Method of improving quality of structural image of biological object in optical coherence tomography
SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a method of obtaining a structural image of a biological object in optical coherence tomography. The method includes breaking down a source colour vide frame into non-overlapping spatial blocks consisting of more than one pixel. A structural image is obtained via small-angle raster scanning in the arm of an optical coherence tomography sample. The obtained image with a size of Piskh bytes is broken down into non-overlapping spatial blocks only on columns; adjacent column blocks are averaged pixel by pixel to form a new image with a size of Pstl bytes; the new image is broken down into non-overlapping spatial blocks only on rows; adjacent row blocks are averaged pixel by pixel to form a resultant image with a size of Pres bytes, and the averaging process is controlled based on an exponential relationship Pstl from the number of averaging column blocks Ustl and Pres from the number of averaging row blocks - Ustr.
EFFECT: high quality of the structural image of a biological object in optical coherence tomography.
The invention relates to the field of image coding, in particular, can be used for the compressive encoding structural image of the biological object in optical coherence tomography by increasing its contrast and informative.
There is a method of compression and removal of image compression [see Patent No. 2461977 (RF), H04N 7/26 (2006.01), H04N 7/64 (2006.01), No. 2009127749/07/Zuo, F.; De V.; Bruls WHA; Hinnen CIG; Verberne M.J. - 2007]belonging to the Corporation "KONINKLIJKE PHILIPS ELECTRONICS N.V.", in which clusters of pixels are defined for use in compressing and removing the compression of the image, while the image information used to define clusters may include pixel values in a predetermined position relative to the pixel or the respective motion vectors, gradients, texture, etc. the Technical result is to provide attenuation of compression artifacts.
The disadvantages of this method are the partial loss of image quality and focus on lossless compression to the quality of already existing images.
For the prototype accepted method of compression of images and video sequences [see Patent No. 2420021 (RF), H04N 7/26 (2006.01), NM 7/34 (2006.01), H04N 11/04 (2006.01), No. 2009110512 / Mishurovskiy M.N.; Joan O.V.; Levers M.N.; Fishermen O.S; Lee S.-C. - 2009]owned by SAMSUNG ELEC THE RONIX Co., Ltd. (KR), where available, each color pixel to represent the three color components, each of which initially encode ten bits. The encoding is carried out by splitting the original color video frame into non-overlapping spatial blocks and the subsequent separation of the bit representation of each color component of a pixel on the older part, consisting of more than one bit older and younger part consisting of at least one least significant bit, then separate encoding the older and younger parts, and encoding the older part is carried out by applying more than one encoding method, each of which takes into account inter-pixel connection only within the processing spatial block, error estimation for encoding, select the encoding method that gives the smallest error sending data encoding method by passing prefix code, encoding the low part, which is carried out by averaging more than one value included in the younger part, and the sizes of areas averaging within the younger part depend on the selected coding method upper part, establish fixed in advance the number of bits required for a compact representation of the initial spatial color block. T is Henichesk the result is efficient compression of high-quality color image without noticeable visual artifacts.
The disadvantages of this method include partial loss of image quality and the fact that it is focused on compression with minimum quality loss video sequences and already existing images.
The technical objective of the method is to improve the quality of the structural image of the biological object in optical coherence tomography, namely the values of the signal-to-noise ratio due to the raster averages.
The goal of the project is achieved in that in the method of obtaining structural image of the biological object in optical coherence tomography carry out splitting the original color video frame into non-overlapping spatial blocks, consisting of more than one pixel, and unlike the prototype to improve the structural quality of the image, namely the values of the signal-to-noise ratio, to obtain a structural image using the method of small-angle raster scan in the shoulder of the sample optical coherence tomography, the resulting image size RRefbytes is divided into non-overlapping spatial blocks only for columns adjacent blocks-pixel columns are averaged, thus forming a new image, a new image is divided into non-overlapping spatial blocks only in rows adjacent blocks the line pixel are averaged, forming the resulting image Rrezbytes, and the averaging process is controlled by the exponential dependence of the size of the resulting image Rrezbytes the number of averaging neighboring non-overlapping spatial blocks-columns U:
where n and m are respectively the number of rows and columns in the image with the size of RRef;
To build a structural image of the biological object in optical coherence tomography there are different approaches, different features filtering of the signal in time and frequency domain, the types of window functions for the Fourier transform, features reading and splitting the signal, the order of operations and other such details are not relevant to the present invention. In this regard, consider the method based on a specific block diagram, shown in figure 1.
The units responsible for the control over the process of building a structural image of the biological object in the optical koger is nteu tomography, shown in red and marked with the symbol *.
In the "Input data" the user is able to choose the way of building the image:
1) with the specified index of compression relative to the uncompressed image
2) with the specified index averaging a relatively average image.
If you select the 1st path, the managing logical parameter F is set to 1, and if selected the 2nd path, it is assigned the value 0.
After the end loop segments of data checks the value of the parameter F.
If the condition F>0 fails, in block "Calculation of averaging", based on a user-specified index compression, calculating a value averaging, then in block Bitmap averaging using averages are compressed.
If the condition F>0 is satised, then in the block "Calculation of compression, based on a user-specified rate averaging calculates the index of compression, then in block Bitmap averaging using averages are compressed.
Obviously, elementwise averaging the pixels of the image, in this case, the correct data matrix, spectrogram, as in rows and columns, dividing the image into non-overlapping spatial blocks-rows and block-columns, respectively. In both cases, the size of p is localdevice after averaging structural image with the growing number of averages will decrease almost exponentially (the exact pattern depends on the selected image format and the image).
The exponential dependence is explained by the fact that while maintaining structural imaging with optical coherence tomography in non-vector graphics formats, each pixel of the image will correspond to the cell matrix, spectrogram, i.e. the dimension of the image will coincide with the dimension of the matrix. When averaging this dimension is inversely proportional to the averaging, but with rounding down. Figure 2 shows the dependence of the number of pixels in the image by averaging, for the image of 500 rows and 180 columns. If the number of pixels in the image decreases almost exponentially, and its size will vary approximately as well adjusted only on the color coding.
The existence of clear patterns between elementwise averaging non-overlapping spatial blocks of data and image compression is most pronounced at small-angle remote raster scanning method in the shoulder of the sample optical coherence tomography (using galvano-scanner) and has great practical significance, because it allows to improve image quality while reducing the file size.
Consider this pattern in detail for averaging U-adjacent non-overlapping spatial blocks-column matrix with the ectogram size n·m, then save the data received image in the format of t×t.
We will adopt the following conventions:
indicator data compression - S;
size (bytes) original image, i.e. the image before averaging - RRef;
size (bytes) of the image, i.e. the image after averaging - Rrez;
size (bytes) of a single pixel to averaging - Pi,j.
size (bytes) of one pixel after averaging -
It is obvious that the rate of data compression will be equal to the ratio of image size to averaging to the size of the image after averaging:
For the format of the t×t file size before and after averaging to calculate quite easily. This is because when you write all the characters (including delimiter), which we will use in this format is 1 byte. In the structure file no columns, the record goes line by line, each line is separated from the previous by a space. From the above it follows that the file size of the original image will be equal to:
The size of the image after averaging is calculated by a similar formula, with the only difference that the dimension of the image will be less because the us is adnene and we will focus on completely different values for the pixels.
The new values of the intensities arise in the process of cyclic averaging (average arithmetic) every U-adjacent non-overlapping spatial blocks-columns into one column. Conventionally, this process can be expressed by the following formula:
We should not forget that the averaging of neighboring blocks of columns are cyclically, with a shift in U, and the calculation of the image file sizes before and after smoothing are carried out once, so these formulas cannot be combined. Formula (4) only demonstrates averaging on the example of the first U-columns and fair only when m=U.
Thus, combining formulas (1)to(3), we obtain the final formula for the dependence of the compression of the file from the index averaging for the case in question:
Output similar to the formula for averaging over adjacent non-overlapping spatial blocks-lines makes no sense, because it is much easier to transpose a matrix, spectrogram, producing and averaging calculations on these formulas (given the fact that the rows in the spectrogram was not n, and U times less), and then again to transpose to the usual type of image.
In the case of averaging the image and non-overlapping spatial blocks-lines and what about the non-overlapping spatial blocks-columns - averaging produces sequentially: first average by block-columns, then transpondeur result, again average (already by block-row), re transpondeur and finally output the result.
As an example, clearly illustrating the above, figure 3 shows the dependence of the size of the image file from the metric values averaging over non-overlapping spatial blocks-columns. Characteristics of structural imaging with optical coherence tomography: the nail and the nail bed of the thumb of the hand of man in vivo, 180 a-scans (vertical lines), 35000 points in the a-scan display. This dependence is obtained and experimentally, and the above formula for t×t received almost one hundred percent match, and that is absolute, and relative error is practically zero.
The number of averaging in one block-column is determined depending on the number of a-scans, and, for example, 900 a-scans is 3-10. The number of averaged one block row is determined depending on the depth of the coherent sounding and most often is 2-3. As a result of this processing of averaging over two coordinates, increases image contrast and reduces speckle noise.
The advantages of the proposed method is that when you selected the national compression quality structural image is not lost, and even increases. This is primarily due to the fact that raster averaging significantly (10-20 dB lower phase noise low-coherence source of infrared radiation optical coherence tomography and greatly reduce the speckle noise. This effect is partly due to the fact that compression is part of the process of building an image and therefore operations are performed on values of the intensities for each source data point structural imaging with optical coherence tomography, and not with the codes of the colors of pixels and partially connected with the peculiarities of the process of small-angle raster scanning and averaging. As an example, clearly illustrating the above, figure 4 and figure 5 show the structural image of the nail and nail bed human in vivo with different values of the averaging block-rows and block-columns: (a) image constructed without averages - 500×900 pixels; (b), (C) and (d) with averages of 2, 3, 4 adjacent non-overlapping spatial blocks of columns, respectively, (e) and (f) with averages of 2 and 4 adjacent non-overlapping spatial blocks-lines, respectively; - best picture (smoothing parameter by block-rows equal 4 and blocks columns equal to 2); (C) is excessively averaged image (smoothing parameter and block the-rows and block-columns equal to 4) - as a result, some lost quality. The image size is 2×2 mm2. The blue circle marks the capillaries of the nail bed, becoming visible as a result of application of the averaging methods.
To confirm such a high efficiency averages at small angle raster scan will analyze how the value of the ratio signal/noise on the example of several structural imaging with optical coherence tomography. In Fig.6 and Fig.7 shows the graphs of dependence of the ratio signal/noise by averaging over blocks-columns for the first and last 5000 points taken from 180 a-scans two identical scans of two different biological objects in vivo: the human nail and of a blood vessel in a person's palm, respectively. In each of the a-scans only 35,000 points on the first and last 5,000 points have a maximum noise. On the charts you will notice a sharp increase in the ratio of signal to noise at small values of the averaging (up to 30) and a smooth increase further up to the averaging of all vertical lines into one. Also, according to these graphs, there are not strong saturation ratio signal/noise. Moreover, with the increasing number of a-scans this trend continues.
The present invention can be used in optical coherence tomography, ultrasonic scanners for ISS is adavani and other similar devices for efficient visualization of the internal structure of the bio-object.
Thus, the use of the method malouglovogo raster scan in the shoulder of the sample optical coherence tomography to obtain structural images of size RRefbytes, elementwise averaging non-overlapping spatial blocks and column blocks-lines and the control over this process, based on an exponential dependence of the size of the resulting image Rrez(bytes) the number of averaging neighboring non-overlapping spatial blocks of columns U, increase the value of the signal-to-noise ratio and, consequently, improve the quality of the structural image of the biological object in optical coherence tomography.
The way to obtain structural images of the bio-object in optical coherence tomography, namely, that carry out the splitting of the original color video frame into non-overlapping spatial blocks, consisting of more than one pixel, characterized in that to obtain a structural image using the method of small-angle raster scan in the shoulder of the sample optical coherence tomography, the resulting image size RRefbytes is divided into non-overlapping spatial blocks only for columns adjacent blocks-pixel columns are averaged, thus forming the new image, the TV image is divided into non-overlapping spatial blocks only on rows,
neighboring blocks row-pixel are averaged, forming the resulting image Rrezbytes, and the averaging process is controlled by the exponential dependence of the size of the resulting image Rrezbytes the number of averaging neighboring non-overlapping spatial blocks column U:
where n and m are respectively the number of rows and columns in the image with the size of RRef;
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medical equipment, namely to X-ray image forming systems. An image forming apparatus comprises a detector, a memory unit for storing a dark current characteristic of the detector, a first time sensor for measuring the first period from applying a shift voltage to a converter element to the beginning of converter element accumulation for image acquisition, a second time sensor for measuring the second period from the beginning of accumulation before termination thereof, an arithmetic element for accumulation quantity and an image processing unit for equilibrium correction of the image acquired from the accumulation quantity of dark current. The image forming system contains the image forming device and a radiation generator for generation of the radiation. The method of controlling the image forming device consists in measuring the first period applying a shift voltage to the converter element to the beginning of the converter element accumulation for image acquisition, measuring the second period from the beginning of accumulation to termination thereof, calculating accumulation quantity of dark current included in accumulation. The dark current characteristic and the first and second periods are used to carry out equilibrium correction of the image acquired by the calculated accumulation quantity of dark current. The invention also refers to a data carrier that stores the program for controlling the image forming device.
EFFECT: application of the invention allows for high-quality X-ray image without increase in cost and dimensions of the device.
9 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: physics, images processing.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to device for images generation by method of radiation. Specified result is achieved by the fact that memory (105) stores the first data of image for correction of shift that are generated by means of interlaced scanning performance in excitation buses, only for odd lines in excitation unit (103). Memory (106) stores the second data of image for correction of shift from the second group of image elements, which are generated by means of performance of interlaced scanning of excitation buses, only for even lines in excitation unit (103). Processing unit (108) synthesises the first data of image for correction of shift and the second image data for correction of shift, thus generating image data for correction of shift for one part of frame, and unit (109) of arithmetical operations processes data of image produced by radiation, which are stored in memory (107), by use of synthesised and generated data of image for correction of shift for one part of frame, which makes it possible to correct shift of data of image produced by radiation.
EFFECT: provision of fast radiography without reduction in quality of image data image produced by radiation, during correction of shift.
13 cl, 14 dwg
FIELD: image recording.
SUBSTANCE: device contains inlet window joining the input ends of optical fibres, pulse photoreceiver unit, and electronic recorder unit. In front of the inlet window, input unit is located, containing at least one diaphragm and providing for the installation, depending on the radiation type, of at least one photo lens between the diaphragm and the inlet window, or scintillators at the inlet window surface. The optic fibre ends in the inlet window are located in the form of a periodic, self-ordering, hexagonal honeycomb structure in a hexagonal frame. The pulse photoreceiver unit is based on superfast photodiodes. Each photodiode sensor area is selected equal to the area of each optic fibre core. Optic fibres with a step index of refraction profile are joined into a multicore fibre-optic cable.
EFFECT: expansion of functionality, enhancement of image quality, and provision of convenience during operation.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: x-ray engineering, possible use for estimating quality of informative capacity of x-ray shadowgraphs, produced, for example, in medical diagnostics.
SUBSTANCE: method is based on determining an information index for the shadowgraph being examined, which index indicates amount of information contained therein, while x-ray shadowgraph is digitized by division onto elementary sections - pixels, and for each pixel a value is determined, corresponding to its blackening density, and the information index characterizing the x-ray image is determined from formula: where xmax and ymax - number of pixels in rows and columns, respectively, Ix,y - pixel blackening density coefficient with x and y coordinates, and Cmin - threshold value of contrast, and in case when inequality condition is satisfied for two adjacent pixels for a value, exceeding Cmin, a unit is added to information index Q, in opposite case - a zero is added.
EFFECT: increased information capacity estimate of x-ray shadowgraph.
FIELD: physics, video.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to video encoding and decoding, which provides conversion between a spatial region and a conversion region. The method of encoding video includes breaking down a video image into encoding units having a maximum size. The images are encoded based encoding units according to depths obtained by hierarchically breaking down each maximum depth encoding unit, and based on the type of partition defined according to depths of the depth encoding units. The type of partition includes a data unit having the same size as the current encoding unit, and a partial data unit obtained by breaking down the height or width of the current encoding unit. Encoding units are determined according to encoding depths relative to each of the depth encoding units, and encoding units having a tree structure are therefore determined. The encoded data are output.
EFFECT: high efficiency of image compression and, as a result, high efficiency of encoding and decoding video.
15 cl, 15 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: physics, video.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to encoding three-dimensional video signals, and specifically to a transport format used to transport three-dimensional content. The technical result is achieved using a device which is characterised by that it includes a means of generating a stream which is structured into multiple levels: level 0, having two independent layers: a base layer containing video data of a right-side image, and a level 0 extension layer containing video data of a left-side image, or vice versa; level 1, having two independent extension layers: a level 1 first extension layer containing a depth map relating to the image of the base layer, a level 1 second extension layer containing a depth map relating to the image of the level 0 extension layer; level 2, having a level 2 extension layer containing overlapping data relating to the image of the base layer.
EFFECT: high quality of three-dimensional images with a large number of presentations used.
6 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: physics, computer engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to means of encoding and decoding images. In the method, the motion vector of a reference section has the same shape as the current section and belongs to a reference image which is different from the current image and is broken down in advance as a result of encoding with subsequent decoding into a plurality of sections. When a reference section overlaps a set of reference sections from said plurality of sections of the reference image, said motion vector of the current image section is determined based on a reference motion vector function belonging to a set of reference motion vectors associated with k overlapped reference sections.
EFFECT: high accuracy of predicting the motion vector of an image section.
15 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: physics, computer engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to predictive motion vector predictive encoding/decoding of moving pictures. The moving picture encoding apparatus includes a primary candidate reference motion vector determination unit which sets N primary candidate reference motion vectors, a degree of reliability calculation unit which calculates the reliability of each primary candidate reference motion vector which quantitatively represents effectiveness in motion vector prediction of the block to be decoded, using encoded or decoded picture information, a reference motion vector determination unit selects M (M<N) secondary candidate reference motion vectors in accordance with the degree of reliability of N primary candidate reference motion vectors, a motion vector encoding unit calculates a predictive motion vector of the block to be encoded using M secondary candidate reference motion vectors with high reliability.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of predicting and encoding moving pictures.
16 cl, 14 dwg
FIELD: information technology.
SUBSTANCE: method for alphabetical representation of images includes a step for primary conversion of an input image to a multi-centre scanning (MCS) format, constructed according to rules of a plane-filling curve (PFC). The initial MSC cell is a discrete square consisting of nine cells (3×3=9), having its own centre and its own four faces (sides). Scanning of the initial MSC cell is performed from the centre to the edge of the square while bypassing the other cells on a circle. The path with a bypass direction to the left from the centre of the square and then on a circle, clockwise, is the priority path for scanning and displaying images.
EFFECT: high efficiency of encoding images.
3 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: radio engineering, communication.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to video monitoring means. The method involves a mobile client sending a request, at the request of an external control device, to a multimedia transcoder; the multimedia transcoder receiving said request; requesting an encoded multimedia stream of said external control device from a fixed streaming media network server; transcoding the obtained encoded multimedia stream; the multimedia transcoder outputting a transcoded encoded multimedia stream to the mobile client or mobile streaming media network server, where the multimedia transcoder sets video transcoding parameters corresponding to various mobile network standards.
EFFECT: enabling a user to perform video monitoring of a control point using a mobile terminal.
10 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: physics, computation hardware.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to coding/decoding of picture signals. Method for variation of reference block (RFBL) with reference pixels in reference picture (I_REF) converts (TRF) reference block to first set of factors (REF (u, v,)). It changes the first set of factors (REF (u, v,)) with the help of one or several weights (TR (u, v,)) and executes the inversion (ITR) of changed. Note here that weights (TR (u, v,)) are defined by extra pixels in current picture (I_CUR) and extra reference pixels in reference picture. Application of extra pixels and extra reference pixels allows the determination of spectral weights so that they display the effects of attenuation. Particularly, if reference frame consists of two black-out frames one of which should be forecast with the help of reference frame, then assignment of weights in spectral band allows isolation of significant frame from two frames.
EFFECT: efficient coding in the case of attenuation.
10 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: physics, computer engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to computer engineering. The method of transmitting a stream of unencrypted images involves encoding the stream of images and sending a compressed stream of images to at least one receiving device. Before encoding, images of the unencrypted stream of images are converted via a secure reversible conversion to obtain a converted stream of images which is encoded and transmitted in place of the unencrypted stream of images. The secure reversible conversion converts each image from a sequence of unencrypted images.
EFFECT: high security of a stream of unencrypted images.
12 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: information technology.
SUBSTANCE: method of compressing images programmed in a controller of a device, comprising: partitioning an image into one or more blocks; applying gamma conversion to each pixel of the image to generate data with the same number of bits; computing prediction values for each pixel in each block of the one or more blocks using a plurality of prediction modes; applying quantisation to each pixel of each block of the one or more blocks using a plurality of quantisation numbers; computing differential pulse code modulation (DPCM) to generate residuals of the quantised values for each of the plurality of quantisation numbers, wherein the number of bits generated for each block of the one or more blocks is equal to the bit budget; computing pulse code modulation (PCM), which includes shifting each pixel value by a fixed number of bits; selecting for each block of said one or more blocks, DPCM with a quantisation number where the best quantisation accuracy is achieved; selecting an encoding method from the DPCM with said quantisation number and PCM; and generating a bit stream containing data encoded using the selected encoding method.
EFFECT: compression without visual losses.
14 cl, 17 dwg
FIELD: physics, computer engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to means of digitising a frame image.
EFFECT: frame digitisation with not three converters in each matrix element but with one converter in each matrix element which, during the frame period, concurrently and synchronously performs three successive conversions of colours R, G, B with 15 bits each, and image digitisation ends at the end of the frame period.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medical diagnostics, namely to ultrasonic non-linear tomographs. The tomographic scanner comprises a receiving emitter with a receiving-emitting electroacoustic transducer with a signal forming channel connected to an input thereof, and a signal analysis channel connected to an output thereof. The receiving emitter comprises emitting plane electroacoustic transducers with an emitted coded ultrasonic signal broadband, and a receiving plane electroacoustic transducer with a received signal broadband. The working surface of the transducers is arranged in a tangential plane to a circle which encloses a scanned organ, and orthogonal to the circle plane, while its diameter is 1.5÷2.0 times more than a width of the working surface of the plane transducers. An angle of acoustic axes perpendicular to the working surface of the plane electroacoustic transducers for each pair of the adjoining plane electroacoustic transducers is within the range of 30° to 90°.
EFFECT: using the device provides high resolution of recovery and visualisation of internal structures of soft tissues and internal defects of various objects with a low noise level.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: complete echocardiography is performed to determine a dyssynergia index and the presence of mitral regurgitation. The findings are used to detect the presence of hemodynamically relevant coronary artery stenosis by the value of function F that is calculated by the original formula. If F=1.95, the presence of hemodynamically relevant coronary artery stenosis is diagnosed, while F=-0.766 shows the absence thereof.
EFFECT: technique enables high accuracy detection of ischemic heart disease in the patient with using no invasive method, eg coronary angiography, which ensures the lower risk of developing intraoperative complications.
2 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of medicine, namely to optic methods of biological tissue analysis. To carry out differential diagnostics of nail plate diseases analysis of patient's nail plates, preliminarily processed with 25% glycerol solution, is performed by optic coherent tomography. Nail plate is analysed in its middle part in direction from posterior wall to free edge, step-by-step with overlapping previous probe position by approximately 1/3 of probe working diameter. Image of five horizontally oriented layers of nail plate are analysed on tomograms. If the first layer is unchanged, height of the second layer is increased, signal intensity increases in the second, third and fourth layers, inhomogeneity appears within the second, third and fourth layers, contrast decreases and boundary between the third and the fourth layers disappears, inhomogeneous change of the fifth layer takes place, with irregular arch-like elements, characterised by high and low signal, psoriatic affection of nails is diagnosed. If signal intensity decreases in the first layer, thickness of the second, third and forth layers increases, signal intensity decreases within the third layer, contrast decreases and boundary between the second and third and the third and fourth layers decreases, as well as linear zones, horizontally oriented, parallel to each other, with high intensity signal appear, onychomycosis is diagnosed.
EFFECT: method provides possibility of non-invasive assessment of pathological process in nail plate.
4 ex, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of medicine. To perform dynamic assessment of structural changes of pancreatic (P) parenchyma comparison of successive indices of X-ray density in its different parts is carried out by means of multispiral computed tomography. Absolute X-ray density (AXRD) and the largest thickness in head, body and tail of pancreas are determined on the basis of obtained tomogram. Specific density of each part of pancreas in dynamics is calculated by formula: SD1,2…n=AXRD/thickness of examined part of pancreas (mm), where SD1 is initial value of specific density of each part of pancreas, SD2…n are values of specific density of each part of pancreas in dynamics. Induration index (II) of each part of pancreas in dynamics is calculated by formula: II= SD2…n/SD1, the value of which is used to assess structural changes of pancreatic parenchyma.
EFFECT: increased accuracy and self-descriptiveness of dynamic assessment of course of inflammatory process in pancreatic parenchyma due to taking into account structural and morphological shifts in pancreatic tissue with application of dynamic computed tomography monitoring.
5 ex, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of medicine. In method realisation bone density in the area of tibia and femur condyles is determined by method of computed tomography. Range of scanning is determined by topogram. Axial cuts and multiplanar reconstructions are obtained. Measurements of density are carried out by Haunsfield scale in 8 points, marked on multiplanar reconstructions of knee joint in frontal plane. In case if density in points 5, 6 constitutes 351-450 HU, in points 3, 4 351-400 HU, in point 8 up to 220 HU, in point 7 up to 140 HU, in point 1 221-250 HU, in point 2 171-190 HU, data correspond to the first stage of disease under condition of their coincidence in six points of eight. In case if in the said points density constitutes: 251-350 HU, 301-350 HU, 221-240 HU, 141-170 HU, 191-220 HU, 141-170 HU, data correspond to the second stage of disease under condition of their coincidence in six points of eight. In case if in the same points density is: to 250 HU, to 300 HU, 241-260 HU, 171-200 HU, to 190 HU and to 140 HU, data correspond to the third stage of disease, under condition of their coincidence in six points of eight.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to reduce labour consumption in estimation and facilitate comparative interpretation of treatment results.
5 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of medicine, namely to ophthalmology. Optic coherent tomography of eye retina in the area of affection is performed and obrtained tomogram is assessed. If detachment takes place at the level of pigment epithelium and photoreceptors, rematogenic detachment of retina is diagnosed. If detachment of retina takes place in external plexiform layer, senile retinoschisis is diagnosed. If detachment of retina takes place at the level of the layer of nervous fibres, juvenile retinoschisis is diagnosed.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase accuracy of differential diagnostics due to use of new criteria in application of more accurate diagnostic equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine, namely to radiodiagnostics, and can be used for estimation of bone state in patients with vitamin D-resistant rickets by method of computer tomography. Computer tomography of Looser's zone is performed. On obtained axial sections pathological part of bone is determined. Quantitative evaluation of its density in zone of restructuring is carried out. In case of segmental thinning of cortical plate without involvement into the process of zone of bone marrow canal with density within 450-600 HU, first stage of pathological restructuring of bone is diagnosed. In case of cortical plate thinning in combination with presence of sclerosis in zone of bone marrow canal with density 601-750 HU second stage of pathological restructuring of bone is diagnosed. If pathological process spreads on entire bone diameter in combination with sclerosis of bone marrow canal with density 751-900 HU third stage of pathologic bone restructuring is diagnosed.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase treatment efficiency due to increase of objectivity of pathological bone restructuring degree in patients with vitamin D-resistant rickets.
3 dwg, 3 ex