Method to determine losses of water for filtration from channels with anti-filtration lining

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of hydraulic engineering, in particular, to methods for determination of water losses from irrigation ditches. The method consists in arrangement of an insulated compartment in a ditch, comprising two polymer water impermeable links, which for the time of determination of filtration losses are closed into slots on the bottom of the ditch at the distance of 30÷50 m, with subsequent hydraulic insulation of joint areas. Maintenance of polymer water impermeable links in the stable position is carried out with the help of a metal polymer rope pulled into open holes in the upper part of links and fixed to coastal anchors. To reduce impact in process of measurements of external factors, on top between water impermeable links there is a tent pulled from light impermeable polymer film. Measurement of water level in the compartment is carried out in special pockets fixed at the outer side to links and communicating with an insulated compartment with the help of three rows of holes in upper, middle and lower parts. For measurement of water level each pocket is equipped with a portable needle level metre (point-gauge) with a vernier scale division price of 0.1 mm, which is fixed on the metal stand, installed in the upper part of the slope above the measured water level.

EFFECT: increased accuracy of measurement of water losses for filtration from channels with anti-filtration lining.

4 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of hydraulic engineering, in particular, to methods for determining water loss from irrigation canals.

A known method for determining water loss with free filtering through the soil (RF Patent No. 2111310, C1 E02B 13/00, publ. 20.05.1998), which lies in the fact that carry out the driving of the excavation to the level of the bottom of the channel, fill it with water to a predetermined depth, maintaining a constant water level, measure layer depletion level, calculating a rate of drawdown level, fix the value of the steady-state speed of the drawdown level at different depth values in a given range of depth of fill excavation, establish the dependence of the depletion level and to determine the specific water loss with free filtering through the soil for different values of depth.

The main disadvantages of this method include the need to maintain a constant water level that is quite difficult to perform on a real object, and the low accuracy of measurements.

The known method of controlling the permeability of expansion joints of hydraulic structures (Patent RF №2329354 C1, E02B 3/16, publ. 20.07.2008)based on testing of prototypes seams of various sealing materials and joints of identical sealants in real structures ultrasonic cont is determined as being profiling.

The main disadvantages of this method include the fact that the permeability (filtration) is defined only in the joints (seams) impervious lining.

The closest technical solution is the method of determining seepage from channels (RF Patent No. 2312182 C1, EV 3/16, BI No. 34, dated 10.12.2007). To determine water losses due to filtering of the channel along the perimeter of the drained water from the canal at the site of the isolated compartment carry out the grooves on the entire thickness of the cladding freely without any tension is placed in the prepared grooves sheets of butyl rubber or rubberized nylon fabric to overlap the channel at the site of the isolated compartment and close up the grooves with cement mortar. Through the top of panels arranged in anchor-holes pass mounting cables, the tension between irrigation when water-filled channel create a soft waterproof walls. For fixation mounting cables in the tensioned position, use anchor installed on the berm of the canal. In an isolated compartment set gauge rods and device for metering water evaporation from the water surface of the channel, fill the water compartment and the long-term it wet.

The main disadvantages of this method include the lack of accurate measurement of water levels throughout the water rail with the potential for the second error ±5÷10% and evaporation of water on the device to account for evaporation with a probable error of ±10%. In addition, the measurement accuracy will be affected by the possibility of unrest in the isolated compartment under the action of wind and precipitation during the period of observations. Total the total error in the determination of seepage can be up to 15÷20%. Due to the large error of this method is not applicable in channels with impervious liners.

The invention consists in the development of high-precision method for determining water loss by infiltration from canals with impervious cladding, including screen from polymeric materials such as polyethylene geomembranes high or low pressure or waste.

The technical result of the invention is to improve the accuracy of measurement of water loss by infiltration from canals with impervious liners at the expense of increasing the measurement accuracy and exclude the effects of additional atmospheric agents (wind, precipitation and evaporation).

The technical result is achieved due to the application of the proposed method, which consists in the device channel isolated compartment with water, formed by two waterproof jumper between waterproof jumper stretched lightproof covering, the ingress into the compartment rainfall, wave action and sparties water surface. The loss of water on the filter is determined depending on the water level drops in the compartment.

The method for determining the water loss by infiltration from canals with impervious cladding is the device channel isolated compartment, consisting of two polymer waterproof jumper from seamless polymeric fabric "Unisol" (http://www.texclub.ru), made THE V.2.7.-21.1-34989706-001:2007 "cellulose fibrous Material "Unisol" ("Unisol"), the thickness of 0.41÷0,78 mm, which at the time of determination of the filtration losses are buried in the grooves, a width of 10 cm and a depth of 5 cm, arranged at the bottom of the channel with the distance L=30÷50 m Further produce waterproofing of joints construction silicone (for example, "Weicon Silicone" no DIN 50021/53167 "Corrodibility class"). Maintaining polymer waterproof jumper in a stable position using a metal wire (THE 1259-002-25435667-2005 "metal Cable. Technical conditions")which is inserted into the mounting holes in the upper part of the saddle and fastened to the shore anchors (for example, of steel grade STS according to GOST 24379.1-80 "Bolt Foundation. Anchor"). To minimize measurements, losses to evaporation, wind waves and receipts in an isolated compartment of precipitation, on top between a waterproof jumper stretched the tent of opaque floor is measured film (GOST 16337-77 "high-pressure Polyethylene low density"), in which pre-soldered transverse ropes, cables attached with hinges to coastal anchors. To improve the accuracy of measuring the water level in the isolated compartment are special pockets, arranged on the outer side of the compartment, communicating with an insulated compartment with three rows of holes in the top, middle and bottom of the jumper, with the cloth of the pocket in its upper part has a mounting loop, through which it is secured to the upper edge of the polymer waterproof jumper cable. For level measurement of water each pocket is equipped with a portable needle gauge (spitzenmuseum) with a scale interval of the Vernier 0.1 mm, which is fixed on the metal rack that is installed in the upper part of the slope above the measured water level.

When the seepage of water through the lining of the canal, the water level in the isolated compartment and respectively in the pockets on the outer side of the isolated compartment falls to the value of ∆ H for time t. To decline to determine the specific filtration flow rate and average permeability of the filter facing the formula

qF=QFL=αΔht(b+2with a p1+m2);

kaboutbl/=βΔhδaboutblt(hwith ap+δaboutbl)L'

where qFspecific filtration flow rate, l/(d·m);

QFtotal seepage flow from the isolated compartment length L, l/day;

L is the length of the isolated compartment, m;

α is the coefficient of conformity dimensions, α=8,64·104(l·C)/(d·mm·m2);

Δh is the decline in the pocket, mm;

t is the time during which there is a drop in water level by the amount Δh, C;

b - width of the channel along the bottom, m;

hcfthe average depth of the water in the insulated compartment, m hcf=(h1+h2)/2;

h1h2- initial and final water depth in the Bay during the observation period, t, m;

m - factor shallow slopes;

kaboutbl/- averaged coefficient of the filter membrane on which licowki, includes screen from polymeric materials, such as developed from polyethylene or waste, cm/s;

δregionthe thickness of the cladding, m;

β is the coefficient of conformity dimensions, α=8,64·10-5(cm·s·m)/(s·mm).

The mounting structure is made in the following sequence:

means for manually mechanization arrange the slots in the bottom and side slopes of the channel dams on the channel manually mount the anchor, make a bookmark of the two polymer waterproof jumper in the grooves with their subsequent waterproofing. Metal wire threaded through mounting holes and is fixed to the anchor piers vnatyazhku thus, two polymer waterproof jumpers are steady curvilinear position. Jumpers with a small width of the channel (7-10 meters) may be arranged by means of a manual winch (HR-1 or UTM-0,8), when the channel width of 10 meters installation are small bulldozer (EO-2621) or tractor low power (for example, HD-3510). Between the waterproof jumpers manually pull the awning of the opaque polymer film and is fixed to the anchor supports. Next, in the upper part of the slope are installing metal posts to which is fixed a needle gauges.

The invention is illustrated illustrated material.

Figure 1 - insulated compartment on what I determine seepage losses (plan); figure 2 is a longitudinal section of the cover along the line A-A; figure 3 is a Longitudinal section of the cover along the line B-B.

The method for determining the water loss by infiltration from canals with impervious cladding is in a stand-alone device compartment 1, consisting of two polymer waterproof jumper 2, mounted in the slots 3 of the cladding, including screen from polymeric materials 4, with subsequent waterproofing 5. Waterproof jumper fastened to anchor the supports 8 metal wire 7 through the holes 6. On top between a waterproof jumper 2 stretched tent 9 of opaque polymer film with ropes 10. On the outer side of each waterproof jumper 2 in the factory made the pockets 11 of the polymeric material, which are connected with the insulated compartment 1 by means of three rows of holes 12. The cloth of the pocket 11 in its upper part has mounting tabs 13, through which it is fixed with the jumper 2 wire 14 to the upper edge of the holes 6. For level measurement of water each pocket is equipped with a portable needle gauge (spitzenmuseum) 15 with a scale interval of the Vernier 0.1 mm, which is fixed on the metal rack 16 that is installed in the upper part of the slope above the measured water level.

The application of the proposed method definition the population of seepage from channels will improve the measurement accuracy by reducing measurement error of ±1÷3%. This significant increase in accuracy is ensured as a result of measuring water level using a needle gauge with the accuracy of the reading on the Vernier scale is 0.1, and by eliminating the influence of wave impacts, evaporation, and precipitation during the measurement.

1. The method for determining the water loss by infiltration from canals with impervious cladding, including the installation of two polymer waterproof jumper, which at the time of determination of the filtration losses are buried in the grooves on the bottom of the channel, with subsequent waterproofing of joints connected with shore anchors for stability, padding, cover with water and measuring the volume of water loss by filtration and calculation of filtration flow, characterized in that on top between the polymer waterproof jumper stretched the tent of opaque polymer film to exclude measurements of losses to evaporation and wind waves in the Bay and falling precipitation directly into the Bay, with observations the water level in the compartment is carried out in special pockets, attached from the outside to the jumpers and connected to the insulated compartment with three rows of holes in the upper, middle and lower parts, equipped with a portable needle gauge with t is the durability of the reading on the Vernier scale is 0.1 mm.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the awning of the opaque polymer film is supplied onto a cross with ropes.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the cloth of the pocket in its upper part has a mounting loop, through which it is secured to the upper edge of the polymer waterproof jumper cable.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the loss of water by filtration rely on specific filtration flow rate and the averaged coefficient of the filter membrane facing on the following dependency:
;
,
where qFspecific filtration flow rate, l/(d·m);
QFtotal seepage flow from the isolated compartment length L, l/day;
L is the length of the isolated compartment, m;
α is the coefficient of conformity dimensions, α=8,64·104(l·C)/(d·mm·m2);
Δh is the drop in water level in the compartment, mm;
t is the time during which there is a drop in water level by the amount Δh, s;
b - width of the channel along the bottom, m;
hcfthe average depth of the water in the insulated compartment, m hcf=(h1+h2)/2;
h1h2- initial and final water depth in the Bay during the observation period, t, m;
m - factor shallow slopes;
- averaged coefficient of the filter against the filter facing, includes screen from polymeric materials, such as developed from polyethylene or waste, cm/s;
δregionthe thickness of the cladding, m;
β is the coefficient of conformity dimensions, α=8,64·10-5(cm·s·m)/(s·mm).



 

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EFFECT: higher efficiency and reliability of operation under conditions of variable water level in a channel.

2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, desalinization of saline soil of agricultural lands.

SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting slits on plot to be desalinized; feeding rinse water onto strips between slits; removing salt from slit surfaces and spilling soil therein, with slits being cut to depth exceeding depth of season soil wetting with precipitation; providing cavities on strips between slits; closing cavities with shields of hydrophobic water-impermeable material, said shields being equipped with perforations extending along their central axes and float members; fastening shield edges in upper part of slits; providing soil desalinization facilitated by precipitation. Upon precipitation, rain water flows over walls of cavities to infiltrate through perforations and fill cavities bottom part, with the result that salt is washed into depth of soil to be desalinized. Moisture will be preferably moved by capillary force and due to evaporation of moisture from slit wall surfaces toward slit walls, accompanied by accumulation thereon of salts. Washing process may be accomplished during one or several seasons depending upon precipitation intensity and salt concentration. After completing of desalinization processes, shields are removed, salts are buried by spilling soil into slits, and soil on desalinized plot is mellowed to depth of season soil wetting. Burying of salts at the level below depth of season soil wetting and destruction of capillaries by deep mellowing of desalinized soil layer protect it from secondary salinization.

EFFECT: increased fertility of agricultural areas on unirrigated agricultural lands in the absence of potable water sources without the necessity of constructing expensive water feeding systems.

4 dwg

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