized in table.
|Options experience||The number of days||The moisture content of the grain at harvest, (%)|
|from germination to emergence of panicles||from germination to flowering panicles||from flowering to ripening grain|
|Without spraying Brexil-zinc (control)||64-65||72-73||28||25|
|Spraying Brexil-zinc for 8-10 days before panicle||60-62||67-69||22||19|
|Spraying of crops PABK||58-60||70-72||26||22|
|The mixture Brexil-zinc + PABK (proposed)||50-55||60-64||19||16|
|Spraying a mixture of Braxil-zinc + PABK in the phase of emergence of panicles||56-58||70-72||25||20|
Therefore, the method allows to reduce the cost of reduced grain moisture at harvest, preserve the environment, without the use of chemicals, reduce the vegetation period.
The method of reducing the moisture content of corn at harvest, involving the spraying of corn crops in a phase of formation of generative organs for 8-10 days before panicle mixture Brexil-zinc and para-aminobenzoic acid in the ratio of 1:1, which is astonaut in the water on a hectare norm.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, plant growing, may be used in preparing of cotton for harvesting.
SUBSTANCE: method involves treating sown crops with mixture of chemical substances; harvesting raw cotton. Upon ripening of 20-30% of balls, crops are sprayed with para-aminobenzoic acid and 10-15 day later upon ripening of 50-60% of balls, crops are sprayed with bast defoliant mixture and reglon used in an amount of 1.5-2 kg/hectare of each of said components.
EFFECT: reduced toxicity of defoliants.
2 tbl, 2 ex
< / BR>The specified connection is a regulator of growth and development of plants and may find application in agriculture and horticulture
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of conserving water preparation of calcium compounds, which includes the following stages: (a) obtaining water preparation of at least one calcium compound; (b) addition to water preparation of stage a) of one or more sources of lithium ions in such quantity that the total quantity of lithium ions in water preparation constitutes from 750 to less than 3000 per mille , calculated relative to water in preparation; (c) addition to water preparation of stage a) of one or more sources of sodium ions and/or potassium ions in such quantity that the total quantity of sodium and/or potassium ions in water preparation constitutes from 3000 to less than 7500 per mille, calculated relative to water in preparation, where stages (b) and (c) can be performed simultaneously or separately in any order.
EFFECT: method improvement.
23 cl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. Copper (II) bis-malonediamide chloride of formula [CuCl2(C3H6N2O2)2] is used as a growth stimulant for grain crops.
EFFECT: invention increases germination power and germination capacity of seeds.
3 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. The interaction of copper chloride (II) and malonic acid diamide is carried out at molar ratio of 1:2 and the temperature of 18-22°C, followed by preparation of 0.001% aqueous solution of the resulting bismalondiamidchloride copper (II).
EFFECT: invention enables to increase germinating energy and seed germination, to speed up the ripening of grain crops.
3 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. The pre-sowing treatment of seeds is carried out with aqueous solution of copper bismalondiamidchloride (II) with a concentration of the active ingredient 0.001% at a dose of 1 liter per 1 kg of seeds. Table 3.
EFFECT: invention enables to increase viability and seed germination.
3 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture and is meant for increasing germination energy, germination capacity and yield of grain crops when using copper (II) bismalondiamiditrate of formula (I) Cu(NO3)2·2CH2(CONH2)2 as a growth stimulator for grain crops.
EFFECT: faster maturation of grain crops, increased yield, as well as wider range of agents for this purpose.
3 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: composition preventing plant diseases including components I and II as active ingredients is described. Component I is (RS)-N-[2-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)thiophene-3-yl]-1-methyl-3-trifluoromethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-carboxamides. Component II is selected from tetrakonazol, flutriafol, imibenkonazol, triadimefon, simekonazol, oxpokonazol fumarate, protiokonazol, bupirimate, spyroxamine, metiram, dodine, anilazine, chlozolinate, oxicarboxine, ethaboxam, iprovalikarb, pirazophos, phtorimide, diflumetorim, fenhexamide, famoxadone, fenamidone, ciazofamide, zoxamide, ciflufenamide, boskalid, isopropyl bentyavalikarb, pikoxistrobine, piraklostrobine, fluoxastrobine or dimoxistrobine. Also, the method preventing plant disease is described.
EFFECT: composition has synergistic effect which is not expected for each separate components, is able to significant increase of preventive effect against different phytopathogens with lower quantity of chemicals and do not invoke phytotoxic lesion.
2 cl, 9 tbl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to agriculture. The mowing and picking up of swath of grain crops, grain legumes, oil-bearing and forage crops is carried out in full ripeness, as well as threshing, separation the mass to the straw and the un-ventilated heap. Then the collection of the heap to the hopper is carried out, transportation, cleaning on the stationary unit and supplying the treatment products to storage areas. Simultaneously with the harvesting the straw is compressed, the soil is treated, and the seeds are sorted on the stationary unit. The multifunctional unit of harvesting agricultural crops comprises a power machine, a reaper with a screw and a roller, a threshing and separating device with a deck and a screw, an elevator of un-ventilated heap, a hopper, an unloading screw, a beater of straw ejection, a straw discharge unit. The unit is equipped with a straw baler, a hydraulic gear and kinematically connected to its frame through the bracket, leashes, rail and hydraulic cylinder with tillage sections of working elements.
EFFECT: reduction of crop losses, quality seed preparation and complex implementation of harvesting while simultaneous compressing the straw and soil treatment is provided.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: inventions relate to the field of agriculture and can be used for harvesting soyabeans. Mowing, threshing and separation of tailings to streams separate flows of straw and chaff is carried out. The chaff is collected in the harvest-stacker-chaff-collector of the harvester and discharged on the edge of the field or in designated areas. The chaff is separated into two flows with the trough-shaped screw with the right and left coiling of spiral turns, crushed and thrown with blades on the field on the right and left along the path of the combine. Crushing of the straw is carried out through the cutting and shearing knives located to the right and left of the screw. The crushed straw is embedded in the topsoil.
EFFECT: use of the group of inventions enables to improve harvesting of biological yield of soyabean and to improve the structure and fertility of the soil.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to agriculture and can be used for harvesting corn for silage. The harvesting method includes mowing with the mower of corn stalks in a phase of the grain milky-wax ripeness with laying of the stalks in a roll. The mower with a power unit moves at a speed of 12-15 km/h. Picking up of windrow is carried out by the pick-up, the stalks are fed for chopping to supply-chopping machine, and the crushed mass is sent to confusor of the silage duct and then to its own storage hopper or container of the vehicle. The mower comprises a beam 1, a hinge 3, a drive 4 and side walls 5 with outside dividers 6. The curved part of the divisors 6 is made along the Archimedes spiral. On the beam 1 a rotary cutting unit 2 is mounted, and the side walls 6 are tapered on the side opposite the direction of motion. Pick-up comprises a frame, a picking-up drum, a clamping device and a screw. The clamping device is made in the form of a comb roll, mounted on ends of supports at the entire width of the pick-up. The comb roll has a drive, and its degree of influence on the stalks of corn is regulated by hydraulic cylinders.
EFFECT: use of the group of inventions provides for maximum collection of biomass in the presence of small stones on the field.
3 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to agriculture. The method of harvesting soyabeans on the crests lies in cutting the stems of soyabean and their transportation to the thrashing machine of the combine for threshing, while at the same time the crests are destroyed, the crop residues are crushed and buried in the soil with lining the surface of the field. The combine for harvesting soyabeans on the crests comprises a header 7, a crop feed elevator 1, a cabin 3 with windshield 4, brackets 14, and a drive of working bodies. On the housing 8 of the header 7 a reel 10 is mounted, a screw 9 and a flexible cutterbar 11 based on the dished shoes 12. The brackets 14 with their one end are pivotally mounted on the housing 8 of the header 7. At the other end of the brackets 14 on the entire width of the header 7 a tillage cutter 15 is mounted. The brackets 14 are controlled by double-acting hydraulic cylinders 16.
EFFECT: use of the group of inventions provides improved performance and reduced losses during harvesting soyabeans.
5 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to agriculture. The method of harvesting mustard crops involves mowing around the perimetre of technological roads, along the irrigation channel and long side of a rice check. In the phase of milky-wax ripeness of mustard mowing is carried out with the width equal to width of the harvester header. Between these narrow swaths the wide unmown bands are left which are equal to the width of several multiples of the working width of the header. Simultaneously with the mowing of narrow swaths the mustard threshing is carried out for technical purposes. Upon reaching complete ripeness of mustard seeds in wide bands mowing and threshing of mustard seeds is carried out for seed-production purposes. The threshing device comprises a bar-slatted deck and a drum. The drum is made in the form of the drive shaft, wheels, the undervane elements and vanes made of elastic material. Each vane in the cross section has a shape of an equilateral trapezoid. The vane is mounted with its broad base in the transition element. The transition element is attached by fastening means to the wheels and has in the cross section the C-shaped form. The ends of the elastic vanes in transition elements are fixed with tightening devices. The middle parts of the vanes in the transition elements are fixed with retainers.
EFFECT: inventions provide obtaining of mustard seed material with high germination energy and without mechanical damage and microtraumas.
2 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a routing system for agricultural machines with account of variable external conditions. A certain working width is linked to an agricultural machine to generate routes within a territory. The agricultural machine comprises a storage device to receive picked mass, which may be reloaded onto a loading vehicle. The quantity of picked mass received by the storage device is summed up depending on at least one specific parameter. Summing up is dynamically adaptable to changes of at least one specific parameter. Quantities of picked mass in the storage device are detected by sensors. Signals of specific parameters of picked mass generated by these sensors are correlated in a processing unit with at least one specific parameter represented by a processing unit. The processing unit generates information that sumps up quantities of picked mass. Final information on quantity of picked mass includes a residual section of a route, on which the picked mass is transported from the device of picked mass storage.
EFFECT: routing system is flexible and may adapt to variable conditions.
18 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of invention relates to agriculture and may be used in harvesting. Method is carried out by means of plants harvesting with their combination into a single flow. The fixing device is used to fix the flow and transport it while changing orientation of plants in space into vertical or close plane with bottom arrangement of seed blossom clusters. Then plants are fed to threshing. Device comprises a frame with the following installed components - a plant separating device, an integrating conveyor, an inclined part and a threshing chamber with the fixing device. In the first version the fixing device comprises contacting upper and lower conveyors with horizontally installed input drums and output drums in vertical or close plane. In the second version the fixing device is arranged in the form of two pairs of pressing conveyors, from which the first pair is arranged horizontally, and the second pair - in vertical or close plane.
EFFECT: inventions provide for fixation and turn of vegetation mass, its feed with blossom clusters down into threshing zone, which reduces ingress of free grain to a flow of vegetation mass and its losses.
3 cl, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to agricultural machine building and may be used in grain crop harvesting equipment. Stripping cutter of combine harvester is used to separate grain and ears from stems. Produced heap is sent to combine thresher by inclined conveyor to release free grain from this heap upstream thresher. Free grain from heap is separated on grates of receiving beater, separating drum and intermediate beater, afterwards cleaned on an additional sieve provided in the middle part of transition grate. Remaining part of heap is threshed by threshing drum to separate grain on concave and grate of stripper beater. Grain is cleaned on upper and lower sieves. Cleaned grain is transported by grain elevator into hopper.
EFFECT: inventions make it possible to increase efficiency of harvesting combines through better release of free grain from heap prior to its threshing and improved quality of separate cleaning of free grain released from heap.
7 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: all non-winnowed cereal pile is collected and delivered to station, where it is separated into three components - grain, chaff and wastes with admixtures. Grain and separated chaff are separately ground into flour and sifted. Flour from chaff is added into cereal flour in the ratio of (0.12…0.18):1. Produced flour mixture is used to bake bakery goods with low content of grain and flour components.
EFFECT: method provides for increased yield of product mass of cereal crops by reduction of field losses of grain by collection of all non-winnowed cereal and chaff pile and using ground chaff as component of bakery goods.
1 dwg, 1 tbl