Concrete with low clinker content

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: subject of the present invention is a dry binder premix which contains the following, wt %: portland clinker having a Blaine specific surface area of 4500 to 9500 cm2/g, preferably 5500 to 8000 cm2/g, the minimum quantity of the clinker by mass percentage relative to the total mass of the premix being determined according to formula (I): [-6.10-3×SSBk]+75, in which SSBk is the Blaine specific surface area given in cm2/g; fly ash; at least one alkali metal sulphate, the quantity of alkali metal sulphate being such that the quantity of equivalent Na2O in the premix is greater than or equal to 5 wt% relative to the mass of fly ash; at least one source of SO3, in a quantity such that the quantity of SO3 in the premix is greater than or equal to 2 wt % by relative to the mass of portland clinker; complementary materials having a Dv90 less than or equal to 200 mcm selected from limestone powders, the quantity of clinker+the quantity of fly ash being greater than or equal to 75 wt %, preferably 78 wt %, relative to the total mass of the premix; the total quantity of clinker in the premix being strictly less than 60 wt % relative to the total mass of the premix. The subject of the invention is also a dry binder mix obtained by mixing said premix with aggregates, as well as a concrete grout composition obtained by mixing with water.

EFFECT: obtaining concrete with low carbon dioxide emission.

13 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl

 

The SCOPE of the INVENTION

The present invention concerns a concrete with a low content of clinker, as well as ways of obtaining such concrete and compositions for carrying out these methods.

The LEVEL of TECHNOLOGY

In conventional structural concrete, in particular concrete type C25/30 (that is characterized by the compression resistance after 28 days after mixing, measured on the cylinder 16×32 cm, is at least 25 MPa and the value of this resistance, measured in Cuba 15×15 cm, is at least 30 MPa according to EN 206-1), or in the case of a concrete type C20/25 (which is the characteristic compressive strength after 28 days after mixing, measured on the cylinder 16×32 cm, is at least 20 MPa and the value of this resistance, measured in Cuba 15×15 cm, is at least 25 MPa according to EN 206-1), it was found that the quantity of cement is usually 260-360 kg m3concrete. It should be noted that modern European standards for ordinary structural concrete do not require cement content less than 260 kg/m3.

The process of cement production and, in particular, its main component clinker accompanied by strong carbon dioxide emissions. Indeed, the production of powdered clinker involves:

a) preheating the removal of carbon dioxide from a source of flour, which is obtained by grinding raw materials such as limestone and clay; and

(b) roasting or clinkerization flour at a temperature of 1450-1550°C followed by rapid cooling.

These two stages are accompanied by the allocation of CO2on the one hand, which is the direct product of carbon dioxide removal and, on the other hand, a secondary product of combustion, which is used at the stage of firing to increase the temperature.

Emission rates of approximately 560 kg CO2per tonne of binder in the case of binder, usually used for the production of concrete C25/30, which contains 65% clinker (with reference number 850 kg CO2on average allocated per tonne of clinker).

These significant emissions of carbon dioxide in the classical processes of production of cement compositions and concrete is a major problem for the environment and in modern conditions cause large additional financial costs.

There is therefore a need to develop ways to produce concrete with lower carbon dioxide emissions, these concrete must have satisfactory mechanical properties, in particular, as the concrete type C20/25 or C25/30.

Preferably the concrete in accordance with the present invention is characterized by average the m arithmetic values of resistance to compression, greater than or equal to 6 MPa, preferably greater than or equal to 7 MPa at 20°C 24 hours after mixing, and the measurement is produced according to EN 12390-3 on cylindrical samples, maintained according to standard EN 12390-2 at 20°C±2°C at a relative humidity in excess of 95%.

Preferably, the rheological properties of the concrete solution is satisfactory and ensure the normal workability, i.e. consistency been closed formula provides easy styling even 24 hours after mixing.

The INVENTION

Thus, an object of the present invention is pre-dried pungent mixture containing, in wt.%:

- Portland cement clinker with a specific surface area according to blaine, component from 4500 to 9500 cm2/g, preferably from 5500 to 8000 cm2/g, while the minimum quantity of the said clinker in mass relative to the total mass of the pre-blend is determined by the following formula (I):

[-6.10-3×SSBk]+75Formula (I),

in which SSBkis the specific surface according to blaine, expressed in cm2/g;

- volatile ash;

at least one sulfate saloon the first metal, the number of sulfate of an alkaline metal is determined so that the number of equivalent Na2O in the preliminary mixture exceeded or was equal to 5 wt.% in relation to the mass of volatile ashes;

at least one source of SO3in an amount such that the number of SO3in the preliminary mixture exceeded or was equal to 2 wt.% in relation to the mass of Portland cement clinker;

- additional materials having a Dv90 less than or equal to 200 μm, which are selected from powders of limestone, burnt shale, metakaolin, siliceous fillers, powders of silica, puzzolana, slag, fly ash and mixtures thereof;

thus, the amount of clinker + number of volatile ashes greater than or equal to 75 wt.%, preferably 78 wt.% with respect to the total mass of the pre-mixture;

the total quantity of clinker in the preliminary mixture is strictly less than 60 wt.% with respect to the total mass of the pre-mixture.

Preferably the preliminary mixture in accordance with the present invention further comprises at least one source of calcium.

Preferably the alkali metal sulfate preliminary mixture in accordance with the present invention are selected from sodium sulfate, potassium sulfate, lithium sulfate, and mixtures thereof. Preferably the sulfate of alkaline IU the Alla announced preliminary mixture is sodium sulfate.

Preferably the calcium source pre-mixture in accordance with the present invention are selected from calcium salts and mixtures thereof.

According to a variant implementation, the preliminary mixture in accordance with the present invention contains 0.05 to 1.5 wt.%, preferably 0.1 to 0.8 wt.% plasticizer, preferably of the type polycarboxylate.

According to a variant implementation, additional materials are inert filler. According to a variant implementation of the invention, additional materials are powders of lime.

According to a variant implementation of the invention, the preliminary mixture in accordance with the present invention further comprises an accelerator, and/or air entraining additive, and/or a viscosity modifier and/or neutralizer clays, and/or a plasticizer, or mixtures thereof.

The object of the present invention is also dry pungent mixture containing, in wt.% with respect to the total weight of the mixture:

- at least 10% mentioned pre-mixture; and

up to 90% of placeholders.

Under option run dry astringent mixture in accordance with the present invention, the aggregates contain sand and fine gravel, with a mass ratio of sand to the amount of small gravel ranges from 1.5/1 to 1/1,8, preferably from 1.25/1 to 1/1,4, in private the tee from 1.2/1 to 1/1,2.

The object of the present invention is also the composition of the concrete solution containing from 140 to 220 l/m3packing water in conjunction with:

- at least 10% mentioned pre-mixture; and

up to 90% fillers;

when this mass percentages are expressed in relation to the total dry weight of the composition.

According to a variant implementation, the aggregates contain sand and fine gravel, with a mass ratio of sand to the amount of small gravel ranges from 1.5/1 to 1/1,8, preferably from 1.25/1 to 1/1,4, in particular from 1.2/1 to 1/1,2.

According to a variant of execution of the concrete composition of the solution in accordance with the present invention, the number of used packing water ranges from 140 to 200 l/m3preferably from 150 to 180 l/m3(see EN 206-1, paragraph 3.1.30).

According to a variant implementation, the concrete composition of the solution in accordance with the present invention is to threshold the concrete.

According to a variant implementation, the concrete composition of the solution in accordance with the present invention is characterized by the arithmetic mean of the values of compression resistance greater than or equal to 6 MPa at 20°C 24 hours after mixing.

According to another variant implementation, the concrete composition of the solution in accordance with the present invention has a characteristic resistance shall ellenie compression, greater than or equal to 25 MPa at 28 days after mixing.

According to still another second variant implementation, the concrete composition of the solution in accordance with the present invention has a characteristic compressive strength greater than or equal to na through 28 days after mixing. According to the third variant of execution, the concrete composition of the solution in accordance with the present invention is characterized by the arithmetic mean of the values of compression resistance greater than or equal to 25 MPa at 20°C 28 days after mixing.

According to the fourth variant of execution, the concrete composition of the solution in accordance with the present invention is characterized by the arithmetic mean of the values of compression resistance greater than or equal to 30 MPa at 20°C 28 days after mixing.

According to a variant implementation, the concrete composition of the solution in accordance with the present invention shows RASPLAV from 180 to 270 mm, preferably from 215 to 235 mm cone according to ASTM S230, after 1 minute and 45 seconds, with 30 seconds under the action of vibration with a frequency of 50 Hz and an amplitude of 0.5 mm

According to a variant of execution of the concrete composition of the solution in accordance with the present invention, sludge Abrams cone (or the value of slump) is from 0 to 250 mm, preferably from 100 to 240 m is.

The object of the present invention is also the design of the hardened concrete of the above-mentioned composition.

The object of the present invention is also a method of obtaining a composition of a concrete solution, comprising the steps:

- mixing the above mixture with the use of from 140 to 220 l/m3packing water; or

- mixing the above-mentioned preliminary mixture with the use of fillers and from 140 to 220 l/m3packing water.

According to a variant of the method of obtaining the composition of a concrete solution, in accordance with the present invention, preferably the zatvoreniem carried out in the presence of calcium sulphate.

The object of the present invention is also a method of obtaining a composition of a concrete solution, comprising the step of mixing:

- Portland cement clinker with a specific surface area according to blaine, component from 4500 to 9500 cm2/g, preferably from 5500 to 8000 cm2/g, while the minimum quantity of the said clinker in kg/m3determined by the following formula (II):

[(-0,021×SSBk)+230]×(Eeff÷140)Formula (II)

in which SSBkis the specific surface according to blaine clinker, expressed in cm2/g and Eeff is the amount of sealing water in l/m3;

- volatile ashes;

- at least one alkali metal sulfate, the number of sulfate of an alkaline metal is determined so that the number of equivalent Na2O binder exceeded or was equal to 5 wt.% in relation to the mass of volatile ashes;

at least one source of SO3in an amount such that the number of SO3in binder exceeded or was equal to 2 wt.% in relation to the mass of Portland cement clinker;

- additional materials having a Dv90 less than or equal to 200 μm, which are selected from powders of limestone, burnt shale, metakaolin, siliceous fillers, powders of silica, puzzolana, slag, fly ash and mixtures thereof, and the minimum amount which in kg/m3determined by the following formula (III):

amount (amount of additional material)+(number of volatile ashes)+(number of clinker)+(number of sulfate of an alkali metal)+(number of source SO3) greater than or equal to 220 kg/m3concrete Formula (III);

from 1500 to 2200 kg/m3preferably from 1700 to 2000 kg/m3placeholders;

plasticizer;

- if necessary, accelerator, and/or air entraining additives, and/or viscosity modifier and/or retarder, and/or neutralizer clay; ISOE what Itanium

from 140 to 220 l/m3packing water,

the total quantity of clinker in the concrete solution is less than or equal to 200 kg/m3;

thus, the amount of clinker + number of volatile ashes greater than or equal to 240 kg/m3.

According to a variant of the method of obtaining the composition of a concrete solution, use the clinker, and/or fly ash, and/or additional materials mentioned above in connection with the description of the pre-mixture.

According to a variant implementation of the method of obtaining the composition of a concrete solution, the number of used packing water ranges from 140 to 200 l/m3preferably from 150 to 180 l/m3.

The object of the present invention is also a method of obtaining a cast concrete solution, comprising the steps:

- laying above the concrete composition of the solution obtained using the above method.

The object of the present invention is also a method of manufacturing a concrete structure, comprising the steps:

- curing the above composition of a concrete solution, or the composition of the above cast concrete mortar or concrete composition solution obtained using the above method.

The object of the present invention is also the use of at least one alkali metal sulfate and, if necessary the spine, at least one source of calcium for activation of volatile resins in the claimed pre-mixture in the stated mixture, in the claimed compositions concrete solution or in one of the stated methods.

The invention solves the problem of reducing emissions of CO2that was still unresolved when getting well-known concrete. Indeed, the amount of cement (and, in particular, clinker, used in the framework of the present invention, less traditionally needed. In particular, the allocation of CO2can be reduced by about 50-60% when receiving the same concrete type C25/30 or C20/25. In addition, the rheology of the concrete compositions of the solution remains at the same level as that of the classical compositions of concrete. In addition, despite the low content of clinker, the invention allows to store values of the strength of freshly prepared concrete at the same level as obtained by composition with the classic clinker.

The concrete produced in accordance with the present invention, also has the following advantages:

the cost of dry binders pre-mixtures in accordance with the present invention can be reduced by 7-10% in comparison with the cost of dry binders pre-mixes used to produce a classic concrete C25/30 or C20/25.

the purpose of hypoxia, benefits and private embodiments of the present invention are achieved through advanced optimization set of cooking parameters, in particular:

- optimization of the distribution of particles of different materials (thereby minimizing the amount of water at a given rheological behavior);

- topology optimization of the mixture, i.e. increasing the number of, and ensure packs are uniform in space boundaries adhesion between particles of sand and/or aggregates using "point bonding" hydrates of cement (in particular, through the use of clinker particles is about 10 times smaller than the particles of ordinary Portland cement);

search for "Chrono-composition", that is, to use the minimum quantity of clinker to provide short-term mechanical strength, while other materials are present in quantities which will allow for more long-term mechanical durability (in some way take over the function of clinker in providing increased mechanical strength);

- correction of the total water demand by choosing materials with a low total water demand (in particular, with low porosity), which also allows you to increase the resistance to compression;

- optimization of different additives and, in particular, the plasticizer (superplasticizer), which allows maksimalno reduce the amount of water and simultaneously to optimize the dispersion of the powder and, therefore the distribution.

The DESCRIPTION of the embodiment of the INVENTION

What follows is a more detailed description of the invention presented as a non-restrictive example.

Clinker

In the framework of the present invention under the "clinker" should be understood in Portland cement clinker, is described in the standard EN 197-1, paragraph 5.2.1.

Portland cement clinker can be obtained on the basis of the classical Portland cement and, in particular, of the cements described in the European standard EN 197-1. For example, you can use cement CEM I or CEM II 52.5 N, or R, or RM (seawater resistant - standard NF P 15-317), or PMES (resistant marine sulfate and water - the standard NF P 15-319). The cement may also be of the type HRI (high initial resistance).

In some cases, in particular for type CEM II Portland cement may not consist of pure clinker. Portland cement type CEM II contains clinker in a mixture with at least one of the added material (pozzolan, fly-ashes, burnt shale, limestone...) up to 37 wt.%. Therefore, if the clinker is derived from such cement added material or added materials to choose any of the volatile evils, either of the above additional materials (if they are materials in the form of particles with a Dv90 less than or equal to 200 is km, or preferably Dv97, less than or equal to 200 μm).

This cement can be crushed and/or split (pneumatic classification to obtain a clinker with the characteristics required in the framework of the invention, i.e. with a specific surface area according to blaine in the range from 4500 to 9500 cm2/g, preferably from 5500 to 8000 cm2/g according to EN 196-6, paragraph 4.

Clinker can be classified as Surmeli. For example, cement can be crushed in the crushing workshop, containing a primary crusher type mill or mills with runners in combination with a crusher for fine grinding type Horomill©, pendulum, or ball, or with a pneumatic grinder. You can also use pneumatic sorter or the classifier of the second, third generation or ultra-high performance.

Reducing the amount of clinker, seeking to maximize the distance distribution of the particles of cement to achieve maximum uniformity of the matrix through optimal distribution of points of bonding between the particles.

Volatile ash

Use of volatile ash, described in the standard NF EN 197-1, paragraph 5.2.4, or ASTM C618.

According to a variant of the invention, fly ash can be partially replaced by slag.

According to another variant of the invention, fly ash can be partially or completely replace what mikrokremnezemom.

According to the above two options, slag or silica fume must be considered in the binder at various calculations.

The alkali metal sulfate

Preferably the sulfate of an alkali metal chosen from the group which consists of sodium sulphate (Na2SO4), potassium sulfate (K2SO4), sulfate lithium (Li2SO4), sodium bisulfate (NaHSO4), potassium bisulfate (KHSO4), lithium bisulfate (LiHSO4) and their mixtures. Preferably the sulfate of an alkali metal selected from sodium sulfate, potassium sulfate, lithium sulfate, and mixtures thereof. More preferably the alkali metal sulfate is sodium sulfate.

Sulfate of an alkali metal can be used in different forms and, in particular, in the form of a powder or liquid. The use of sulfate of an alkali metal in powder form is most suitable for obtaining a preliminary mixture in accordance with the present invention and a dry astringent mixture in accordance with the present invention. As for the use of sulfate of an alkali metal in liquid form, it seems more appropriate to obtain the composition of a concrete solution in accordance with the present invention and for the method of its preparation.

The formula for determining the number of, in mass percent, the equivalent of Na2O knitting the m in accordance with the present invention (clinker+fly ash+sulfate of an alkali metal+source SO 3+possible source of calcium+additional materials), is the following formula (IV):

Equivalent Na2O(astringent)=[Na2O]+0,658×[K2O]+2,081×[Li2O]

Formula (IV)

where [Na2O] [K2O] and [Li2O] are the amount in mass% Na2O, K2O and Li2O binder (clinker + fly ash + sulfate of an alkali metal + source SO3+ additional content + possible source of calcium). Amount in mass% Na2O, K2O and Li2O in the binder can be, for example, be determined by x-ray fluorescence analysis on the basis of Na, K and Li present in the binder. Knowing the equivalent of Na2O(astringent), multiply this value by the mass of binder and divide by the mass of volatile ashes to get the equivalent of Na2O with respect to the mass of volatile ashes.

Preferably the number of equivalent Na2O binder in accordance with the present invention is greater than or equal to 7 wt.%, preferably greater than or equal to 9 wt.% relative to the mass of volatile ashes.

The source of calcium

The source of calcium selected from calcium salts and mixtures thereof. Preferably, the calcium salts are selected from bromide, chloride is, formate, oxides, hydroxides, nitrates, nitrites, sulfates and mixtures thereof. Preferably the source of calcium is calcium sulfate, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride, calcium bromide, or a mixture thereof. Preferably the source of calcium is calcium sulfate.

Preferably hydroxides of calcium can be lime, portlandite or mixtures thereof. Sulfates of calcium, preferably may be gypsum, hemihydrate, anhydrite, or mixtures thereof.

The source of calcium can be used in different forms and, in particular, in the form of a powder or liquid. The source of calcium in powder form is most suitable for obtaining a preliminary mixture in accordance with the present invention and a dry astringent mixture in accordance with the present invention. As for the use of the source of calcium in liquid form, it seems more appropriate to obtain the composition of a concrete solution in accordance with the present invention and for the method of its receipt.

The alkali metal sulfate and a calcium source may be of particular interest to the activation of volatile ashes. This activation may provide the desired mechanical strength as 24 hours after mixing, and 28 days after mixing.

SO3

SO3may be present in various compo the customers of the compositions in accordance with the present invention (pre-mix, dry pungent mixture of concrete or mortar), and calcium sulfate, classically used for the treatment of clinker sulfates (see standard EN 197-1, paragraph 5.4).

The calcium sulfate can, in particular, to choose from gypsum, hemihydrate, anhydrite, or mixtures thereof. The calcium sulfate can exist in a natural state or may be a byproduct of some industrial processes.

In a variant of the invention, the amount of calcium sulphate, for example, be adjusted in such a way as to achieve optimal resistance to compression after 24 hours at 20°C. Preferably the amount of calcium sulphate, which is determined according to the method described in the standard EN 196-2, paragraph 8, is from 2.0 to 3.5 wt.% sulfate (SO3) relative to the mass of the mixture (clinker + fly ash + sulfate of an alkali metal + additional content + calcium sulphate).

The number of SO3you can define, for example, by the method described in the standard EN 196-2, paragraph 8.

Additional materials

Under "additional materials" should be understood materials in the form of particles having a Dv90 less than or equal to 200 μm, preferably Dv97 less than or equal to 200 microns.

These materials can serve as materials for filling in the matrix, that is, they can fill the intermediate space between other materials, cha shall tics which are larger.

The nature of additional materials is not an essential element of the present invention, since this criterion has no effect (in particular, negative impact) on the achieved results from the point of view of mechanical strength. Therefore, it is possible to add various types of additional materials listed below, without reducing the strength of the resulting concrete after 28 days or 24 hours. In particular, from the viewpoint of mechanical strength additional inert material is the least preferred. Therefore, no additional inert material will allow to increase the mechanical strength of the resulting concrete as 24 hours, and after 28 days, compared with the same composition in accordance with the present invention, containing additional inert material.

Despite the fact that additional materials can be provided for use as binders, optimization (in particular, in terms of value) of concrete in accordance with the present invention requires that additional materials were inert filler, that is not cementitious materials (without hydraulic or pozzolanic activity).

For example, as additional materials you can use limestone powder (limestone fillers). You can also COI is lesofat burnt shale, metakaoline, siliceous fillers or silica powders, puzzolana, slag, fly ash or mixtures thereof. Preferably additional materials are materials described in the standard EN 197-1 in paragraphs 5.2.2-5.2.7. Preferably additional materials are limestone powders.

Dv97 (by volume) corresponds to the 97th percentiles of the size distribution of the particles, that is, 97% of the particles have a size less Dv97, and 3% of the particles have a size greater than Dv97. Similarly, Dv90 corresponds to the 90th percentiles of the size distribution of the particles, that is, 90% of the particles have a size less Dv90, and 10% of the particles have a size greater than Dv90. Similarly, Dv50 corresponds to the 50th percentile of the size distribution of the particles, that is, 50% of particles have a size less Dv50, and 50% of particles have a size greater than Dv50.

As a rule, Dv50, and Dv90 Dv97 and other values of the same type, characterizing the particle size distribution profile (particle size) of the aggregate particles or granules, can be determined using a laser particle size analysis particle size of less than 200 microns or sieving for particles larger than 200 microns.

However, if the individual particles tend to aggregation, the size is preferably determined using an electron microscope, given that the apparent size, as measured by d is fractional laser grain size analysis, exceeds the actual size of the particles that may lead to an error during its evaluation (agglomeration and flocculation).

Water

Concrete contains different categories of water. First of all, the sealing water is the internal water of the concrete between the particles of the solid skeleton, formed by aggregates, clinker, slag and additional materials. Thus, the sealing water is water necessary for hydration and achieve consistency and mechanical strength. On the other hand, the concrete contains water remaining in the pores of the aggregates, fly ash and additional materials. This water is not taken into account in the sealing water. It is considered to be isolated, and it is not involved in the hydration of the cement and in obtaining consistency. General water is the totality of water present in the mixture (at the time of mixing).

Sealing water is a standardized concept, and the method for its calculation is presented in the standard EN 206-1, S. 17, paragraph 3.1.30. The contents of the sealing water is the difference between the total amount of water contained in the freshly prepared concrete, and the amount of water absorbed by the aggregates, the amount of absorbed water output based on the absorption coefficient of the aggregates, which is measured according to standard NF EN 1097-6, S. 5, paragraph 3.6 and the corresponding p is iLounge Century

Dry binder pre-mix

Dry pungent preliminary mixture contains, in mass percent:

- Portland cement clinker having a specific surface according to blaine from 4500 to 9500 cm2/g, preferably from 5500 to 8000 cm2/g, while the minimum quantity of the said clinker in mass relative to the total mass of the pre-blend is determined by the following formula (I):

[-6.10-3×SSBk]+75Formula (I),

in which SSBkis the specific surface according to blaine, expressed in cm2/g;

- volatile ash;

- at least one alkali metal sulfate, the number of sulfate of an alkaline metal is determined so that the number of equivalent Na2O in the preliminary mixture exceeded or was equal to 5 wt.% in relation to the mass of volatile ashes;

at least one source of SO3in an amount such that the number of SO3in the preliminary mixture exceeded or was equal to 2 wt.% in relation to the mass of Portland cement clinker;

- additional materials having a Dv90 less than or equal to 200 μm, which are selected from powders of limestone, burnt shale, metakaolin, of siliceous napolnitel the th, powders of silica puzzolana, slag, fly ash and mixtures thereof;

thus, the amount of clinker + number of volatile ashes greater than or equal to 75 wt.%, preferably 78 wt.% with respect to the total mass of the pre-mixture;

the total quantity of clinker in the preliminary mixture is strictly less than 60 wt.% with respect to the total mass of the pre-mixture.

Preferably the minimum quantity of the said clinker in mass percent relative to the total mass of the pre-blend is determined by the formula (I bis):

[-6.10-3×SSBk]+80Formula (I bis),

in which SSBkis the specific surface according to blaine clinker, expressed in cm2/year

The above-mentioned formula (I) and (I bis)and formula (II), (II bis) and (II ter), which will be presented below, were obtained experimentally, i.e. by changing a few parameters (in particular, the amount of clinker, specific surface according to blaine clinker and quantity of the sealing water) find empirical relationships between these different parameters. Thus obtained formulas are empirical laws, that is, "laws that are alleged to validate experimental facts and which may be formulated, but that cannot be proven theoretically". This definition is taken from the website. (see also "The problem of opening the empirical law". A. Petrosyan. Moscow. Questions of philosophy, 1983, No. 12, S. 71-79). Therefore, different values of the balance constants presented in formulas. The value represented in the formulas, constants adjusted using, for example, is well known in the art the method of least squares to minimize the error between the experimental data and defined by the equation (see, for example, an Internet site Dec Formations, or the bookStatistical methods. Volume 2 - Methods simple linear regression analysis and multiple regression analysis - Simple linear correlation analysis"Gérald Bayaran, SMG publishing house).

Therefore, formula (I), (I bis), (II), (II bis) and (II ter) can be used by simply changing the specific surface according to blaine clinker and quantity of packing water, expressed in units specified in the description (cm2/g or l/m3). An example of a formula (II) described in the present description below.

The error value in percent that is valid for the results of a calculation using formulas (I), (I bis), (II), (II bis) and (II ter)is +/-5%.

Preferably the minimum amount of clinker in the preliminary mixture in accordance with the present invention can is predelete using the table below, depending on the specific surface according to blaine clinker (instead of using formulas (I) and (I bis)):

SSBk(cm2/g)The minimum amount of clinker (wt.%)The preferred minimum amount of clinker (wt.%)
45004853
460047,452,4
470046,851,8
480046,251,2
490045,650,6
50004550
510044,449,4
520043,848,8
530043,248,2
540042,647,6
55004247
41,446,4
570040,845,8
580040,245,2
590039,644,6
60003944
610038,443,4
6200of 37.842.8
630037,242,2
640036,641,6
65003641
660035,440,4
670034,839,8
680034,239,2
690033,638,6
70003338
710032,437,4
7200of 31.836,8
730031,236,2
740030,635,6
75003035
760029,434,4
770028,8to 33.8
780028,233,2
790027,632,6
80002732
810026,4of 31.4
820025,830,8
830025,230,2
840024,629,6
85002429
860023,428,4

870022,827,8
880022,227,2
890021,626,6
90002126
910020,425,4
920019,824,8
930019,224,2
940018,623,6
95001823

Preferably additional materials are limestone powder.

Preferably the preliminary mixture in accordance with this is Subramaniam further comprises calcium sulfate.

Preferably clinker, slag and additional materials can be combined in the above proportions to obtain the dry binders pre-mixes (containing no added water)intended for mixing with aggregates and water.

Preferably, in this dry pre-mixes can include one or more additives commonly used in this field: the accelerator, and/or air entraining additive, and/or a viscosity modifier and/or a retarder, and/or neutralizer clays, and/or a plasticizer. In particular, the mixture can include a plasticizer (superplasticizer), in particular the type of polycarboxylate, in particular, in amounts of from 0.05 to 1.5 wt.%, preferably from 0.1 to 0.8 wt.%.

Under the "neutralizer clay" shall mean any molecule that allows you to decrease the negative effect of clays on the properties of hydraulic binders. In particular, you can use the converters clays described in documents WO 2006/032785 and WO 2006/032786.

Placeholders

Placeholders are of natural origin, as defined in the standard HR-545, and the aggregates have a maximum size Dmax less than or equal to 32 mm Aggregates include sand with a maximum grain size Dmax, less than or equal to 4 mm, as defined in the standard EN 12620) or fine gravel (fragments with minimal the m size Dmin, greater than or equal to 2 mm, as defined in the standard EN 12620).

Placeholders can be limestone, silica or silica-calcareous nature.

Sand and fine gravel can be rolled or crushed. Crushed sand contains more fine grain than rounded sand. According to the terminology used to determine sand, fine grains are grains with smaller than 63 μm (passing through the sieve).

If the sand contains small grains of more than 1% (mass fraction in the sand), you must consider the number of small grains of sand, reducing the amount of the above "additional material" on the amount of fines present in the sand (grain size less than 63 μm) above the threshold of 1%.

Preferably the clay content in the sand and the aggregates must be less than 1%. Indeed, the higher the clay content affects the workability of concrete.

Preferably the mass ratio of the amount of sand and the amount of gravel ranges from 1.5/1 to 1/1,8, in particular from 1.25/1 to 1/1,4, in particular from 1.2/1 to 1/1,2, and ideally equal to or close to 1/1.

Dry cementitious mixture

Aggregates, clinker, fly ash, additional materials, sulfates of alkali metals, possible additives (in particular, the plasticizer could be combined into a dry knitting the e mixture (containing no added water). Such dry binder mixture can be obtained either by mixing the above-mentioned preliminary mixtures with fillers, either by direct mixing of the various components ofab initio.

Mass quantities of the various components relative to the total mass of the mixture can be determined as follows:

- at least 10% above pre-mixture; and

up to 90% of placeholders.

Preferably additional materials are limestone powder.

Preferably dry pungent mixture in accordance with the present invention further comprises calcium sulfate.

Thus defined, dry, pungent mixture is ready to use dry concrete applied by simple mixing with water.

Under option a dry astringent mixture in accordance with the present invention, the mass number of the various components relative to the total mass of the mixture can be determined as follows:

- at least 10% above pre-mixture; and

up to 90% of small gravel.

Preferably additional materials are limestone powder.

Preferably dry pungent mixture in accordance with the present invention further comprises calcium sulfate.

Under option a dry astringent mixture in accordance the present invention, mass quantities of the various components relative to the total mass of the mixture can be determined as follows:

- at least 10% above pre-mixture; and

up to 90% sand.

Preferably additional materials are limestone powder.

Preferably dry pungent mixture in accordance with the present invention further comprises calcium sulfate.

Concrete

The term "concrete solution" in the framework of the invention it should be understood freshly prepared concrete (see standard EN 206-1, paragraph 3.1.2).

Concrete solution in accordance with the present invention is obtained by mixing:

- at least 10% above pre-mixture; and

up to 90% fillers;

from 140-220 l/m3packing water.

Quantity in weight percents are expressed in relation to the total dry weight of the concrete.

Preferably additional materials are limestone powder.

Preferably concrete solution in accordance with the present invention further comprises calcium sulfate.

Concrete solution in accordance with the present invention can also be obtained by directly mixing the above dry mixture with 140-220 l/m3packing water.

Concrete solution in accordance with the present invention it is possible that the same be obtained by direct mixing of the ingredients with each other and with water. The method of obtaining the composition of a concrete solution in accordance with the present invention includes a step of mixing:

- Portland cement clinker with a specific surface area according to blaine, component from 4500 to 9500 cm2/g, preferably from 5500 to 8000 cm2/g, while the minimum quantity of the said clinker in kg/m3determined by the following formula (II):

[(-0,021×SSBk)+230]×(Eeff÷140)Formula (II)

in which SSBkis the specific surface according to blaine clinker, expressed in cm2/g and Eeffis the amount of sealing water in l/m3;

- volatile ashes;

- at least one alkali metal sulfate, the number of sulfate of an alkaline metal is determined so that the number of equivalent Na2O binder exceeded or was equal to 5 wt.% in relation to the mass of volatile ashes;

at least one source of SO3in an amount such that the number of SO3in binder exceeded or was equal to 2 wt.% in relation to the mass of Portland cement clinker;

- additional materials having a Dv90 less than or equal to 200 μm, which are selected from powders of limestone, burnt shale, metakaolin, siliceous n is of fillers, powders of silica, puzzolana, slag, fly ash and mixtures thereof, and the minimum amount which in kg/m3determined by the following formula (III):

amount (amount of additional material)+(number of volatile ashes)+(number of clinker)+(number of sulfate of an alkali metal)+(number of source SO3) greater than or equal to 220 kg/m3concrete Formula (III);

from 1500 to 2200 kg/m3preferably from 1700 to 2000 kg/m3placeholders;

plasticizer;

- if necessary, accelerator, and/or air entraining additives, and/or viscosity modifier and/or retarder, and/or neutralizer clays;

from 140 to 220 l/m3packing water,

the total quantity of clinker in the concrete solution is less than or equal to 200 kg/m3;

thus, the amount of clinker + number of volatile ashes greater than or equal to 240 kg/m3. Preferably additional materials are limestone powder.

Preferably the minimum quantity of the said clinker in kg/m3determined by the following formula (II bis):

[(-0,021×SSBk)+250]×(Eeff÷140)Formula (II bis),

in which SSBkis the specific surface according to blaine clinker is, expressed in cm2/g

Eeffis the amount of sealing water in l/m3.

Preferably the minimum quantity of the said clinker in kg/m3determined by the following formula (II ter):

[(-0,021×SSBk)+270]×(Eeff÷140)Formula (II ter),

in which SSBkis the specific surface according to blaine clinker, expressed in cm2/g

Eeffis the amount of sealing water in l/m3.

If the quantity of clinker, calculated using the above formulas (II), (II bis) and (II ter)exceeds 200 kg/m3that means, the composition of the concrete solution is not included in the scope of the invention, i.e. in concretes with a low content of clinker.

As mentioned above in relation to formula (I) and (I bis), formula (II), (II bis) and (II ter) are empirical formulas that can be applied simply by changing the specific surface according to blaine clinker and quantity of packing water, expressed in units specified in the description (cm2/g or l/m3). For example, when applying formula (II) with the values from the example CV1-1, for which the specific surface according to blaine clinker equal 7041 cm2/g and the amount of the sealing water is 165,1 l/m3the minimum amount of clinker is:

[(-0,021×SSB )+230]×(Eeff÷140)

[(-0,021×7041)+230]×(165,1÷140)

[-147,861+230]×1,18

82,139×1,18

to 96.9 kg/m3

Preferably the minimum amount of clinker in concrete in accordance with the present invention is determined using the following table, depending on the specific surface according to blaine clinker and the number of the sealing water (instead of using formulas (II), (II bis) and (II ter)):

106,93 44,69
SSBkThe minimum amount of clinker (kg/m3)
(cm2/g)Eeff=140Eeff=150Eeff=160Eeff=170Eeff=180Eeff=190Eeff=200Eeff=210Eeff=220
l/m3l/m3l/m3l/m3l/m3l/m3l/m3l/m3l/m3
4500135,5145,18154,86164,54174,21183,89193,57203,25212,93
4600133,4142,93152,46161,99171,51181,04190,57200,1209,63
4700131,3140,68150,06159,44168,81178,19187,57196,95206,33
4800to 129.2138,43147,66156,89166,11175,34184,57193,8203,03
4800127,1136,18 145,26154,34163,41172,49181,57190,65199,73
5000125133,93142,86151,79160,71169,64178,57187,5196,43
5100122,9131,68140,46149,24158,01166,79175,57184,35193,13
5200120,8129,43138,06146,69155,31163,94172,57181,2189,83
5300118,7127,18135,66144,14152,61 161,09169,57178,05186,53
5400116,6124,93133,26141,59149,91158,24166,57174,9183,23
5500114,5122,68130,86139,04147,21155,39163,57171,75179,93
5600to 112.4120,43128,46136,49144,51152,54160,57168,6176,63
5700110,3118,18126,06133,94141,81149,69157,57165,45 173,33
5800to 108.2115,93123,66131,39139,11146,84154,57162,3170,03
5900106,1113,68121,26128,84136,41143,99151,57159,15166,73
6000104111,43118,86126,29133,71141,14148,57156163,43
6100101,9109,18116,46123,74131,01138,29145,57152,85160,13
620099,8114,06121,19128,31135,44142,57149,7156,83
630097,7104,68111,66118,64125,61132,59139,57146,55153,53
640095,6to 102.43109,26116,09122,91129,74136,57143,4150,23
660093,5100,18106,86113,54120,21126,89133,57140,25146,93
660091,497,93104,46110,99 117,51124,04130,57137,1143,63
670089,395,68102,06108,44114,81121,19127,57133,95140,33
680087,293,4399,66105,89112,11118,34124,57130, 8mm137,03
690085,191,1897,26103,34109,41115,49121,57127,65133,73
70008388,9394,86100,79106,71112,64118,57 124,5130,43
710080,986,6892,4698,24104,01109,79115,57121,35127,13
720078,884,4390,0695,69101,31106,94112,57118,2123,83
730076,782,1887,6693,1498,61104,09109,57115,05120,53
740074,679,9385,2690,59to 95.91101,24106,57111,9117,23
7500 72,577,6882,8688,0493,2198,39103,57108,75113,93
760070,475,4380,4685,4990,5195,54100,57105,6110,63
770068,373,1878,0682,9487,8192,6997,57102,45107,33
780066,270,9375,6680,3985,1189,8494,5799,3104,03
790064,168,6873,26 77,8482,4186,9991,5796,15100,73
80006266,4370,8675,2979,7184,1488,579397,43
810059,964,1868,4672,7477,0181,2985,5789,8594,13
820057,861,9366,0670,1974,3178,4482,5786,790,83
830055,759,6863,6667,6471,6175,5979,5 83,5587,53
840053,657,4361,2665,0968,9172,7476,5780,484,23
850051,555,1858,8662,5466,2169,8973,5777,2580,93
860049,452,9356,4659,9963,5167,0470,5774,177,63
870047,350,6854,0657,4460,8164,1967,5770,9574,33
800 45,248,4351,6654,8958,1161,3464,5767,871,03
8900to 43.146,1849,2652,3455,4158,4961,5764,6567,73
90004143,9346,86of 49.7952,71of 55.6458,5761,564,43
910038,941,6844,46is 47.24repossessed a 50.0152,7955,5758,3561,13
920036,839,4342,0647,3149,9452,5755,257,83
930034,737,1839,6642,1444,6147,0949,5752,0554,53
940032,634,9337,2638,5941,91of 44.2446,5748,951,23
950030,532,6834,8637,0439,2141,3943,5745,7547,93

123,86
SSBk
(cm2/g)
The minimum amount of clinker (kg/m3)
Eeff =140Eeff=150Eeff=160Eeff=170Eeff=180Eeff=190Eeff=200Eeff=210Eeff=220
l/m3l/m3l/m3l/m3l/m3l/m3l/m3l/m3l/m3
4500155,5166,61177,71188,82199,93211,04222,14233,25244,36
4600153,4164,36175,31186,27197,23208,19219,14230,1241,06
700 151, 3mm162,11172,91183,72194,53205,34216,14226,95237,76
4800149,2159,86170,51181,17191,83202,49213,14223,8234,46
4800147,1157,61168,11178,62189,13199,64210,14220,65231,16
5000145155,36165,71176,07186,43196,79207,14217,5227,86
5100142,9153,11 163,31173,52183,73193,94204,14214,35224,56
5200140,8150,86160,91170,97181,03191,09201,14211,2221,26
5300138, 7mm148,61158,51168,42178,33188,24198,14208,05217,96
5400136,6146,36156,11165,87175,63185,39195,14204,9214,66
5500134,5144,11153,71163,32172,93 182,54192,14201,75211,36
5600132,4141,86151,31160,77170,23179,69189,14198,6208,06
5700130,3139,61148,91158,22167,53176,84186,14195,45204,76
5600128,2137,36146,51155,67164,83173,99183,14192,3201,46
5900126,1135,11144,11153,12162,13171,14180,14189,15 198,16
6000124132,86141,71150,57159,43168,29177,14186194,86
6100121,9130,61139,31148,02156,73165,44174,14182,85191,56
6200119,8128,36136,91145,47154,03162,59171,14to $ 179.7188,26
6300117,7126,11134,51142,92151,33159,74168,14176,55184,96
6400115,6132,11140,37148,63156,89165,14173,4181,66
6500113,5121,61129,71137,82145,93154,04162,14170,25178,36
6600byr111.4119,36127.31 sq.m135,27143,23151,19159,14167,1175,06
6700109,3117,11124,91132,72140,53148,34156,14163,95171,76
6800107,2114,86122,51130,17 137,83145,49153,14160,8168,46
6900105,1112,61120,11127,62135,13142,64150,14157,65165,16
7000103110,36117,71125,07132,43139,79147,14154,5161,86
7100100,9108,11115,31122,52129,73136,94144,14151,35158,56
720098,8105,86112,91119,97127,03134,09141,14 148,2155,26
730096,7103,61110,51117,42124,33131,24138,14145,05151,96
740094,6101,36108,11114,87121,63128,39135,14141,9148,66
750092,599,11105,71112,32118,93125,54132,14138,75145,36
760090,496,86103,31109,77116,23122,69129,14135,6142,06
7700 88,394,61100,91107,22113,53119,84to 126.14132,45138,76
780086,292,3698,51104,67110,83116,99123,14to 129.3135,46
790084,1to 90.1196,11102,12108,13114,14120,14126,15132,16
80008287,8693,7199,57105,43111,29117,14123128,86
810079,985,6191,31 97,02102,73108,44114,14119,85125,56
820077,883,3688,9194,47100,03105,59111,14of 116.7122,26
830075,781,1186,5191,9297,33102,74108,14113,55118,96
840073,678,8684,1189,3794,6399.89 per105,14110,4115,66
850071,576,6181,7186,8291,9397,04 102,14107,25112,36
860069,474,3679,3184,2789,2394,19schedule rate is now 99.14104,1109,06
870067,372,1176,9181,7286,5391,3496,14100,95105,76
880065,269,8674,5179,1783,8388,4993,14of 97.8102,46
890063,167,6172,1176,6281,1385,6490,1494,65a 99.16
90006165,3669,7174,0778,4382,7987,1491,595,86
9100of 58.963,1167,3171,5275,7379,9484,1488,3592,56
920056,860,8664,9168,9773,0377,0981,14to 85.289,26
930054,758,6162,5166,4270,3374,24a 78.1482,0585,96
940052,656,3660,11/td> 63,8767,6371,3975,1478,982,66
9500a 50.554,1157,7161,3264,9368,5472,1475,7578,36

SSBk
(cm2/g)
The minimum amount of clinker (kg/m3)
Eeff=140Eeff=150Eeff=160Eeff=170Eeff=180Eeff=190Eeff=200Eeff=210Eeff=220
l/m3l/m3l/m3l/m3l/m3l/m3l/m3 l/m3l/m3
4500175,5188,04200,57213,11225,64238,18250,71263,25275,79
4600173,4185,79198,17210,56222,94235,33247,71260,1272,49
4700is 171.3183,54195,77208,01220,24232,48244,71256,95269,19
4800169,2181,29193,37205,46217,54229,63241,71253,8265,9
4900167,1179,04190,97202,91214,84226,78238,71250,65262,59
5000165176,79188,57200,36212,14223,93235,71of 247.5259,29
5100162,9174,54186,17197,81209,44221,08232,71244,35255,99
5200160,8172,29183,77195,26206,74218,23229,71241,2252,69
5300158,7 170,04181,37192,71204,04215,38226,71238,05249,39
5400of 156.6167,79178,97190,16201,34212,53223,71234,9246,09
5500154,5165,54176,57187,61198,64209,68220,71231,75242,79
5600152,4163,29174,17185,06195,94206,83217,71228,6239,49
5700150,3161,04171,77182,51 193,24203,98214,71225,45236,19
5800148,2158,79169,37179,96190,54201,13211,71222,3232,89
5800146,1156,54166,97177,41187,84198,28208,71219,15229,59
6000144154,29164,57174,86185,14195,43205,71216226,29
6100141,9152,04162,17172,31182,44192,58202,71 212,85222,99
6200139,8149,79159,77169,76179,74189,73199,71209,7219,69
6300137,7147,54157,37167,21177,04186,88196,71206,55216,39
6400135,6145,29154,97164,66174,34184,03193,71203,4213,09
6500133,5143,04152,57162,11171,64181,18190,71200,25209,79
6600 to 131.4140,79150,17159,56168,94178,33187,71197,1206,49
6700to 129.3138,54147,77157,01166,24175,48184,71193,95203,19
6800127,2136,29145,37154,46163,54172,63181,71190,8199,89
6900125,1134,04142,97151,91160,84169,78178,71187,65196,59
7000123131,79 140,57149,36158,14166,93175,71184,5193,29
7100120,9129,54138,17146,81155,44164,08172,71181,35189,99
7200118,8127,29135,77144,26152,74161,23169,71178,2186,69
7300of 116.7125,04133,37141,71150,04158,38166,71175,05183,39
7400114,6122,79130,97139,16147,34 155,53163,71171,9180,09
7500112,5120,54128,57136,61144,64152,68160,71168,75176,79
7600110,4118,29126,17134,06141,94149,83157,71165,6173,49
7700108,3116,04123,77131,51139,24146,98154,71162,45170,19
7800106,2113,79121,37128,96136,54144,13151,71159,3 166,89
7900104,1111,54118,97126,41133,84141,28148,71156,15163,59
8000102109,29116,57123,86131,14138,43145,71153160,29
810099,9107,04114,17121,31128,44135,58142,71149,85156,99
8200of 97.8104,79111,77118,76125,74132,73139,71146,7153,69
830095,7 102,54109,37116,21123,04129,88136,71143,55150,39
840093,6100,29106,97113,66120,34127,03133,71140,4147,09
850091,5to 98.04104,57111,11117,64124,18130,71137,25143,79
860089,495,79102,17108,56114,94121,33127,71134,1140,49
8700of 87.393,5499,77106,01 112,24118,48124,71130,95137,19
8800to 85.291,2997,37103,46109,54115,63121,71uniforms, 127.6133,89
890083,189,0494,97100,91106,84112,78118,71124,65130,59
90008186,79to 92.5798,36104,14109,93115,71121,5127,29
910078,984,5490,1795,81101,44107,08112,71 118,35123,99
9200of 76.882,2987,7793,2698,74104,23109,71115,2120,69
930074,780,0485,3790,7196,04101,38106,71112,05117,39
940072,677,7982,9788,1693,3498,53103,71108,9114,09
950070,575,5480,5785,6190,6495,68100,71105,75EUR 110.79

Preferably, the minimum number is the amount in kg/m 3additional materials with a Dv90 less than or equal to 200 μm, chosen among the limestone powders, calcined shale, metakaolin, siliceous fillers, powders of silica, puzzolana, slag, fly ash and mixtures thereof, is determined by the following formula (III bis):

250-(number of volatile ashes)-(quantity of clinker)-(number of sulfate of an alkali metal)-(number of source SO3)

Formula (III bis)

If you use the above formulas (III) or (III bis) receive a value below 0, it means that there is no need to add additional materials to obtain the above characteristics.

According to a variant, the concrete composition of the solution in accordance with the present invention does not contain a plasticizer. Under the "plasticizer" in the framework of the present invention should be understood plasticizer is a water reducing agent or superplasticizer-water reducing agent according to the standard NF EN 934-2.

Under "kg/m3" we need to understand the weight of the materials used on m3the resulting concrete.

Preferably additional materials are limestone powder.

Preferably the quantity of the said clinker is less than 180 kg/m3preferably less than 150 kg/m3preferably less than 120 kg/m3.

According to a variant of the method of obtaining concrete races the thief in accordance with the present invention, the number of used packing water ranges from 140 to 200 l/m3preferably from 150 to 180 l/m3. According to some versions, this is the number of the sealing water is less in comparison with the classical concrete.

Preferred fillers include sand and fine gravel, and the mass ratio of the amount of sand and the amount of gravel ranges from 1.5/1 to 1/1,8, in particular from 1.25/1 to 1/1,4, in particular from 1.2/1 to 1/1,2, and ideally equal to or close to 1/1.

According to private options perform, the materials have the same characteristics that have been described in relation mixes and pre-mixes in accordance with the present invention.

Stirring is carried out in a conventional mixer concrete mixing plant or directly into the truck mixer within the normal field of time.

The concrete composition of the solution obtained according to the invention have mechanical properties comparable, preferably at least the same or even better than the classic concrete type C25/30, in particular with regard to the resistance to compression after 16 hours and after 28 days from the point of view of rheology.

In particular, according to a variant implementation of the invention, the average compressive strength greater than or equal to 6 MPa, preferably greater than or equal to 7 MPa at 20°C after 24 hours, prevyshaet or equal to 25 MPa, preferably greater than or equal to 28 MPa at 28 days after mixing.

According to a variant of the method of obtaining a concrete solution in accordance with the present invention, sludge Abrams cone (or the value of slump) is from 0 to 250 mm, preferably from 100 to 240 mm, and the measurement is made according to European standard EN 12350-2 from December 1999.

According to a variant of the method of obtaining a concrete solution in accordance with the present invention, RASPLAV within minutes ranges from 50 to 140 mm, preferably from 85 to 105 mm on a cone according to ASTM S230 in the absence of vibrations.

According to a variant of the method of obtaining a concrete solution in accordance with the present invention, RASPLAV within minutes ranges from 180 to 270 mm, preferably from 215 to 235 mm cone according to ASTM S230 in the presence of vibrations, the measurement was performed, as shown below in example 6.

Thus, the concrete in accordance with the present invention have rheological properties that are equivalent to the classical concrete C25/30 or C20/25.

Preferably the concrete in accordance with the present invention are threshold concretes. Under "threshold concrete" shall mean the concrete (concrete solution), which requires the application of positive energy (for example, shearing forces, vibration or shock)that he is Achal to flow. In contrast doorsteps concrete flows out by itself without application of external energy. Thus, when the energy value is below the threshold, the threshold concrete behaves as a deformable elastic solid, and when the energy value above the threshold as a viscous liquid.

The amount of clinker used for preparation of concrete in accordance with the present invention, much smaller than the number required to prepare classic concrete type C25/30 or C20/25, which allows to obtain a significant gain from the point of view of the allocation of CO2. Compared with the control composition C25/30, which contains 95 kg/m3limestone and 257 kg/m3cement concrete in accordance with the present invention, containing, for example, from 100 to 120 kg/m3clinker reduces emissions of CO2approximately 50-60%.

Concrete in accordance with the present invention can be laid in the usual way: after hydration/curing get the design of solid concrete, such as elements of design, elements of art, etc.

The following examples illustrate the invention without restricting its scope.

EXAMPLES

Method of laser grain size analysis

Based on the data of the laser granulometer Malvern MS2000 build granulometries the s curves for different powders. The measurement is performed in conditions of moisture (water environment); the particle size should be from 0.02 μm to 2 mm as a light source used red laser HeNe (632 nm) and blue led (466 nm). The optical model is a model of Fraunhofer computing matrix is the matrix polydisperse type.

First, provide measurements of background noise when pump speed is 2000 rpm, when the stirrer speed of 800 rpm and the noise is measured for 10 s in the absence of ultrasounds. During phase calibration/measurement of white light machine check that the light power of the laser was at least equal to 80 % and to receive the descending exponential curve for the background noise. If this result is not achieved, the lens apparatus must be wiped.

Then make a first measurement on the sample with the following parameters: pump speed 2000 rpm, speed stirrer 800 rpm, no ultrasounds. The sample is injected in such a way as to obtain the dimming from 10%to 20%. Under the "darkening" shall mean the weakening of the laser signal, suspension, circulating between the emitter and the Central sensor (by turbidimetry). Dimming 100% corresponds to the full overlap of the signal. Dimming 0% is pure translucent fluid without a single particle. Darkening depends on the concentration of solid substances the TV in suspension and from the refractive index of the particles. After stabilization dimmable measure with fixed duration between immersion and measurement in 10 seconds Duration time of 30 (30000 analyzed diffraction image). In the resulting granulocyte note that some of the powder may be a clot.

Then make the second measurement (not emptying the tank) with ultrasounds. The pump speed was adjusted to 2500 rpm, and the emission of ultrasounds is 100% (30 watts). This mode was incubated for 3 minutes, then return to the original settings: pump speed 2000 rpm, speed stirrer 800 rpm, no ultrasounds. After 10 s (to remove possible air bubbles) provide measurements after 30 seconds (30000 analyzed images). This second dimension corresponds to powder, scattered due to ultrasonic dispersion.

Each measurement is repeated at least twice to verify the stability of the result. The instrument is calibrated before each work session using a standard sample (silica C10 Sifraco) with known particle size distribution curve. All measurements presented in the description, and these intervals of values correspond to the values obtained with ultrasounds.

Method of measuring the specific surface area BET

Specific on Ernest different powders is measured as follows. A sample is taken of the powder of the following masses: 01-02 g for the evaluation of the specific surface of more than 30 m2/g; 0.3 g for the specific surface area, estimated at 10-30 m2/g; 1 g for the specific surface area, estimated at 3-10 m2/g; 1.5 g for the specific surface area, estimated at 2-3 m2/g; 2 g for the specific surface area, estimated at 1.5-2 m2/g; 3 g for the specific surface area, estimated at 1-1 .5 m2/year

Use the measuring cell 3 cm3or 9 cm3depending on the sample volume. Weigh kit measuring cell (cell+glass rod). Then the cell was placed a sample: the product should not be at a distance of not less than a millimeter from the top of the narrow cell. Weigh kit (cell+glass rod+sample). The measuring cell installed on degassing post, and removed from the sample gas. Parameters degassing are 30 min/45°C for Portland cement, gypsum, pozzolana; 3 hours/200°C for slag, microclimates, volatile ashes, aluminous cement, limestone; and 4 hours/300°C for the control of alumina. Weigh the package and note the result. All weighing produce without the tube. The mass of the sample is obtained by subtracting the mass of the cell from the cell mass + degassed sample.

Then analyze the sample by placing it on the measuring position. The analyzer is is SA 3100 from Beckman Coulter. The measurement is based on nitrogen adsorption by the sample at a given temperature, in this case, when the temperature of liquid nitrogen, namely -196°C. the instrument measures the pressure of the control cells, in which the adsorbed substance is under pressure saturating steam and under pressure cell sample, which pump a known volume of adsorbed substances. The resulting curve obtained from these measurements, represents the adsorption isotherm. In the process of measurement, it is necessary to know the void volume of the cell: therefore, before the analysis of this measure volume using helium.

As an option, take the previously calculated the mass of the sample. The BET surface is determined at using a computer program by linear regression on the basis of the experimental curve. The standard deviation of reproducibility obtained from 10 measurements on silica with a specific surface area 21,4 m2/g is of 0.07. The standard deviation of reproducibility obtained from 10 measurements on the cement with a specific surface area of 0.9 m2/g is 0.02. Every two weeks checks on the control product. Twice a year stateful inspection alumina obtained from the manufacturer.

Method of measuring the specific surface according to blaine

The specific surface according to blaine determined according to standard EN 1966, paragraph 4.

Raw materials

Preferably use the following source materials.

Cement:use cement CPA CEM I 52.5 R (manufacturing Lafarge seaman - cement plant of Saint-Pierre La Hens, called “SPLC”). This cement, as is well known, contains 90-95% of clinker, 0.5 to 3% limestone and 2-5% gypsum+hemihydrate+anhydrite and, possibly, the grinding agent and/or reducing agents chromium VI. Thus, this cement contains at least 90% of clinker. This cement is crushed using a pneumatic grinder with air jets in opposite directions Hosokawa Alpine AFG200. The rotation speed of the turbine is adjusted so as to obtain the desired fineness of grind (16 or 19 μm). For the examples used two parties. The first party is called "SPLC-dv97=16 μm, for which the fineness is characterized by the value dv97 equal mm, and the second game is called "SPLC-dv97=19 μm, for which the fineness is characterized dv97 equal to 19 microns.

For the control concrete (control C25/30) using the HTS cement CPA CEM I 52.5 PEMS, called "Les TEI" (supplier Lafarge).

Calcium sulfate:use powdered anhydrite production Lafarge Platr - quarry Mazan, Vaucluse, France.

Volatile ash:use four types of volatile ashes:

- fly ash class C (ASTM C618), obtained from thermal power plant of TRANSALTA located in Andes, Alberta, Canada;

- fly ash class V (NF EN 197-1), obtained from the EDF thermal power plant, located in Le Havre, France;

- fly ash class V (NF EN 197-1), obtained from thermal power plant Popiol, Poland; and

- fly ash class W (NF EN 450-1), obtained from thermal power plant of Termoelektrarna, Sostanj, Slovenia. This ash is called “TES”.

Additional materials:use the following limestone filler:

- BL200 (provider Omiya train station) with a specific surface area BET 0,86 m2/g and with a value of methylene blue MBF0.3 g/100 g according to the standard NF EN 933-9.

The characteristics of the different components used in the examples in the table below:

NameSPLC
dv97=MC
SPLC
dv97=MC
Fly ash SundanceFly ash Le HavreFly ash PopiolFly ash TESCalcium sulfateBL 200
SiO2(%)20,1520,3854,7050,9849,664,69 1,690,00
Al2O3(%)4,914,8523,2826,7324,8019.01 in0,270,03
Fe2O3(%)3,053,033,824,74of 5.75the 9.70,100,03
CaO(%)64,6264,7110,924,143,8511,7538,8155,55
MgO(%)0,970,911,081,732,682,551,560,16
K2O(%)0,920,86 1,653,00of 2.210,050,00
Na2O(%)0,210,163,150,530,991,060,040,03
SO3(%)3,23of 3.070,200,740,72of 1.5752,000,00
BET specific surface (m2/g)1,831,601,312,383,946,998,10,79
The specific surface according to blaine (cm2/g)7 0416 364 4 093
Density (g/cm3)3,183,152,092,312,182,22,872,73
Dv90(µm)12,914,770,67107,27161,11157,8866,6043,30

Activators:use

1) sodium sulfate powder (Na2SO4supplied WWR-Prolabo. Used product has a purity of less than 99% and a molecular weight of 142,040 g/mol. It contains 43,6% Na2O and 56.4% SO3;

2) lithium sulfate powder (Li2SO4)supplied by Sigma-Aldrich. Used product has a purity of less than 98,0% and the molecular weight 109,94 g/mol. It contains 27,1% Li2O and 72,9% SO3;

3) potassium sulfate powder (2SO4)supplied by Sigma-Aldrich. Used product has a purity of less than 98,0% and the molecular weight 174,26 g/mol. It contains 35,6% Off2O and 46,0% SO3;

4) lithium hydroxide powder (LiOH.H2O), supplied Chemetall GMBH. The product contains 57% LiOH, that is here 74,0% Li 2O;

5) sodium carbonate powder (Na2CO3)supplied by Sigma-Aldrich. Used product has a purity of less than 99,0% and the molecular weight 105,99 g/mol. It contains 58.5% of Na2O;

6) sodium chloride powder (NaCl), supplied by Sigma-Aldrich. Used product is clean and has a molecular mass of 58,44 g/mol. It contains 53,0% Na2O;

7) sodium nitrate powder (NaNO3supplied WWR-Prolabo. Used product has a purity not less than 99.5%pure. It contains 36.5% Na2O.

Supplement:The examples use the following products:

- plasticizer "Chrysoplast 209" from Criso representing the lignosulfonate used in liquid form and having a dry extract of 34.4% and a density of 1.15;

- plasticizer "Prelom 300" from BASF, which are polycarboxylate applied in liquid form and having a dry extract of 13.7% and a density of 1.03.

Placeholders:use the materials listed below:

- sand Honfleur with a maximum diameter less than or equal to 4 mm (0/4R) (rounded alluvial sand; supplier: Lafarge);

- sand Saint bonnet with a maximum diameter less than or equal to 5 mm (0/5) (rounded alluvial sand; producer: Jean Lefebvre);

- aggregates with a maximum diameter of from 6.3 to 10 mm (6.3/10) from Cassis (crushed fine gravel; supplier: Lafarge).

EXAMPLE 1: with Tavi concrete according to the invention

The following compositions are the compositions of the concrete according to the invention, with the exception of the composition of C25/30, which is the reference, and with the exception of compounds CV1-3 and CV4-3. The materials described above. Each number corresponds to the mass of material (kg)used to prepare 1 m3concrete, except water, which is expressed in litres per 1 m3concrete.

The composition of C25/30 (control)

Placeholders Cassis 6,3/10C900
Sand Honfleur 0/4R900
Cement CEM I 52.5 N HTS Le TEI257
Filler BL200
Additive CHRYSOPLAST 209
95
0,54
Total water189

Packing water (Eeff)173
CV1the first series of tests with fly ash Le Havre:
The batch numberCV1-0CV1-1CV1-2 CV1-3CV1-4
Saint bonnet 0/5R920,0920,0920,0920,0920,0
Cassis 6,3/10C920,0920,0920,0920,0920,0
SPLC crushed d97=16 mm120,0120,0120,0120,0120,0
Anhydrite Mazan8,898,898,891,191,19
The LIMESTONE FILLERS BL20029,629,629,629,629,6
CV Le Havre151,1137,4 123,8to 152.0138,3
Eeff165,1165,1165,1165,1165,1
Prelom 3003,383,383,383,383,38
Na2SO40,0013,6727,346,8420,51
Na2Oéq/CV(wt.%)2,27%6,68%12,06%to 4.23%8,80%
SO3/Clinker (wt.%)8,01%14,35%20,68%7,89%14,23%

CV2the second series of tests with fly ash Popiol
The batch numberCV2-0CV2-1CV2-2CV2-3
Saint bonnet 0/5R920,0920,0920,0920,0
Cassis 6,3/10C920,0920,0920,0920,0
SPLC crushed d97=16 mm120,0120,0120,0120,0
Anhydrite Mazan8,568,568,561,15
The LIMESTONE FILLERS BL20018,318,318,318,3
CV Popiol151,4138,4123,8139,3
Eeff 165,1165,1165,1165,1
Prelom 3003,263,263,263,26
Na2SO40,0013,0326,0519,54
Na2Oéq/CV(wt.%)3,61%7,78%12,95%9,79%
SO3/Clinker (wt.%)the 7.85%13,89%of 19.91%13,74%

CV3: the third series of tests with fly ash Sundance
The batch numberCV3-0CV3-1CV3-2CV3-3CV3-4
Saint bonnet 0/5R920,0920,0920,0 920,0920,0
Cassis 6,3/10C920,0920,0920,0920,0920,0
SPLC crushed d97=16 mm120,0120,0120,0120,0120,0
Anhydrite Mazan8,328,328,321,111,11
The LIMESTONE FILLERS BL200the 9.7the 9.7the 9.7the 9.7the 9.7
CV Sundance151,7138,6125,6152,4139,3
Eeff165,1165,1165,1165,1165,1
Prelom 3000,63 0,630,630,630,63
Na2SO40,0013,0726,136,5319,60
Na2Oéq/CV(wt.%)4,35%8,53%13,57%6,21%10,55%
SO3/Clinker (wt.%)7,09%13,20%19,31%7,03%13,15%

CV4: the fourth series of tests with fly ash TES
The batch numberCV4-0CV4-1CV4-2CV4-3CV4-4
Saint bonnet 0/5R920,0920,0920,0920,0920,0
Cassis 6,3/10C920,0920,0920,0920,0920,0
SPLC crushed d97=16 mm120,0120,0120,0120,0120,0
Anhydrite Mazan8,628,628,621,151,15
The LIMESTONE FILLERS BL20020,120,120,120,120,1
CV TES151,4139,2126,9152,7to 140.5
Eeff165,1165,1165,1165,1165,1
Prelom 3003,063,063,06 3,063,06
Na2SO40,0012,2324,466,1218,35
Na2Oéq/CV(wt.%)3,16%7,06%11,70%4,90%8,91%
SO3/Clinker (wt.%)8,95%14,53%20,11%at 8.60%14,18%

Characteristics of the concretes according to the invention

Characteristics of the concretes according to the invention are evaluated according to the following criteria: compression resistance and rheology.

The compression resistance is measured and fabricated cylindrical samples with a diameter of 70, 110 or 160 mm and a span of 2 and polished according to standard NF P18-406, then they are exposed to load before breaking. As for the load, then, according to the Protocol, each sample is wrapped in two or three layers of cellophane tape, centruy it on the lower platform of the press by means of alignment template (setup for mechanical testing capacity of 3000 to the adjustment efforts relevant standards NF P18-411 and 412), set the force of 1 MPa·s, an impact load to rupture according to the standard NF P18-406 and note the value of the load at break. Then the resistance value is determined by dividing the force on the sample section.

Technical requirements include the arithmetic mean of the values of compression resistance greater than 6 MPa after 24 hours and greater than 30 MPa after 28 days.

The aggregate results of measurement of resistance to compression corresponds to the average of 3 separate measurements of resistance in compression.

The result of measurement of resistance to compression are presented below in table 1. It is noted that for the four types of subjects evils without adding activator (compositions CV1-0, CV2-0, CV3-0 and CV4-0) resistance after 28 days does not meet technical requirements. Indeed, the values of compression resistance after 28 days of compositions without activators, respectively, with 23.3 MPa, 23,0 MPa, Or 28.7 MPa and 25.3 MPa. However, as only use the activator and the number of equivalent Na2O in the composition is greater than or equal to 5 wt.% relative to the mass of volatile ashes, resistance values after 28 days significantly increased and comply with the technical requirements. The values of compression resistance after 28 days for compositions in accordance with the present invention have the be in the range from 31,1 MPa for composition CV2-1 and 39.6 MPA for composition CV3-2. Increasing these values of resistance occurs when bringing dosage of activator to the optimal values.

To further improve the characteristics of the compositions in accordance with the present invention, a specialist can find the optimal dosage of the various components by means of simple tests.

On the other hand, the compositions CV1-3 and CV4-3 are not compositions in accordance with the present invention. Indeed, the number of equivalent Na2O in these compositions is less than 5 wt.% relative to the mass of volatile ashes. For these compositions can be noted that the mechanical compression resistance after 28 days below 30 MPa (respectively 28,6 MPa for composition CV1-3 and 29.1 MPa for composition CV4-3). Therefore, the addition of the activator is not a sufficient condition for achieving the stated characteristics. It is necessary that the number of equivalent Na2O in the composition exceeded or was equal to 5 wt.% relative to the mass of volatile ashes.

Table 1
The resistance to compression (Rc in MPa) up to 28 days, measured on the cylinder diameter 70 mm
The batch numberC25/30
counter.
CV1-0CV1-1CV1-2 CV1-3CV1-4
Rc 24 h (MPa)9,86,38,07,8the 10.112,2
Rc 28 days. (MPa)32,223,333,232,728,634,5

The batch numberC25/30
counter.
CV2-0CV2-1CV2-2CV2-3
Rc 24 h (MPa)9,86,07,77,411,3
Rc 28 days. (MPa)32,223,031,131,532,3

The batch numberC25/30
counter.
CV3-1CV3-2CV3-3CV3-4
Rc 24 h (MPa)9,86,57,67,89,911,7
Rc 28 days. (MPa)32,228,736,039,632,5of 37.9

The batch numberC25/30
counter.
CV4-0CV4-1CV4-2CV4-3CV4-4
Rc 24 h (MPa)9,85,57,27,59,8the 11.6
Rc 28 days. (MPa)32,2to 25.335,336,229,135,7

Produce the rheology of the above compositions of concrete. To do this, carry out the measurement of "static" and "vibration" repliva as follows.

Use the cone ASTM described in the standard ASTM S230. The cone is placed on the electromagnetic vibrating table SINEX TS100, equipped with a square pad 600 mm × 600 mm (50 Hz, amplitude 0.5 mm). Measurement of RASPLAV produce on a dry surface. RASPLAV measured in 3 directions and determine the average value, rounded up to 5 mm.

Preparation: in a pot poured 2 liters of dry mixture; produce mixing dry for 30 seconds at low speed; stop mixer; pour the total amount of water and liquid additive; produce stirring for 2 minutes on low speed. At the end of mixing, i.e. after 2 minutes after contact with water (T=2 min), the cone is filled at one time and smooth out the level, then the cone is raised.

At time T=3 min measure "static" RASPLAV after one minute of exposure.

At T=3 min 15 include a vibration with a frequency of 50 Hz and with an amplitude of 0.5 mm with a duration of 30 seconds

At T=3 min 45 measure "vibration" RASPLAV.

The results are presented below in table 2. They show that the concrete prepared according to the invention have good flow characteristics, even and level of classic concrete C25/30. Indeed, vibrating RASPLAV control concrete (C25/30) is equal to 225 mm, and the vibration RASPLAV compositions in accordance with the present invention ranges from 203 mm to composition CV1-1 and 228 mm for composition CV3-4.

Table 2
Rheological characteristics (values replywe are given in mm)
The batch numberC25/30
counter.
CV1-0CV1-1CV1-2CV1-3CV1-4
Vibrating RASPLAV (mm)225228203205213210

210
The batch numberC25/30
counter.
CV2-0CV2-1CV2-2CV2-3
Vibrating RASPLAV (mm)225229209210

The batch numberC25/30
counter.
CV3-0CV3-1CV3-2CV3-3CV3-4
Vibrating RASPLAV (mm)225220224225227228

The batch numberC25/30
counter.
CV4-0CV4-1CV4-2CV4-3CV4-4
Vibrating RASPLAV (mm)225235210213225215

EXAMPLE 2: comparison of different activators - part type C20/25

The following three tables (Activators 1-3) are compounds of the type is 20/25 in accordance with the present invention, except for the composition of A0, which is a control without activator. The following four tables (Activators 4-7) are comparative examples relative to other activators than the one applied in the framework of the invention. The materials previously described in the first part of the examples. Each number corresponds to the mass of material (kg)used to prepare 1 m3concrete. The dosage of plasticizer (rotten 300) govern each part to achieve the rheological tasks: vibration RASPLAV greater than or equal to 210 mm

120
Activator 1- sodium sulfate (Na2SO4)
The batch numberA0A1-1A1-2A1-3
Saint bonnet 0/5R920920920920
Cassis 6,3/10C920920920920
SPLC d97=19 mcm120120120
Anhydrite Mazan0000
The LIMESTONE FILLERS BL20029,629,629,629,6
CV Le Havre160150140130
Eeffto 163.1to 163.1to 163.1to 163.1
Prelom 3004,065,647,459,03
Na2SO40102030
Na2Oéq/CV(wt.%)2,2%5,1%8,5%12,4%
SO3/Clinker (wt.%)3,0%6,4% 9,8%13,2%

Activator 2- sulfate lithium (Li2SO4)
The batch numberA0A2-1A2-2A2-3
Saint bonnet 0/5R920920920920
Cassis 6,3/10C920920920920
SPLC d97=19 mcm120120120120
Anhydrite Mazan0000
The LIMESTONE FILLERS BL20029,629,629,629,6
CV Le Havre160152,2144,4 136,7
Eeffto 163.1to 163.1to 163.1to 163.1
Prelom 3004,065,646,779,03
Li2SO407,8the 15.623,3
Na2Oéq/CV(wt.%)2,2%5,1%8,3%11,9%
SO3/Clinker (wt.%)3,0%6,4%9,9%13,3%

Activator 3- potassium sulfate (K2SO4)
The batch numberA0A3-1
Saint bonnet 0/5R920920
Cassis 6,3/10C920 920
SPLC d97=19 mcm120120
Anhydrite Mazan00
The LIMESTONE FILLERS BL20029,629,6
CV Le Havre160147,8
Eeffto 163.1to 163.1
Prelom 3004,066,77
To2SO4012,25
Na2Oéq/CV(wt.%)2,2%5,2%
SO3/Clinker (wt.%)3,0%6,4%

Activator 4- lithium hydroxide (LiOH.H2O)
The batch numberA0A4-1
Saint bonnet 0/5R920 920
Cassis 6,3/10C920920
SPLC d97=19 mcm120120
Anhydrite Mazan00
The LIMESTONE FILLERS BL20029,629,6
CV Le Havre160154,1
Eeffto 163.1to 163.1
Prelom 3004,066,77
LiOH.H2O05,95
Na2Oéq/CV(wt.%)2,2%5,0%
SO3/Clinker (wt.%)3,0%3,0%

A0
Activator 5- sodium carbonate (Na2CO3)
The batch numberA5-1
Saint bonnet 0/5R920920
Cassis 6,3/10C920920
SPLC d97=19 mcm120120
Anhydrite Mazan00
The LIMESTONE FILLERS BL20029,629,6
CV Le Havre160156, 3mm
Eeffto 163.1to 163.1
Prelom 3004,066,32
Na2CO30to 3.73
Na2Oéq/CV(wt.%)2,2%3,6%
SO3/Clinker (wt.%)3,0%3,0%

The activator 6- sodium chloride (NaCl)
The batch numberA0A6-1A6-2A6-3
Saint bonnet 0/5R920920920920
Cassis 6,3/10C920920920920
SPLC d97=19 mcm120120120120
Anhydrite Mazan0000
The LIMESTONE FILLERS BL20029,629,629,629,6
CV Le Havre160155,9143,5135,35
Eeffto 163.1to 163.1 to 163.1to 163.1
Prelom 3004,064,513,613,16
NaCl08,2516,524,65
Na2Oéq/CV(wt.%)2,2%5,0%8,3%11,9%
SO3/Clinker (wt.%)3,0%3,0%2,9%2,9%

The 7 activator- sodium nitrate (NaNO3)
The batch numberA0A7-1A7-2A7-3
Saint bonnet 0/5R920920920920
Cassis 6,3/10C920920 920920
SPLC d97=19 mcm120120120120
Anhydrite Mazan0000
The LIMESTONE FILLERS BL20029,629,629,629,6
CV Le Havre160148136124,15
Eeffto 163.1to 163.1to 163.1to 163.1
Prelom 3004,066,325,643,38
NaNO30122435,85
Na2Oéq/CV(wt.%)2,2% 5,2%8,7%12,9%
SO3/Clinker (wt.%)3,0%2,9%2,9%2,8%

Evaluation of the characteristics of the above compositions produced according to the same Protocol as in example 1.

Technical requirements include the average compressive strength greater than or equal to 25 MPa after 28 days.

The result of measurement of resistance to compression are presented below in table 3, as well as on the drawing.

Table 3
Compressive strength (MPa) after 28 days, measured on the cylinder diameter 70 mm
Activator 1- sodium sulfate (Na2SO4)
The batch numberA0A1-1A1-2A1-3
Rc 28 days20,127,729,127,8

Activator 2- sulfate lithium (Li2SO4)
The batch numberA0A2-1A2-2A2-3
Rc 28 days20,125,431,026,2

Activator 3- potassium sulfate (K2SO4)
The batch numberA0A3-1
Rc 28 days20,125,6

Activator 4- lithium hydroxide (LiOH.H2O)
The batch numberA0A4-1
Rc 28 days20,120,7

Activator 5- sodium carbonate (Na2CO3)
The batch numberA0A5-1
Rc 28 days 20,116,4

The activator 6- sodium chloride (NaCl)
The batch numberA0A6-1A6-2A6-3
Rc 28 days20,122,118,816,9

The 7 activator- sodium nitrate (NaNO3)
The batch numberA0A7-1A7-2A7-3
Rc 28 days20,122,61815,2

The results show that:

- Batch (A0), not containing activator, shows a lack of compression resistance after 28 days of 20.1 MPa.

- Adding sulfates of alkali metals such as Na2SO4, Li2SO4or K2SO4containing more than 5 wt.% Na2Oéq relative to the weight of volatile ashes, allows the value is positive to increase the resistance after 28 days.

Indeed, addingsodium sulfatewhen the content of 5.1% Na2Oéq relative to the weight of volatile ashes can improve the compression resistance after 28 days from 20.1 MPa to 27.7 MPa. If the dosage of sodium sulfate leads to the content of 8.5% Na2Oéq relative to the weight of volatile ashes, the compression resistance after 28 days reaches of 29.1 MPa. At the dosage of sodium sulfate, resulting in the content of Na2Oéq 12.4% relative to the weight of volatile ashes, the compression resistance after 28 days is slightly lower than the content of 8.5%, and reaches up 27.8 MPa. Therefore, there is an optimum value of the quantity of sodium sulfate.

On the other hand, addingsulfate lithiumwhen the content of 5.1% Na2Oéq relative to the weight of volatile ashes can improve the compression resistance after 28 days from 20.1 MPa to 25.4 MPa. If the dosage of lithium sulfate leads to the content of 8.3% Na2Oéq relative to the weight of volatile ashes, the compression resistance after 28 days reaches 31,0 MPa. At the dosage of lithium sulfate, resulting in the content of Na2Oéq 11.9% relative to the weight of volatile ashes, the compression resistance after 28 days is a bit lower than when the content of 8.3%, and reaches to 26.2 MPa. Therefore, in this case, too, there is an optimum value of the quantity of lithium sulfate.

- In addition,sulfate potassiumresulting content is 5.2% of Na 2Oéq relative to the weight of volatile ashes, allows you to increase the compression resistance after 28 days from 20.1 MPa to 25.6 MPa.

On the other hand, addinghydroxide lithiumthat leads to the content of 5.0% Na2Oéq relative to the weight of volatile ashes, has a very limited impact on the compression resistance after 28 days, which increased from 20,1 MPa to 20.7 MPa. The dosage of lithium hydroxide to increase impossible. Indeed, over the tested dosages is worsening rheological characteristics, which cannot be compensated by increasing the addition of plasticizer (Prelom 300).

- Similarly, addingsodium carbonatethat leads to the content of 3.6% Na2Oéq relative to the weight of volatile ashes, reduces the compression resistance after 28 days, which goes from 20,1 MPa to a value of 16.4 MPa. To use sodium carbonate to exceed the threshold of 5% Na2Oéq relative to the weight of volatile ashes proved impossible, because the rheological characteristics deteriorate sharply, and this deterioration cannot be compensated for by increasing the dosage of plasticizer (Prelom 300).

- Similarly, addingsodium chloridethat leads to the content of 5.0% Na2Oéq relative to the weight of volatile ashes, has a very limited impact on the compression resistance after 28 days, which increased from 20,1 MPa to 22.1 MPa. If the increase is ü the dosage of sodium chloride, resistance values decrease and become lower than the resistances of the composition without the activator.

- Similarly, addingsodium nitratethat leads to the content of 5.2% Na2Oéq relative to the weight of volatile ashes, has a very limited impact on the compression resistance after 28 days, which increased from 20,1 MPa to 22.6 MPa. If you increase the dosage of sodium nitrate, the resistance values decrease and become lower than the resistances of the composition without the activator.

Thus, the sulfates of alkali metals are the only proven in trials activators to meet the technical requirements to achieve the average compression resistance greater than or equal to 25 MPa after 28 days.

1. Preliminary dry pungent mixture containing, in wt.%:
Portland cement clinker with a specific surface area according to blaine, component from 4500 to 9500 cm2/g, preferably from 5500 to 8000 cm2/g, while the minimum quantity of the said clinker in mass relative to the total mass of the pre-blend is determined by the following formula (I):

in which SSBkis the specific surface according to blaine, expressed in cm2/g;
- volatile ash;
- at least one alkali metal sulfate, the number of Sul the veil alkali metal is determined so to the number of equivalent Na2O in the preliminary mixture exceeded or was equal to 5 wt.% in relation to the mass of volatile ashes;
at least one source of SO3in an amount such that the number of SO3in the preliminary mixture exceeded or was equal to 2 wt.% in relation to the mass of Portland cement clinker;
- additional materials having a Dv90 less than or equal to 200 μm, which are selected from powders of limestone,
thus, the amount of clinker + number of volatile ashes greater than or equal to 75 wt.%, preferably 78 wt.% with respect to the total mass of the pre-mixture;
the total quantity of clinker in the preliminary mixture is strictly less than 60 wt.% with respect to the total mass of the pre-mixture.

2. Preliminary mixture according to claim 1, additionally containing at least one source of calcium.

3. Preliminary mixture according to claim 1 or 2, in which the sulfate of an alkali metal selected from sodium sulfate, potassium sulfate, lithium sulfate, and mixtures thereof.

4. Preliminary mixture according to claim 1 or 2, in which the alkali metal sulfate is sodium sulfate.

5. Preliminary mixture according to claim 1 or 2, in which a source of calcium selected from calcium salts and mixtures thereof.

6. Dry pungent mixture containing, in wt.% with respect to the total weight of the mixture:
- at least 10% of the pre-mixture is according to one of claims 1 to 5; and
up to 90% of placeholders.

7. The composition of the concrete solution containing from 140 to 220 l/m3packing water in conjunction with:
- at least 10% of the pre-mixture according to one of claims 1 to 5; and
up to 90% fillers;
when this mass percentages are expressed in relation to the total dry weight of the composition.

8. The design of the hardened concrete composition according to claim 7.

9. The method of obtaining the composition of a concrete solution, comprising the steps:
- mixing the mixture according to claim 6, from 140 to 220 l/m3the mixing water; or
- mixing the pre-mixture according to one of claims 1 to 5 using placeholders and from 140 to 220 l/m3mixing water.

10. The method of obtaining the composition of a concrete solution according to claim 9, including the step of mixing:
- Portland cement clinker with a specific surface area according to blaine, component from 4500 to 9500 cm2/g, preferably from 5500 to 8000 cm2/g, while the minimum quantity of the said clinker in kg/m3determined by the following formula (II):
,
in which SSBkis the specific surface according to blaine clinker, expressed in cm2/g, a Eeffis the amount of mixing water in l/m3;
- flying angry;
- at least one alkali metal sulfate, the number of sulfate of an alkali metal determine thisway, to the number of equivalent Na2O binder exceeded or was equal to 5 wt.% in relation to the mass of volatile ashes;
at least one source of SO3in an amount such that the number of SO3in binder exceeded or was equal to 2 wt.% in relation to the mass of Portland cement clinker;
- additional materials having a Dv90 less than or equal to 200 μm, which are selected from powders of limestone, the minimum amount which in kg/m3determined by the following formula (III):

from 1500 to 2200 kg/m3preferably from 1700 to 2000 kg/m3placeholders;
plasticizer;
perhaps, accelerator, and/or air entraining additives, and/or viscosity modifier and/or retarder, and/or neutralizer clay; using
from 140 to 220 l/m3packing water,
the total quantity of clinker in the concrete solution is less than or equal to 200 kg/m3;
thus, the amount of clinker + number of volatile ashes greater than or equal to 240 kg/m3.

11. A method of obtaining a cast concrete solution, comprising the steps:
- laying the concrete composition solution according to claim 7 or concrete composition solution obtained using the method according to claim 9 or 10.

12. A method of manufacturing a concrete structure, comprising the steps:
- hardening of the concrete composition RA the creators according to claim 7, the concrete composition of the solution obtained according to the method according to claim 9 or 10, or song cast concrete solution according to item 11.

13. The use of at least one alkali metal sulfate and possibly at least one source of calcium for activation of volatile resins in the preliminary mixture according to claims 1-5, in the mixture according to claim 6, the composition of a concrete solution according to claim 7 or one of the ways p-12.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to structured granulated composition of binding agent, suitable for preparation of cement mass, to concrete mass, containing such granulated composition, as well as to methods of their preparation and to equipment for preparation of said granulated composition. Granulated composition consists of granules, each of which contains metakaolin agglomerate as pozzolanic binder, where pozzolanically active part includes metakaolin, 10-80% of which are represented by agglomerate, and filler particles, to surface of which particles of hydraulic binder are bound. In the method of said granulated composition preparation first, plasticiser is bound to surface of calcium carbonate particles, after which formed particles are bound to surface of filler particles, and finally, particles of hydraulic binder are bound to filler particles via particles, which contain calcium carbonate and plasticiser. Concrete mass contains said granulated composition, finely disperse and coarse-grained fillers. In the method of said concrete mass preparation finely disperse and coarse-grained fillers are added into said granulated composition. Equipment for preparation of said granulated composition.

EFFECT: increased strength of concrete, obtained on the basis of granulated composition of binding agent.

20 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex

Binder // 2524698

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: binder, which contains portland cement, a ground silica-containing component and an alkaline activator with metal cations, contains as the ground silica-containing component quartz sand with specific surface area of 300 m2/kg, as said activator Humate +7 with pH 12-13, added in form of a 2% aqueous solution by mixing with said sand and holding for 10 minutes, with the following ratio of components, wt %: portland cement 70-85, said sand 15-30, said Humate +7 0.1-0.2 per dry substance over 100.

EFFECT: high compression strength after 28 days, wider range of use of an alkaline activator for a silicon-containing component, simple production technique.

3 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a binding composition, a construction composition containing said binding composition, a method of preparing said construction composition and use thereof. The binding composition contains: a) sol in amount of 30.0-70.0% of the total weight of the binding composition; b) an additional composition in amount of 0.1-5.0% of the total weight of the binding composition, wherein the additional composition contains one or more components from group (b1) and one or more components from group (b2), where group (b1) consists of metal chlorides and group (b2) consists of silicon dioxide, zeolite and apatite, wherein one or more of components from group (b1) accounts for 70.0-99.0% of the total weight of components (b1) and (b2), and one or more components from group (b2) account for 1.0-30.0% of the total weight of components (b1) and (b2), c) cement in amount of 25.0-69.9% of the total weight of the binding composition. The construction composition contains said binding composition and a basic component with maximum particle size of 28 mm in amount of at least 15% of the weight of the basic component. The method of preparing the construction composition involves mixing binder and the basic component with water, possibly followed by compaction of the obtained mixture. The construction composition can be used to reinforce soil and making structural elements.

EFFECT: high strength and environmental protection.

16 cl, 10 tbl, 6 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to dry construction mixtures and can be used in production of construction materials for laying outer and inner walls of buildings and structures, as well as plastering and finishing work. The dry construction mixture contains the following in wt %: portland cement 35-70, finely ground volcanic sand from Kantyshevo deposits 30-65.

EFFECT: high efficiency of construction works, possibility of using the mixture for different types of construction works, high strength and reliability of the construction material during multiple freezing to minus 20°C and thawing.

2 tbl

Binder // 2412920

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of construction materials and can be used in making composite binder. The binder contains the following, %: CEM 1 cement 75-90, mineral additive - ground gaise subjected to preliminary thermal processing for 15-25 minutes at temperature 450-510°C and having specific surface area of not less than 660 m2/kg - the rest.

EFFECT: high strength of hardened cement paste.

1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: binding composition including cement containing hydraulic cement and one or more fillers added to it or mixed with cement and water, at the same time cement contains more than 20 wt %, finely ground aplite. Concrete made of specified binding composition. Using finely ground aplite as component of cement.

EFFECT: increased density and mechanical strength.

19 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl

Binder // 2389699

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of construction materials and can be used in making mortar. The binder contains portland cement and pearlite, mechanically activated with superplasticiser S-3 through joint wet grinding with ratio of solid substance to water equal to 1:(0.3-1) until attaining specific surface area not less than 20000 cm2/g and drying the obtained suspension, with ratio of superplasticiser S-3 to pearlite equal to (0.01-0.1):1.

EFFECT: increased strength and density of hardened cement paste, reduced water permeability and reduced water to cement ratio.

1 ex

FIELD: building materials and industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to compositions of cements and can be used in preparing novel species of cements used in building. Proposed cement containing mineral additives comprises Portland cement clinker, gypsum dihydrate and magnesium-silicate mountain rock wehrlite in the following ratio of components, wt.-%: wehrlite, 25-30; Portland cement clinker, 70-75, and gypsum dihydrate, 2 of mass of mixture of wehrlite and Portland cement. Cement is prepared by combined grinding in a core-type vibration device for 10 min. Invention provides enhancing strength and decreasing cost of cement.

EFFECT: improved and valuable properties of cement.

3 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: building materials.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the binding agent composition. Binding agent for laying solution comprising Portland cement clinker, gypsum and mineral additive contains adsorbent, plasticizing agent and ground silica-containing mineral. Zeolite is used as adsorbent. Powdered brucite is added to mineral additive additionally, and semi-roasted dolomite is used as a plasticizing agent in the following ratio of components, wt.-%: Portland cement clinker, 35-42; gypsum, 3-5; semi-roasted dolomite, 27-35; powdered brucite, 6-10; zeolite, 5-7; ground silica-containing mineral, 15-17. Invention can be used in laying solution designated for laying external brick walls of residences and civil buildings. Invention provides reducing heat conductivity due to decreasing water content in cement stone, retention of high strength indices that are provides by hydration processes with release of unbound water and its adsorbing.

EFFECT: improved and valuable properties of binding agent.

2 tbl, 10 ex

Unburned binder // 2168472
The invention relates to compositions of cements and can be used to produce Portland cement, mortars and concretes based on them

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: raw mixture for production of coarse aggregate shell contains, wt %: Portland cement 30.0-35.0; casein glue 4.0-7.0; fly ash 28.0-31.0; water 30.0-35.0.

EFFECT: increase of bonding strength of shell with the surface of the coarse aggregate.

1 tbl

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: raw mixture for production of artificial rock includes, wt %: Portland cement 26-30, silica sand 48.44-56.9, water 16-20, fibrous metal-ceramics 1.0-1.5, phenyletoxisiloxane 0.06-0.1.

EFFECT: increase of strength.

2 tbl

Concrete mixture // 2530038

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: concrete mixture comprises, wt %: Portland cement 25.0-27.0; characterized by particle-size composition, wt %: particles larger than 0.63 mm, but smaller than 1 mm - 0.2; larger than 0.315 mm, but smaller than 0.63 mm - 4.8; larger than 0.14 mm, but smaller than 0.315 mm - 62; smaller than 0.14 mm - 33 ash and slag filler 15.0-19.0; slag pumice with density of 0.4-1.6 g/cm3 crushed and sieved through mesh No. 10 - 30.3-34.3; aluminium powder 0.1-0.2; superplasticizing admixture C-3 - 0.5-0.6; water - 23.0-25.0.

EFFECT: increase of concrete strength.

1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: crude mixture for producing material which imitates natural stone, which includes ground mica and liquid glass, further contains water, white portland cement, quartz sand, green phthalocyanine pigment or light-blue phthalocyanine pigment, with the following ratio of components, wt %: ground mica which is sieved through sieve N5 35.0-40.0, liquid glass 3.0-5.0, water 16.0-18.0, white portland cement 27.0-31.0, quartz sand 10.7-13.9, green phthalocyanine pigment or light-blue phthalocyanine pigment 0.1-0.3.

EFFECT: high water-resistance.

1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction materials and specifically to multicomponent dry construction mixtures, and can be used in making a thin reinforced cladding for large concrete blocks in large concrete block building construction, including for repairing the surface of large concrete blocks, floor slabs, supporting frames etc. The dry construction mixture includes mineral binder, natural quartz sand and crushed limestone screenings, a complex additive UP-4 and waste polypropylene fibres, with the following ratio of components, wt %: portland cement - 19.65-18.7, natural quartz sand Mk-1.82 - 43.0-37.0, crushed limestone screenings with particle size of 0-5 mm - 37.0-44.0, complex additive UP-4 - 0.15-0.1, waste polypropylene fibres - 0.2.

EFFECT: low consumption of portland cement, improved adhesion properties and workability, high compression and tensile strength, preventing corrosion of fibres during use of the article.

2 tbl

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of construction, in particular, to compositions and methods to produce lighter masonry mortars designed to arrange enclosures from effective small elements. The method includes mixing of portland cement with water and superplasticiser S-3 in a mortar mixer, subsequent introduction of hollow glass microspheres into the produced mix, mixing of all components of the mortar and subsequent extrusion of the produced composition at the following ratio of components, wt %: portland cement - 37.5…67.2, hollow glass microspheres - 6.7…18.7, modifying additive - 0.28…0.50, water - 25.5…43.5. A raw composition for production of a lighter masonry mortar is produced by the above method.

EFFECT: reduced average density and increased strength of a lighter masonry mortar.

2 cl, 5 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of construction materials and can be used for the production of wall blocks with strength class from B2.5 to B7.5. A composite construction material includes Portland cement M400 as a binding agent, crushed waste moulding mixture (WMM) with an optimally selected fraction composition (2.5 mm fraction - 77%, 1.25-0.63 mm fraction - 5%, 0.315-0.14 mm fraction - 18%) as a filling agent, water, a superplastisiser C-3 as a plastisising additive, microsilica as a highly active mineral additive, with the following ratio, wt %: Portland cement M400 13.5-22.7; crushed WMM 66.6-81.0; water 5.4-13.3; superplastisiser C-3, % of cement weight, 0.3; microsilica, % of cement weight, 10.

EFFECT: technical result consists in the increased strength and frost resistance, reduction of water absorption.

Concrete mixture // 2525565

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: concrete mixture includes Portland cement, crushed granite, quartz sand, a microfiller, a superplasticiser based on polycarboxylates and water. Additionally into the mixture introduced is TTP fly ash, as the microfiller used is ground limestone MP-1, and as the superplasticiser, based on polycarboxylates MC-RowerFlow 2695, with the following component ratio, wt %: Portland cement 8-10, ground limestone MP-16-8, TPP fly ash 3-6, quartz sand with the coarseness module Mc 1.9 30-40, crushed granite of fraction 3-10 mm 15-18, crushed granite of fraction 5-20 mm 14-16, the superplasticiser based on polycarboxylates MC-RowerFlow 2695 0.0015-0.003, water - the remaining part.

EFFECT: increase of concrete quality due to increased fluidity of the concrete mixture and its self-compaction.

1 tbl

Concrete mix // 2525078

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: concrete mix contains, wt %: Portland cement - 25-28, crushed stone - 20-22, sand - 18-20, molybdenum-containing wastes - 8-10, distiller's dried grain with solubles - 20-29.

EFFECT: higher concrete strength.

1 tbl

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: raw mix for making concrete includes, wt %: Portland cement 24-26; granite siftings passing through sieve No. 5 - 45.4-51.5; superplasticiser S-3 - 0.5-0.6; steel chips, produced as a result of processing of steel blanks on turning machines 4-6.

EFFECT: higher concrete strength.

1 tbl

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: raw mixture for production of artificial rock includes, wt %: Portland cement 26-30, silica sand 48.44-56.9, water 16-20, fibrous metal-ceramics 1.0-1.5, phenyletoxisiloxane 0.06-0.1.

EFFECT: increase of strength.

2 tbl

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