Fuel composition

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a fuel composition, which contains hydrocarbon fuel, components, which arise at a high-voltage electric discharge, additional carbon-containing additives and a disperse phase. As the carbon-containing additives the composition includes nanoparticles in the form of carbon nanotubes, obtained by catalytic pyrolysis of acetylene on nanoclusters of iron and cobalt in an aluminium oxide matrix and having a structure of twisted balls with a diameter over 2 mcm with an average external diameter ~20-30 nm, or nanoparticles in the form of graphene, which has a layered structure with the granule size ~ 400 nm and obtained by a chemical method, consisting in oxidation of graphite layers with the following reduction and obtaining nanometer layers of a carbon product. The quantitative ratio of components, included in the composition, constitutes: hydrocarbon fuel - 100 g; carbon nanotubes or graphene - 0.5 g, remaining part - disperse phase.

EFFECT: composition makes it possible to reduce the time of delay of fuel ignition and increase stability of the flame burning.

4 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to fuel compositions of hydrocarbon-based fuel that can be used Aviamotornaya and power when designing a wide-range air-breathing engines and compact sizes propulsion in aviation, transport, as well as in the development of power plants.

Known fuel composition on the basis of residual fuel oil by adding a hydrocarbon component, in which the composition contains the products of pyrolysis of hydrocarbons with a volumetric average boiling point 260-290°C, cocking behavior 8-12% in the following ratio of components, wt.%: the products of pyrolysis of hydrocarbons with a volumetric average boiling point 260-290°C, cocking behavior 8-12% - 5-60; fuel oil up to 100 [1].

This fuel composition is intended solely for use as a boiler fuel and it is not possible to use as fuel for jet engines and other power plants because of the large time (length) of the ignition delay and low stability of the combustion flame.

The closest technical solution with respect to the invention is a fuel composition comprising as the base hydrocarbon fuel components that occur when high-voltage e is actioncam discharge, additional carbon-containing additive and a disperse phase [2].

The disadvantage of this fuel composition is that, despite visibly ignition performed by the electrical discharge, time (length) of the ignition delay is large due to the lack of effect of "hot foci and volumetric ignition, contributing to a significant decrease of this characteristic fuel.

The applicant set itself the task of developing a fuel composition of hydrocarbon-based fuel such composition, which would dramatically reduce the time (length) ignition delay and to increase the stability of the combustion flame. This technical positive result was achieved due to a new essential features of the proposed fuel composition set forth in the following claims: "fuel composition containing as the basis of hydrocarbon fuel components that occur when high-voltage electric discharge, additional carbon-containing additive and a disperse phase, wherein the carbonaceous additive composition comprises nanoparticles in the form of carbon nanotubes obtained by the catalytic pyrolysis of acetylene on the nanoclusters of iron or cobalt in the matrix of aluminum oxide and having a twisted structure is popular prints of diameter greater than 2 microns with an average external diameter of ~20-30 nm, or nanoparticles in the form of graphene, which has a layered structure with grain size of ~400 nm and obtained by a chemical process, which consists in the oxidation of layers of graphite and subsequent recovery and obtaining nanometer layers of carbon product, and the dispersed phase consists of gas bubbles, in the following ratio of components contained in the fuel composition:

Hydrocarbon fuel100 g
Carbon nanotubes0.5 g
Graphene0.5 g
The dispersed phaseRest

as hydrocarbon fuels used jet fuel; as the dispersed phase used, air bubbles; the components of the composition that occur when high-voltage electric discharge are ions, or electrons, or radicals.

The inventive fuel composition contains as the basis of a hydrocarbon fuel, such as kerosene, additional carbon additives, components, resulting in high-voltage electric discharge, for example, ions, or electrons, or radicals, and a disperse phase in the form of gas bubbles, e.g. the air bubbles. The carbonaceous component in the composition of the added additives of carbon particles. These additives of carbon particles is presented in the form of carbon nanotubes obtained by the catalytic pyrolysis of acetylene on the nanoclusters of iron or cobalt in the matrix of aluminum oxide and having a structure twisted tangles of diameter greater than 2 microns with an average external diameter of ~20-30 nm. In addition, carbon nanoparticles was carried out in the form of graphene, which has a layered structure with grain size of ~400 nm and obtained by a chemical process, which consists in the oxidation of layers of graphite and subsequent recovery and obtaining nanometer layers of carbon product. In the proposed fuel composition was chosen following ratio of the components: aviation kerosene - 100 g; carbon nanotubes - 0.5 g; graphene - 0.5 g, and the rest dispersed phase in the form of air bubbles.

This fuel composition can significantly reduce the time (length) of the ignition delay of the fuel and to increase the stability of the combustion flame. The latter is due to the fact that visibly ignition of the fuel in this embodiment is an electric discharge of high voltage (amplitude 60 kV, a frequency of 400 Hz)at which the electrons (ions, radicals) are produced in large volume, and due to their intense is odvisnosti they are deposited on the nanoparticles. Due to the small size of nanoparticles causes local electric field of high intensity, lighted corona discharges around the nanoparticles and implemented numerous local breakdowns. All this leads to the fact that the ignition of the atomized fuel is produced in large volume, and this is according to the criterion of "Frank-Kamenetsky provides guaranteed ignition, fuel and flame stabilisation even at large, including supersonic, the velocity of the fuel-air mixture.

Ignition fuel composition (composite fuel) is a special device through a high voltage electric arc discharge, however, as fuel with nanoparticles cannot be stored for a long time, the mixing is supposed to be on Board the aircraft or directly in the energy device.

On the three following photos represent variants of the ignition fuel composition: photo No. 1 - fuel composition only on kerosine; photo No. 2 fuel composition kerosene plus additives in the form of carbon nanotubes; photo # 3 - fuel composition kerosene plus additives in the form of graphene.

In IPRIM RAS developed a method of making the claimed composition composite fuel, a device for burning, and successfully tested Ecaterina solutions and research processes of ignition and stabilization of combustion of different variants of composite fuels electric arc discharge.

Sources of information

1. Description of the invention to the patent of Russian Federation №2108369 "Fuel composition", C10L 1/04 declared 08.07.1996 published 10.04.1998.

2. "Experimental study of processes on the jig and stabilization of combustion of liquid hydrocarbon fuels electric arc discharge" // Applied physics 2011 //, No. 4, p.36-41.

3. Description of the invention to the patent of Russian Federation №2241024 Composition to produce a hydrocarbon fuel, C10L 1/32 declared 09.12.2002 published 27.11.2004.

4. Description of the invention to the patent of Russian Federation №2411287 "Fuel composition and method of reception (Two versions)", C10L 1/32 declared 05.02.2010, published on 10.02.2011.

5. Description of the invention to the patent of Russian Federation №2365618 "Water-fuel emulsion", C10L 1/32 declared 26.01.2007 published 27.08.2009.

6. Description of the invention to the patent of Russian Federation №2278892 "Composition of water-fuel emulsions", C10L 1/32 declared 19.04.2005 they inspected published 27.06.2006.

7. U.S. patent No. 5372613 Fuel compositions)), 44-301 (C10L 1/32), published 13.12.1994,

8. U.S. patent No. 4477258 "Diesel fuel compositions and process for their production)), C10L 1/32 published 16.10.1984,

9. Description of the invention to the patent of Russian Federation №2122567 "Fuel composition", C10L 1/04 declared 27.04.1995 published 27.11.1998.

1. Fuel composition containing as the basis of hydrocarbon fuel components that occur when high-voltage electric discharge, additional carbon-containing perches and and a disperse phase, characterized in that the carbonaceous additive composition comprises nanoparticles in the form of carbon nanotubes obtained by the catalytic pyrolysis of acetylene on the nanoclusters of iron or cobalt in the matrix of aluminum oxide and having a structure twisted tangles of diameter greater than 2 microns with an average external diameter of ~20-30 nm, or nanoparticles in the form of graphene, which has a layered structure with grain size of ~400 nm and obtained by a chemical process, which consists in the oxidation of layers of graphite and subsequent recovery and obtaining nanometer layers of carbon product, and the dispersed phase consists of gas bubbles, in the following ratio of components contained in the fuel composition:

Hydrocarbon fuel100 g
Carbon nanotubes or graphene0.5 g
The dispersed phaseRest

2. The composition according to claim 1, characterized in that the hydrocarbon fuels used jet fuel.

3. The composition according to claim 1, characterized in that the dispersed phase used the bubbles.

4. The composition according to claim 1, characterized in that the components of the composition, who is ikushima when high-voltage electric discharge, are ions, or electrons, or radicals.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes liquid fuel spraying, its delivery to boiler burner in ratio with respective air quantity and fuel burning. In process of boiler unit start-up liquid fuel with low viscosity is used for heating of furnace volume, at that in parallel with heating of furnace volume liquid fuel with high viscosity up to temperature of 80-100°C and after furnace volume heating when temperature of water reaches 50-60°C in boiler tubes; then supply of liquid fuel with low viscosity is reduced to zero with its simultaneous replacement by heated liquid fuel with high viscosity; further in normal operation mode liquid fuel with high viscosity is burnt in boiler unit, moreover in process of boiler unit shutdown supply of liquid fuel with high viscosity is reduced to zero with its simultaneous replacement by heated liquid fuel with low viscosity, and shutdown process should be completed only with combustion of liquid fuel with low viscosity. Moreover water-fuel emulsion (received by dispersion of oil-containing water and liquid fuel with high viscosity) is used in normal operation mode of boiler unit.

EFFECT: uninterrupted start-up of boiler unit notwithstanding ambient temperature and viscosity of heavy fuel.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: procedure for reserve and emergency fuel supply of gas boiler house consists in shutting off or reducing supply of gas to boiler. Liquid fuel is supplied to burners of the boiler. Also, liquid fuel is withdrawn from a mobile tank lorry connected to a suction fuel pipeline by means of a flexible hose. With a fuel pump fuel is supplied to a pressure pipeline connected to burners of the boiler. As liquid fuel there is used stove domestic or diesel fuel.

EFFECT: raised efficiency and ecological compatibility of operation of gas boiler houses due to reduced expenditures for heating-up and supply of liquid fuel and elimination of contaminated drains.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: system of standby and emergency fuel supply of gas boiler room, which is used at failure or reduction of supplied gas to boiler room and contains delivery fuel line connected to burners of the boiler, fuel pump with suction fuel line, service fuel tank which is connected to suction fuel line. Peculiar feature of proposed solution is that service fuel tank is made in the form of movable road tank connected by means of flexible hose to suction fuel line.

EFFECT: invention allows improving economic and ecological properties of operation of boiler rooms owing to reducing the costs for warming-up and supply of liquid fuel.

1 dwg

Fluid fuel burner // 2401398

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed burner comprises furnace, furnace door with opening for controlled ambient air intake and inspection hole, burner barrel half-filled with metal lumps and furnished with openings to feed air into fuel combustion zone and overflow tube communicated with drain tank, drip pan with valve, filter and fuel tank. Burner barrel has space formed by its housing and heat-isolated housing of the furnace to allow adjusted feed of heated air therein via burner barrel holes and into fuel combustion zone. Aforesaid drip pan represents a confuser with cover and diffuser to allow feeding fuel and water drops into confuser via tube with filters and valves from fuel and water tanks. Said drip pan is arranged on furnace door with diffuser inclined to burner barrel to feed, via diffuser, water and fuel drops into combustion zone, water and fuel drops being sprayed and fed at blasting rate.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of fluid fuel preparation and combustion.

1 dwg

Fuel supply system // 2317486

FIELD: systems for supplying liquid fuel.

SUBSTANCE: system intends to be sued in boilers, furnaces, internal combustion engines. Fuel supply system has fuel container, supply line communicated with draft-blast aid, sulfur-containing gases neutralizer, cooler and line for returning fuel to container. Container is equipped with gas duct, which has cooler and drop-catcher, connected through gas duct with draft-blast aid, and liquid pipeline provided with additional pump, additional heater, and additional cooler and additional drop-catcher. Liquid pipeline of gas duct is communicated with fuel container; gas duct is connected with draft-blast aid. Content of sulfur can be reduced when fuel is stored and consumed due to neutralization of hydrogen sulfide, emanating from fuel, by means of blasting water from steam boilers.

EFFECT: improved safety at storage.

1 dwg

Fuel supply system // 2298731

FIELD: combustion apparatus and combustion processes.

SUBSTANCE: fuel supply system comprises fuel pipeline that connects the receiving tank and storage tank provided with the line for fuel supply, gas discharging units of the transporting tanks and receiving tank, and gas duct connected with the source of alkaline. The fuel supply pipeline is connected with the line of fuel supply. The gas duct is connected with the gas discharging units of the receiving tank and transporting systems.

EFFECT: reduced sulfur concentration in fuel.

1 dwg

Fuel supply system // 2279607

FIELD: combustion.

SUBSTANCE: fuel supply system comprises fuel tank, supplying pipeline connected with the blowing member, neutralizer of sulfur-containing gases, cooler, and pipeline for returning the fuel to the tank. The returning pipeline is provided with the additional expander that has gas duct with the drop catcher. The cooler is mounted on the gas duct, the liquid pipeline of the drop catcher is in communication with the expander, and gas duct of the drop catcher is connected with the blowing member through the neutralizer.

EFFECT: reduced sulfur concentration.

1 dwg

The invention relates to energy and can be used in various devices for burning fuel

The invention relates to energy and allows to intensify the process of gasification of liquid fuel

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: the method of thermal processing of organic-containing raw materials comprises loading of raw materials and horizontal movement by the piston (2) along the length of the pipe through the chambers of convective drying (3), pyrolysis (4), condensation (5). The liquid fraction (18) and the non-condensed gases (17) obtained in the condensation chamber (5) are discharged, and the solid fraction (19) is cooled and unloaded in the discharge chamber (6). The raw material in the drying chamber (3) is dried convectively, and the ratio n of drying zone length ℓ to the pyrolysis zone length L is defined as n=0,01W(r+Δr)(10,01W)qnΔTnΔTck, where r is heat of moisture evaporation from the free surface, Δr is additional heat loss when drying, kJ/kg ev. moisture; W is moisture of raw material,%; qn is calorific capacity of dry raw material, kJ/kg; ΔTn, ΔTc is temperature difference in the pyrolysis and drying zones, °C; k is the ratio of the weight of solid phase to the weight of raw material. Consumption of worked out drying agent does not exceed the consumption of furnace gases. The device of thermal processing of organic-containing raw materials is provided with furnace gas collector (12) made in the form of an annular perforated part of the pyrolysis chamber with flow section, when fulfilment of condition ΔPc<ΔPp, where ΔPc is pressure loss in the casing with the fan; ΔPp is pressure loss in the material layer in the pyrolysis chamber (4), and a suction fan (13) with a valve (14) regulating the consumption of worked out drying agent.

EFFECT: invention enables to increase the intensity of the pyrolysis process and to improve the performance of the device.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: additive for low-sulphur diesel fuel based on carboxylic acids contains polyethylene polyamine, and the carboxylic acids used are commercial-grade alkyl(C16-C18)salicylic acids with weight ratio of polyethylene polyamine to commercial-grade alkyl(C16-C18)salicylic acids of 0.007-0.035:1.0.

EFFECT: improved lubrication properties of low-sulphur diesel fuel; the additive also meets emulsion property requirements, does not promote formation of a fuel-water emulsion and provides compatibility with cetan number enhancing additives.

9 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to application of reaction product (i), of compound, containing fragment -NR1R2, where R1 represents group, containing from 4 to 44 carbon atoms, and R2 represents hydrogen atom or group R1, and (ii) carboxylic acid, containing from 1 to 4 carboxylic groups, or said acid anhydride, or said acid chloride as additive for improvement of Bx fuel filterability at temperatures high than temperature of Bx fuel turbidity. Bx fuel includes fuel, obtained from sources, containing animal or vegetable oils, mixed with fuel, obtained from mineral or synthetic sources. Sulphur content in Bx fuel constitutes less than 200 ppm. Bx fuel contains at least 4 wt % of fuel, obtained from sources of animal or vegetable origin. Content of additive in Bx fuel (in form of active material) constitutes from 10 mg/kg to 200 mg/kg. Invention also relates to method of giving Bx fuel improved filterability at temperatures higher than temperature of its turbidity by inclusion into it of fuel additive, representing disclosed above product of reaction of (i) and (ii) compounds.

EFFECT: additives make it possible to eliminate problems in Bx fuels, caused by precipitation, taking place at temperatures higher than temperature of turbidity.

15 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a liquid fuel composition which includes liquid fuel and an additive in amount of 0.005-0.03 wt %, wherein the liquid fuel additive contains a metal salt of an organic acid with 15-18 carbon atoms in amount of 10-90 wt %, wherein the metal is located in the electrochemical activity series to the right of hydrogen, 1-5 wt % aromatic amine, 3-10 wt % succinimide polymer and 1-75 wt % glycerine.

EFFECT: improved antifriction, antiscoring, antioxidation and detergent properties of the fuel and protecting friction surfaces of components of the fuel equipment from wear.

8 cl, 2 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of removing sediments from Diesel engine, including burning in engine fuel composition, which contains additive for engine purification, representing quaternary ammonium salt, where additive for engine purification is product of Mannich reaction, which takes place between: (a) aldehyde; (b) ammonia, hydrazine or amine; and (c) phenol, which can be substituted; and average molecular weight of single or each substituent of phenol component (c) constitutes less than 400, and where additive, which represents quaternary ammonium salt is obtained in reaction of nitrogen-containing substance, which includes at least one tertiary aminogroup, and quatrerning agent. Invention also relates to fuel composition, which contains combination of additive for engine purification and additive, which represents quaternary ammonium salt. Described is application of combination of quaternary ammonium salt and additive for engine purification for removing sediments from Diesel engine.

EFFECT: in application of claimed fuel composition in Diesel engine removal of sediments, in particular from sprayers, occurs, which leads to increase of sprayer service term duration without repair or substitution.

16 cl, 10 dwg, 7 ex, 6 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a multifunctional hydrocarbon-containing fuel additive, which includes a mixture of one or more mixed ethers with one or more oxygenates, wherein the mixed ethers used are N-methyl-para-anisidine and/or N-methyl-para-phenetidine, the oxygenates used are dimethyl carbonate and/or diethyl carbonate, and/or methyl acetate, and/or ethyl acetate, and/or methylal. Disclosed additives enable maximum utilisation of substances contained therein, provide the required physical and chemical properties, the quality of additives themselves and fuel containing said additives. The invention also relates to a hydrocarbon-containing fuel composition which contains hydrocarbon fuel and said additive in amount of 0.01-30 wt % with respect to the weight of the fuel composition.

EFFECT: disclosed fuel composition has high antioxidation stability, improved environmental friendliness, antiknock rating, combustion efficiency, reduced soot formation and deposits on engine components.

4 cl, 1 tbl

Rocket fuel // 2523367

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to rocket fuels for liquid, hard fuel and hybrid rocket engines, as well as for extreme reciprocating and turboreactive engines. As an oxidant, fuel contains ammonium dinitramide, boron or beryllium nitrates, and nitrogen pentoxide. A peculiarity of the invention consists in application of high-energy reactions and a gas-containing oxidant. Oxidant gases serve only for formation of a reaction jet.

EFFECT: fuel is characterised by the fact that it contains only a metal (beryllium, lithium, aluminium) or boron as fuel.

9 cl, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of obtaining oxygenates which increase exploitation properties of fuels for internal combustion engines, in which the interaction of glycerol with acetone takes place on an acidic catalyst, with the process taking place on a heterogenic catalyst in one stage in the flow reactor with regulation of a reagent supply in a ratio glycerol:acetone (1):5-20) and support in the reactor of a temperature from 35°C to 55°C, volume rate 0.5-1.5 h-1 and atmospheric pressure, with obtaining solketal as the main product, and return of acetone that did not react into the reactor. Also described is a method of obtaining oxygenates which increase exploitation properties of fuels for the internal combustion engines, in which the interaction of glycerol with acetone takes place on an acidic catalyst, with additional application of tert-butanol in interaction of glycerol with acetone, and the process takes place on a heterogenic catalyst in one stage in the flow reactor with regulation of a reagent supply in a ratio glycerol:tert-butanol:acetone (1):(3-5):(5-20) and support in the reactor of a temperature from 35°C to 55°C, volume rate 0.5-1.5 h-1 and atmospheric pressure, with obtaining solketal and tert-butyl ether of solketal as the main products, and return of acetone and tert-butanol that did not react into the reactor.

EFFECT: creation of efficient methods of obtaining environmentally friendly highly active oxygenate additives to automobile and aviation fuels, high-cetane oxygenate additives to Diesel fuels, which do not contain glycerol, due to ensuring complete glycerol conversion in a one-stage process.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 4 tbl

FIELD: biotechnology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the complex bactericidal additive containing quaternary ammonium salts, polyhexamethylene guanidine and the solvent, at that as the solvent it comprises aqueous solution of ethyl alcohol and glycerol. Use of the complex bactericidal additive in small doses increases the efficiency of antibacterial treatment of aqueous solutions and surfaces in contact with oil products while production, storage and exploitation of petroleum products.

EFFECT: additive has low temperature of crystallisation, which enables to use it effectively in northern regions.

3 cl, 4 tbl

FIELD: energy industry.

SUBSTANCE: installation comprises the sources of oil product and water, steam generator, pumps, steam lines, pipelines, water and oil product heaters, rotary machine, holding tank, oil product processing circuits, the system of preparing the metered components, the system of steam distribution, the system of drainage steaming and cleaning the equipment. The first circuit of oil product processing comprises a starting pump which inlet is in communication with a source of oil product and the outlet - with the inlet of the unit of rough cleaning. The outlet of the unit of rough cleaning is in communication with the inlet of the first pre-heaters of the cascade of the pre-heaters of oil product. The outlet of the last pre-heater is in communication with the intermediate damping capacity. The second circuit of oil product processing comprises a finishing pump which inlet is in communication with the first outlet of the intermediate damping capacity, and the outlet is in communication with the inlet of the first unit of fine cleaning. The second circuit of oil product processing comprises a preliminary mixer which outlet through the second unit of fine cleaning is in communication with the inlet of the rotary device. The system of preparing the metered components comprises a unit of oil product metering which inlet is in communication with the outlet of the first unit of fine cleaning and is equipped with a water pre-heater which inlet through the shut-off valve is in communication with a source of water, and the outlet through the unit of water metering is in communication with the inlet of the water pump, which outlet is in communication with the inlet of the third unit of fine cleaning. The outlet of the third unit of fine cleaning and the outlet of the unit of oil product metering are in communication with the inlet of the preliminary mixer. The steam generator is in communication with the heat transfer elements of the filters of rough and fine cleaning, the pre-heater and the water pre-heater. The cavities of filters of units of rough cleaning and the first and second units of fine cleaning, the pre-heater, the water pre-heater and the rotary machine with the modulation of flow are in communication with the steam generator.

EFFECT: high performance.

15 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: part is rotated and its surface is processed by an ultrasonic finish processing device with a deforming element. The ultrasonic finish processing device with a deforming element is moved along the part, is imparted with ultrasonic vibrations and multiple shock treatment by the deforming element is carried out with the ultrasonic frequency of 20 kHz and amplitude of 5-40 mcm. Herewith the deforming element and the part are partially immersed in the bath with kerosene to cool the processed part surface thus providing for the creation of gradient submicro- and nanocrystalline structures on it.

EFFECT: high strength and hardness of the part surface.

4 cl, 6 dwg, 1 ex

Up!