Device for preparing control gas mixtures
SUBSTANCE: device for preparing control gas mixtures comprises a gas mixer, at least one channel for supplying target gas to the gas mixer, at least two channels for supplying the diluent gas to the gas mixer, and the channel for output of the gas mixture from the gas mixer. And in each channel for supplying gas to the gas mixer the mass flow controller of gas and a solenoid valve are mounted successively, at least in one channel for supplying the diluent gas to the gas mixer the gas humidifier and the solenoid valve are mounted successively. In each of the channels equipped with the gas humidifier at least one bypass pipeline with the additional solenoid valve is mounted. and the output of the gas flow controller of this channel is connected to the input of the additional pipeline which output is connected to the output of the last solenoid valve, and at the input of the target gas and the input of the diluent gas at least one filter is mounted, which outputs are connected to the inputs of manually operated valves.
EFFECT: possibility of operational automated obtaining the dry or moist gas mixture, and reliable obtaining of the given values of concentrations of gas mixtures at the output of the device.
The invention relates to the field of analytical instrumentation and preparation of calibration gas mixtures (CBC), which allows the complex to carry out the preparation and control of the humidified test gas mixtures required concentrations and possible to automate the process of tuning, calibration and calibration with gas analyzing devices.
A device for preparation of calibration gas, presented in the proceedings IMEKO world Congress Fundamental and Applied Metrology, namely: Nuno J.F. Rodrigues, Paulo Gomes. GAS ANALYZERS CALIBRATION BY DYNAMIC DILUTION FOR MONITORING AIR POLLUTION AND AIR EMISSIONS // XIX IMEKO World Congress Fundamental and Applied Metrology, September 6-11, 2009, Lisbon, Portugal, p.2217-2220 (http://www.imeko2009.it.pt/Papers/FP_222.pdf). Gas mixing device is a dynamic gas mixer, the principle of which consists in mixing streams of initial target gas and the diluent gas, flow rate of which is regulated and measured using mass flow controllers gas. The device includes one or more channels for the supply of the target gas in the mixer, multiple channels for the supply of the diluent gas in the mixer and channel for output of the gas mixture from the mixer. In each channel for the supply of the gases in the mixer consistently set the mass flow controller and gas solenoid valve.
Used the e part of the known device controllers mass flow rate allows to obtain a gas mixture in a wide range of concentrations, that increases the possibility of using the device. The disadvantages of this device is the inability to prepare gas mixtures with specified parameters humidity, as well as increased cost CBC applied to the device, due to the material costs of the additional installation of the humidifier or the use of additional a humidity generator to the system for producing humidified gas mixtures.
A device for preparation of calibration gas mixtures containing a source of calibration gas or mixture of gases in the form of a cylinder of a high pressure mixer gases and dilution of the gas mixture after the mixer additional flow of the diluent gas (Patent RF №2208783, publ. 20.07.2003), device mixer gases made in the form of a vessel having two channels for supplying mixed gases, one of which is connected through a controlled shut-off valve with a source of calibration gas or mixture of gases, and the second channel is connected to atmospheric air, the channel to output a mixture of gases, which is connected to the system dilution of the gas mixture and which has a detector for monitoring the content of the calibration gas and the pump flow rate, and the device introduced an additional detector to control the content of the test gas in the mixer.
In the well-known us the device you want to control the content of the gas mixture at the outlet, what is possible with the detector at a specific gas, the accuracy of which determines the precision cooking gas mixture. Temporary instability characteristics of the detector affects the accuracy of the prepared gas mixture. In this device the necessary filtering atmospheric air is used as the diluent gas. The device does not allow you to prepare a gas mixture of a given relative humidity.
Often, however, for the calibration and verification of gas analyzing devices and sensors (for example, solid-state, electrochemical) is required to humidify the calibration gas mixture, which is used additionally various kinds of humidifiers gases or generators humidity, through which humidified gas mixture supplied from the mixer to the device, which increases material costs and increase in the cost of ASG and setup.
The technical nature of the known devices closest to the claimed device is a device for preparing calibration gas mixtures under dynamic conditions (Patent RF №114528, publ. 27.03.2012). In the device for preparing calibration gas mixtures under dynamic conditions, mixer containing gases, at least one channel for supplying a target gas in the gas mixer, at least two of the of the channel for the supply of the diluent gas in the gas mixer and the channel for the output of the gas mixture from the mixer gases, where in each channel for supplying a gas in the gas mixer consistently set the mass flow controller and gas solenoid valve, at least one channel for the supply of the diluent gas in the gas mixer installed gas humidifier and an additional solenoid valve, and the controller output gas flow of the channel is connected through the solenoid valve with the inlet of the humidifier gas, the output of which is connected with an additional solenoid valve.
The installation of the humidifier gas, at least one of the channels for the supply of the diluent gas in the gas mixer allows you to create output of this channel is 100% relative humidity the diluent gas. The required relative humidity obtained in the mixer gases calibration gas mixture is created by mixing dry the diluent gas, wet gas diluent and dry the target gas. Using the automatically switchable solenoid valve, including an additional solenoid valve in the feed channel wet the diluent gas, and the selection of the mode controllers mass flow of gas is provided preparation of calibration gas mixtures not only with a wide range of concentration, but also with a wide range of relative humidity.
Installation onlinedelegates, in at least one of the channels for the supply of the diluent gas in the gas mixer eliminates the additional task of acquisition and installation of various devices for humidifying the obtained calibration gas mixtures, if necessary, prepare the wet sand, reduces material costs and reduces the cost of the CBC applied to the device.
Undeniable convenience for users is the possibility of automated simultaneous receipt of gas mixtures selected concentration and humidity in a wide range of concentrations and relative humidity in a single device.
The disadvantages of this device is the inability to quickly automated to obtain a dry gas mixture without removing/installing the humidifier, and the absence at the entrance of the target gas and the diluent gas filters for ASG to prevent contamination of the gas lines and damage controllers mass flow rate, which is the Metrology tool of measurement (Metrology equipment).
The specified device for preparing calibration gas mixtures under dynamic conditions is taken as a prototype.
The technical result that will be obtained by carrying out the invention, consists in the possibility of rapid avtomatizirov the aqueous obtain dry or humidified gas mixture, not using the time for removal/installation of the humidifier, thus reducing the number of operations in the process when carrying out adjustment, calibration and calibration, as well as the opportunity to obtain reliable values of the concentrations of gas mixtures at the output when using the input of the target gas and the entrance of the diluent gas filter for filtering the target gas and the diluent gas.
This technical result is achieved that the device preparation of calibration gas mixtures containing the gas mixer, at least one channel for supplying a target gas in the gas mixer, the at least two channels for the supply of the diluent gas in the gas mixer and the channel for the output of the gas mixture from the gas mixer in each channel for supplying a gas in the gas mixer consistently set the mass flow controller and gas solenoid valve, at least one channel for the supply of the diluent gas in the gas mixer sequentially installed humidifier gas and the electromagnetic valve, each channel is equipped with a humidifier gases installed, at least one bypass line with an additional solenoid valve, and the controller output gas flow of the channel connected to the input facilities the Noi highway, the output of which is connected to the output of the last of the electromagnetic valve, and at the entrance of the target gas and the entrance of the diluent gas is installed at least one filter, the outputs of which are connected with inputs of manual valves.
Each channel is equipped with a humidifier gases, install at least one bypass line with an additional solenoid valve is used to provide rapid, automated acquisition of dry (0% relative humidity) or humidified gas mixture (up to 100% relative humidity), without the time consuming removal/installation of the humidifier, thus reducing the number of operations in the process when carrying out adjustment, calibration and calibration.
Installation at the entrance of the target gas and the gas inlet of the diluent, at least one filter allows you to reliably get the value specified concentrations of gas mixtures on the output device with declared metrological characteristics error of cooking gas mixtures.
The drawing shows a device for the preparation of calibration gas mixtures.
The proposed device for the preparation of calibration gas mixtures contains a gas flow regulators 1, automatically switching the electromagnetic valves 2, the humidifier 3, manual valves 4, the channel C is left gas 5, channel 6 to output the prepared gas mixture, the filters 7, 8 channels for supplying the diluent gas mixer gas 9.
Gas diluent and the target gas through the filter 7 with a nominal pore size of 0.5 μm (remove contaminating particles from the system) and through the manual valve 4 is supplied to the gas flow regulators 1 on channels 5 and 8. The gas flow is set and maintained by the application service device via the RS232 interface of the PC. The switching of the respective channels to the output collector is made of the electromagnetic valve 2. In one of the channels of the diluent gas is selected humidifier gas mixture 3 installed, at least one bypass line with an additional solenoid valve 2, and the controller output gas flow of the channel is connected to the input line, the output of which is connected to the output of the last of the electromagnetic valve 2. Cooked with a given concentration of gas diluent and the target gas through the channels 5 and 8 go to the gas mixer 9, mixed, and cooked the gas mixture discharged through the channel 6.
Device preparation of calibration gas mixtures is as follows.
In General, the device of preparation of calibration gas mixtures is a dynamic gas mixer, the principle of action to the showing consists in mixing flows of the target gas and the diluent gas, the flow rate of which is regulated and measured using mass flow controllers gas. The required values of costs and the value of molar volume proportions of the components in the prepared mixtures are set using a PC that is built into the device.
Preparation of gas mixtures produced by dosing the target gas with the installed volume fraction of the target component in the pure gas diluent. Undeniable convenience for users is the ability to simultaneously receive the humidified gas mixtures.
When the device is preparation of calibration gas mixtures of the target gas and gas diluent go through the controls gas flow in the gas-solvent under the action of pressure difference between inlet and outlet channels. In the mixer and the resulting mixture was dosed gas and the diluent gas is reduced to a homogeneous composition and then served for consumption.
The basis of calculation of the composition of the mixture is the material balance for the designated component in the dosed gas, gas-diluent and the mixture.
Using a humidifier creates the required relative humidity of the gas mixture by mixing dry and wet gas diluent.
Device preparation of calibration gas mixtures has a linear mode of operation, which involves the connection of all Cana is s gas diluent and the target gas at the outlet of the device. This mode allows you to provide at the output the preparation of gas mixtures with broad parameters of concentration, flow rate and humidity and to maintain the specified characteristics of the time required for carrying out the adjustment, calibration and calibration gas analyzing devices.
Device preparation of calibration gas mixtures made in the form of a separate table of the block and is a complex device, including electronic, mechanical and Electromechanical parts and components.
The device has an input fittings for supply of the diluent gas and the target gas and an outlet fitting for the selection of the gas mixture under test sensors and sensors for measuring parameters of a gas environments. Each channel features two switchable valve and one control the gas flow rate. Ball manual gates at the inputs of gas channels are also designed to feed into the device target gas (ASG) or the diluent gas to clear (purge) gas channels.
Using the automatically switchable electromagnetic valves and selection of the mode of flow regulators are spending target gas and the diluent gas in each of the channels set by the user and controlled by flow regulators gas is.
The use of thermal mass flow controllers gas can significantly reduce the environmental impact and the input pressure of the gas on the accuracy of the gas flow, thus reducing the accuracy of the prepared gas mixture. Control of gas flow regulators and valves are manufactured using the PC.
Software for remote control operation modes of the device allows you to accelerate the setup, calibration and calibration gas analyzing devices for automating calculations and mixing of gases.
Thus, the proposed design of the device for preparation of calibration gas mixtures provides the achievement of the technical result, namely:
the responsive automated acquisition dry (0% relative humidity) or humidified gas mixture (up to 100% relative humidity), without the time consuming removal/installation of the humidifier, reducing the number of operations in the process when carrying out adjustment, calibration and calibration;
- obtaining reliable values of the concentrations of gas mixtures on the output device with declared metrological characteristics error of cooking gas mixtures.
Sources of information and
1. Materials IMEKO world Congress Fundamental and Applied Metrology: Nuno J.F. Rodrigues, Paulo Gomes. GAS ANALYZERS CALIBRATION BY DYNAMIC DILUTION FOR MONITORING AIR POLLUTION AND AIR EMISSIONS // XIX IMEKO World Congress Fundamental and Applied Metrology, September 6-11, 2009, Lisbon, Portugal, p.2217-2220 (http://www.imeko2009.it.pt/Papers/FP_222.pdf).
2. RF patent №2208783 published 20.07.2003.
3. RF patent №114528, published on 27.03.2012 prototype.
Device preparation of calibration gas mixtures containing the gas mixer, at least one channel for supplying a target gas in the gas mixer, the at least two channels for the supply of the diluent gas in the gas mixer and the channel for the output of the gas mixture from the gas mixer in each channel for supplying a gas in the gas mixer consistently set the mass flow controller and gas solenoid valve, at least one channel for the supply of the diluent gas in the gas mixer sequentially installed gas humidifier and a solenoid valve, characterized in that each of the channels equipped with a humidifier gases installed, at least one bypass line with an additional solenoid valve, and the controller output gas flow of the channel is connected to the input line, the output of which is connected to the output of the last of the electromagnetic valve, and at the entrance of the target gas and the gas inlet-RA is Beviale installed, at least one filter, the outputs of which are connected with inputs of manual valves.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to analytical chemistry, particularly to methods of determining benzoic acid, and describes a method for quantitative determination of benzoic acid from a methyl derivative thereof - methyl ether in aqueous matrices with determination sensitivity of 5.0·10-5 mg/cm3 with determination error of not more than 25%. The method is characterised by that quantitative determination of benzoic acid is carried out using a chromatographic method with flame-ionisation detection and includes the following steps: extraction concentration of an analyte with benzene in water samples acidified with 25% sulphuric acid solution to pH 1-3 while adding sodium chloride until a saturated solution is obtained, conducting a benzoic acid methylation reaction with diazomethane to obtain a derivative - methyl ether of benzoic acid and determining the formed methyl ether of benzoic acid by a chromatographic method with flame-ionisation detection.
EFFECT: method provides high sensitivity, selectivity and easy implementation during quantitative determination of benzoic acid in aqueous media and enables use thereof in practice in factory analytical laboratories, central laboratories of chemical companies and chemical-toxicology laboratories.
1 ex, 3 tbl
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method is based on application of simplified model of intake of admixtures into cabin which allows for only oil decomposition products in gas turbine engine. Major portion of air samples, 95-97%, required for identification and quantitative determination of oil decomposition products, is sampled on surface from device simulating oil decomposition conditions including air temperature and pressure at point of sampling from engine compressor, and oil stay time in hot zone.
EFFECT: decreased time of in-flight experiments and that of surface analysis of samples.
1 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to laboratory methods of analysis and deals with method of quantitative determination of manganese, lead and nickel in bile by method of atomic-absorption analysis with atomisation in flame. Essence of method lies in the following: sampling of bile is carried out during duodenal probing, after that it is frozen, and unfrozen at room temperature, homogenisation of bile by mixing being performed already at partial soft unfreezing. After that, sampling of homogenised bile is carried out for preparation for analysis, concentrated nitric acid is introduced into it with volume ratio 1:1, mixture is kept at room temperature, then heated and further mixture is kept for not less than 2.5 hours at room temperature. In order to obtain analyte, to obtained mixture added is concentrated hydrogen peroxide in volume ratio 1:1 to volume of bile sample volume, analyte is heated, after that cooled to room temperature. After that by method of atomic-absorption spectrometry, using graduated diagram, quantitative content of particular type of metal: manganese, lead and nickel is determined in analyte.
EFFECT: invention allows increasing accuracy of quantitative determination of manganese, lead and nickel in bile.
SUBSTANCE: vapour-gas mixture source has a mixer which has connecting pieces for inlet and outlet of the vapour-gas mixture. The vapour-gas mixture source also has a diffusion pipe filled with working fluid and an auxiliary pipe designed for filling the diffusion pipe with working fluid. Part of the diffusion pipe is filled with substance which retains the working fluid. The level of working fluid in the auxiliary pipe is lower than the level of substance in the diffusion pipe. The substance which retains the working fluid used can be sand, granular material with particle size between 10 and 10000 mcm, porous substances, e.g. ceramic metal etc.
EFFECT: more accurate measurement and maintenance of concentration of the vapour-gas mixture coming out of the source, provision for constant diffusion flow of vapour of working fluid into the mixer.
11 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: instrument engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for calibrating gas analyser detectors, according to which there prepared is calibration substance solution with concentration A=By/k (%) as per Henry constant value k (mg/m %) at calibration temperature and as per the specified value of calibration substance mass concentration in calibration steam/gas mixture By (mg/m). After the solution has been introduced into the vessel in quantity enough for fully saturated equilibrium calibration steam/gas mixture to appear above the solution surface, the sensor calibration is carried out by means of mixture; at that, mixture concentration is changed by means of direct proportional change of solution concentration by diluting concentrated reference solution of calibration substance with analytical accuracy up to the specified concentration value A (%). There also proposed is the device for realising this method, which includes a solution point for preparing calibration solution with analytical accuracy, vessel with thermostatic device for obtaining steam/gas mixture with constant concentration corresponding to Henry law; at that, solution point includes graduated dose metre, graduated diluter, mixer with a reducer, capacity with solvent, and reference container with reference solution, which is stabilised with a gate valve meant for multiple use of container, and vessel with thermostatic device consists of thermometre and heat-insulating cover plate with an inlet branch pipe containing a normally closed return valve and a pusher for valve opening.
EFFECT: decrease of calibration substance losses; accuracy and reproducibility of metrological performance, and meeting requirements of industrial and ecological safety.
6 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: instrument engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device for generating flow of vapor-gas mixture with preset concentration of vapor has vessel partially filled with fluid, second vessel provided with branch pipes for supply and removal of gas, and vapors of fluid pipeline-leak. One of vessels is connected with gas discharge forcer; fluid vapors pipeline-leak connects both vessels. Vessel, partially filled with fluid, is mounted inside second vessel. Pipeline-line, connecting both vessels, is totally placed inside second vessel. Device is also provided with additional discharge forcer for adjusting concentration of fluid vapor in second vessel. Granulated filler is introduced into vessel partially filled with fluid. Device is also provided with gas analyzer for providing gas concentration in space of second vessel.
EFFECT: higher precision of keeping of preset concentration of vapor; improved efficiency of vapor concentration control and adjustment.
FIELD: chemical technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for synthesis of ester perfluorinated derivative by using a chemical reaction. This reaction represents the fluorination reaction of the parent compound as a raw, the reaction of chemical conversion of fragment of ester perfluorinated derivative to yield another ester perfluorinated derivative or the interaction reaction of carboxylic acid with alcohol under condition that at least one or reagent, i. e. carboxylic acid or alcohol, represents a perfluorinated compound wherein indicated perfluorinated derivative of ester represents a compound comprising a fragment of the formula (1):
with a boiling point 400°C, not above. The reaction time for carrying out abovementioned chemical reaction is sufficient to provide the required yield of ester perfluorinated derivative and wherein this yield of ester perfluorinated compound is determined by the gas chromatography method by using a nonpolar column. Also, invention relates to a method for pyrolysis of ester perfluorinated derivative with a boiling point 400°C, not above, to yield the dissociation product wherein this product represents a derivative of acyl fluoride or ketone and wherein pyrolysis time is sufficient to provide the required degree of conversion of ester perfluorinated derivative and wherein the indicated conversion degree of ester perfluorinated derivative is determined by gas chromatography method by using a nonpolar column. Also, invention relates to a method for analysis of ester perfluorinated derivative with a boiling point 400°C, not above, that involves analysis of ester perfluorinated derivative in a sample containing ester perfluorinated derivative by gas chromatography method by using a nonpolar column wherein ester perfluorinated derivative represents compound comprising a fragment of above given formula (1).
EFFECT: improved method of synthesis.
8 cl, 1 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to forestry and can be used for standing wood certification, for example, at lumbering operations, certification of wood stock and semi-finished products and storage of whatever lumber. Besides, it can be used in wood science and engineering ecology at evaluation of ecological conditions by properties of growing tree wood. Proposed method comprises making round saw cuts of test tree with marks of geodesic directions for analysis wood properties along fibres and by radius of tree trunk and cutting of cylindrical specimens. First, saw cut circular cuts are marked at centres of axes of future cylindrical specimens. Then, set of cylindrical cutters are fitted by their cutting part on said round saw cut. Thereafter, cylindrical saw cut round specimens are cut simultaneously by the set of cylindrical cutters. Proposed device comprises the set of cylindrical cutters. Every cutter is made of tool steel shaped to sleeve of ID equal to cut cylindrical specimen diameter. Sleeve one end is shaped to cutter with one-side sharpening on the sleeve outer side while second end has support chamfer to interact with the bush.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of cylindrical specimen production on one round saw cut.
8 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: sample surface is obtained by split of a monolith, after which a successive application of polymer solutions on the sample is performed. As the polymer solutions used are: first, a 0.5% solution of formvar in dichloroethane, and then, a 2% solution of polymethylacrylate in dichloroethane with an exposure of the sample at a negative temperature to dry each layer and obtain a solid film. After drying the obtained film with particles of soil is detached from the sample and analysed in a scanning electron microscope.
EFFECT: method improvement.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method to sample high-temperature gases at temperatures of up to 600°C includes measurement of gas volume pulled via a sampling probe by means of aspiration, and collection of condensate with reduction of the taken sample volume to normal conditions. To produce a representative sample that characterises a source of emission, the flow of high-temperature gases is cooled down to temperature of condensation of vapours of volatile components with account of fuel consumption and modes of engine operation. Aspiration of the sample volume is carried out with pressure difference in the condensate collector and in the flow of spent gases, besides, the flow of sampled high-temperature gas is used to create the "boiling layer" from initiators of condensation of volatile components vapours. At the same time the volume of the taken sample is compared to fuel consumption and mode of engine operation, and condensate is kept in the condensate collector under tight conditions to the start of stagewise investigation of concentration of separate components. The device comprises a sampling probe, a facility to measure the volume of high-temperature gases and a condensate collector. The sampling probe is equipped with a facility to measure temperature of sampled gases, the collector of condensate of spent gases has an external vacuumised heat-shielding shell, between layers of which there is a cryogenic liquid placed, and a facility to measure condensate temperature. Ball-shaped initiators of condensation are made of chemically inert material, which is capable of absorbing water vapours in spent gases composition. The cover of the condensate collector is thermally isolated from the vacuumised heat-shielding shell of the collector of spent gases condensate and nozzles for insertion of the sampling probe and discharge of cryogenically treated gases equipped with valves. At the same time the discharge nozzle is equipped with a filtering element, and the cover of the condensate collector has a control panel interconnected with the facility to measure temperature and gas volume taken for analysis, a level indicator of the cryogenic liquid and the facility to measure temperature of collected condensate.
EFFECT: development of the method and device to take representative samples of high-temperature gases of mobile sources of toxic emissions, which contain condensing elements that require special low-temperature conditions to keep them in the sample before entering them into a measurement device.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: coordinate marks are applied on specimen surface by pressing the tool there against, tool hardness exceeding that of the part material. Said tool represents an etching with sharp protruding elements shaped to tetrahedral pyramid that make a preset system of coordinate (reference) points. The latter are the points of intersection of analysed specimen with faces on indenter. Produced recesses are filled with non-solidifying luminescent dye not losing its properties at plastic strain. Now, said specimen is subjected to machining. Then, parameters of grating changed pattern are measured to calculate the plastic strain parameters.
EFFECT: higher pattern quality and accuracy of metal plastic strain parameter measurement.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed invention can be used for absorption and desorption of gas sample. This preconcentrator comprises nanocomplexes of metals with carbon nanotubes. Note here that metal in said nanocomplexes with carbon nanotubes represents one or more metals selected from the group consisting of cobalt, copper, nickel, titanium, silver, iron, tungsten and their aqueous salts or hydrates. This preconcentrator can comprises unit of specimens with said nanocomplexes and gas sample feed hole, dried gas feed source and gas analyser system connected with said preconcentrator. Besides, it can comprise channel switchover valve for selective gas sample feed, dried gas feed source and gas analyser system with sample concentration unit and gas absorption and desorption from sample control unit.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of concentration of gases.
13 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of determining gold mineralisation of rock formation comprises multistage crushing of raw material to fractions of the size not greater than 0.5 mm, the subsequent classification of the resulting material and its processing with bromoform. Classification is carried out by sedimentation with the separation of the material class of -0.05+0.02 mm of water discharges, followed by drying and sieving the remaining material with the separation of the fraction -0.5 +0.1 mm and -0.1+0.05 mm, treating each of the resulting classes with 10-30% alcohol solution of bromoform. Sedimentation is carried out once with the accumulation of sediment for 15-20 min and repeatedly for 3-5 minutes, followed by the integration of the water discharges obtained during it.
EFFECT: increase in reliability of determining of gold areas and determining areas of gold mineralisation.
2 cl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of preparing standard aerosol samples based on a mixture of fine powder containing defined elements is characterised by that a dispersed mixture of mineral, synthetic and biological materials is used, wherein grain size analysis is used to detect presence of said types of simulating materials and content thereof in a real atmospheric suspension in said region as applied to a specific season is determined.
EFFECT: providing maximum similarity of simulated atmospheric suspensions for different regions and conditions.
SUBSTANCE: reference sample comprises a metal base with a central zone of reference complex stressed condition through the base thickness. At the edges of the base at one or different sides there is one or several zones of pad welds from another metal, coefficient of linear expansion and yield point of which is lower than the coefficient of linear expansion and yield point of the base metal. The base is first exposed to high-temperature tempering, afterwards control marks or a grid of measurement bases are applied onto surfaces of the central zone of the base at two sides, for two test measurements after high-temperature tempering of the base before applying pad welds and in the end of thermal treatment of the base already with pad welds. The form of the base, locations of pad welds and the mode of thermal treatment are defined in advance as a result of computer simulation modelling by the method of finite elements with account of grades of the base metal and pad welds metals and the required reference complex stressed condition of the central zone of the base through its thickness.
EFFECT: increased validity of results of measurements of mechanical stresses in cross sections of various thick-walled metal structures.
2 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device consists of a housing, the electric motor with a shaft, and the storage cylinder-borer. At that the electric motor with the shaft is mounted inside and along the vertical axis of the housing, made in the form of a triangular truss consisting of the upper and lower belts which are interconnected by racks having vertical grooves for guides mounted inside the truss perpendicular to the racks with the ability of vertical movement along them and connected to the housing of the electric motor, equipped with handles extending outside the housing. At that, the electric motor shaft is provided with a magnetostrictive oscillator and has at the end a telescopic rod for removable storage cylinder-borers selected depending on the type of soil.
EFFECT: increased productivity of soil sampling and enhanced functional capabilities.
SUBSTANCE: method includes collecting gases in a sampler and subsequent analysis of the sample material. The sampler is insulated from the ambient environment and a portion of distilled water is added, wherein a suspension of solid particles of the exhaust gas is formed by releasing said particles into said portion of water. Formation of the suspension begins after removing foreign dust and soot particles from the exhaust pipe that have settled there when the internal combustion engine is idle. During sample collection, the suspension is mixed and a sterile syringe is used to collect about 40 ml of liquid, which is then analysed on a laser particle analyser to determine particle size and shape distribution therein. Substance analysis of the suspension is then carried out on a light microscope and electron microscope with an energy-dispersion spectrometer for determining material composition of the solid particles and size and shape distribution of said particles.
EFFECT: determining content of nanodispersed and microdispersed solid particles in exhaust gas.
FIELD: automatical aids for sampling liquids.
SUBSTANCE: system for sampling and delivering filtrate has filter submerged into tested medium and connected with collecting tank and vacuum pressure source which is connected with top hole of collecting tank by means of pneumatic pipe. System has sample receiving tank connected with collecting tank and control unit which has first output to be connected with vacuum pressure source. Collecting tank has two separated chambers - washing chamber and dispatching chamber. Lower hole of washing chamber has to be lower hole of collecting tank and side hole of dispatching chamber has to be side hole of collecting tank. Floating valve is installed inside washing chamber to shut off lower and top holes. Filter is connected with lower hole of collecting tank through sampling pipe. Side hole of collecting tank is connected with lower hole of tank for receiving samples through sampling pipe. Flow-type sensor and check valve are installed inside transportation pipe. Output of flow-type sensor is connected with input of control unit; second output of control unit is connected with control input of analyzer.
EFFECT: improved precision of measurement of sample ion composition; prolonged service life of filter.
1 cl, 1 dwg