Method for producing lightweight ceramic heat-insulating building material

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method for producing lightweight ceramic heat-insulating building material, comprising mixture of pre-treated silica-containing component and alkaline component, homogenization of raw mixture, drying of the granulated raw mixture, grinding of dried granules and firing in metal moulds. At that, the preliminary treatment of silica-containing component is carried out at stone-separating rolls in order to remove strong impurities and activate the silicon dioxide, in the drying apparatus to achieve the humidity of 19-25% and in grinding device in order to achieve the maximum particle size of 1 mm. Diatomite o tripoli and/or flask, containing the active silicon dioxide is used as silica-containing component, mixture of caustic soda and soda ash in the ratio of 0.5-0.8/1 is used as alkali component. Mixing of silica-containing component and alkaline component is carried out in the mixer of periodic action, providing the content of mass fraction in dry raw mixture of caustic soda of 6-14% and soda ash of 6-15%. Homogenization of raw mixture is carried out by treatment in strew press with filtering grid with size of cells of 8-25 mm, and drying of granular raw material mixture is carried out in dryer drum until the humidity of 5-7% is achieved. Grinding of dried granules is performed until the achievement of maximum particle size of 3 mm, and firing of silicate mixture, obtained as a result of grinding, is carried out in metal moulds in oven by raising the temperature up to 650°C with speed of 100-120°C/hour, and up to maximum of 680-800°C - with speed of 15-25°C/hour with subsequent isothermal exposure at maximum temperature during 1-3 hours, cooling from the maximum temperature up to 600°C is carried out with speed of 30-50°C/hour and from 600 to 50°C - with speed of 50-60°C/hour.

EFFECT: reduction of energy costs and improvement of hygienic and sanitary conditions of production.

4 cl, 5 ex, 3 tbl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the construction materials industry, and more specifically to methods of producing foamed ceramic insulating material of the widespread and available raw materials containing active silica. Lightweight construction material can be used for thermal insulation of buildings and structures, various industrial installations for the manufacture of both large-scale products, such as blocks, including Foundation, slabs, panels, etc. and small, until the bulk-type clay.

The prior art method of obtaining lightweight ceramic insulation and thermal insulation-structural building material comprising a mixture of silica-containing component and an alkaline component, the homogenization of the raw mix, precalcination of the granular raw material mixture, grinding the calcined pellets and sintering the milled powder in the metallic form, characterized by the fact that pre-process silica-containing component on cannabidiolic rollers to remove tradearabia inclusions, as the silica component used diatomite or Tripoli and/or flask containing active silica, and as the alkaline component is a mixture of caustic the odes and soda ash in a ratio of 0.5 to 0.8/1, precalcination granulated raw material mixture is carried out at a temperature of 500-600°C in a rotary kiln, see U.S. Pat. RU # 2442762, CL C04B 38/08, published on 20.02.2012, the Advantages of this method lie in its technological availability and increased energy efficiency. The disadvantage of this method is unnecessarily complicated and expensive process of preliminary roasting granular raw material mixture, and subsequent grinding of sintered pellets into powder.

There is a method of obtaining a building material comprising a mixture of silica-containing component, an alkaline component and water to obtain a homogeneous silicate mass, which is subjected to before filling in the form at high temperature to a residual moisture content of less than 5 wt.%, grinding until the particle size of no more than 80-100 μm, after filling silicate mass shape is heated to a temperature of swelling silicate mass is cooled and removed the finished product, see U.S. Pat. RU # 2300506, CL C04B 28/24 published 10.06.2007, Building material according to the method produces based on the available common siliceous rocks, and it has improved performance characteristics. The disadvantage of this method is the lack of stage granulation silicate mass. In addition, silicate mass of the specified recipe is Solovetsky mass, which sticks to the mixer, and the high content of moisture (up to 55.5%) requires a high cost of drying to a residual moisture content of less than 5 wt.%. Crushing dried to 5%moisture silicate mass and subsequent grinding to a particle size of not more than 80-100 μm is inevitably associated with increased dust production facilities deletestream particles. Thus, the known method is laboratory and practically impossible in real production conditions on the existing technological equipment.

A method of obtaining lightweight ceramic insulation and thermal insulation-structural building material comprising a mixture of silica-containing component and an alkaline component, the homogenization of the raw mix, precalcination of the granular raw material mixture, grinding the calcined pellets and sintering the milled powder in the metallic form, according to which pre-process silica-containing component on cannabidiolic rollers to remove tradearabia inclusions and activation of silica, in the drying device to achieve humidity 18-24% and grinding device to achieve maximum particle sizes of 3 mm, as the silica component ispolzuyetsa or Tripoli, and/or the mold, containing active silica, a mixture of silica-containing component and an alkaline component is carried out in a mixer periodic action with providing content mass fraction in the dry raw mix caustic soda 6-12% and soda ash 6-10%, homogenization of the raw material mixture is carried out by processing in a screw press with filter grid with a cell size of 10-25 mm, firing the milled powder is carried out in metal molds in the oven by raising the temperature to 650°C with a speed of 100-120°C/h and up to a maximum 680-800°C with a speed of 15-25°C/h, followed by isothermal holding at the maximum temperature for 1-3 h, cooling from the maximum temperature to 600°C carried out with a speed of 30-50°C/h and from 600 to 50°C with a speed of 50-60°C/h, see U.S. Pat. RU # 2473516, CL C04B 38/00, No. 2473516 published 27.01.2013, the Invention is characterized by the production of heat-insulating material with higher strength properties in the finished products on the existing technological equipment.

The disadvantages of this method are unreasonably long and energy-consuming process of pre-firing the granulated raw material mixture at a temperature of 550-650°C, followed by reverse hydration pre-sintered granules to a moisture content of 5-7% and fineness of the granules in Orasac with a maximum particle size less than 0.1 mm Use as an alkaline component, a mixture of 46%aqueous solution of caustic soda and an aqueous solution of soda ash also increases the energy consumption and the duration of the pre-firing. It should be noted that in the pre-firing at a temperature of 650°C of granules removed all physical water and dehydration takes place basic hydroxides, members of the silicate mass, i.e. the process of expansion due to evaporation. Remove water from the granules in the process of pre-firing, not only is energy intensive, but also useless, because the swollen granules are then still grind into powder, i.e. the porous material is again converted into silicate mass of fine grinding. Grinding the pellets into a powder with a maximum particle size less than 0.1 mm is itself energy intensive long-term and environmentally stressful. In addition, the hydration up to 5-7% of the granules prior to milling increases the subsequent firing in forms.

The present invention is directed to the achievement of the technical result, which is expressed in reducing the degree of fragmentation of the granular raw material mixture by the partial drying while maintaining the quality of the finished material. Ultimately, this technical result allows with whom isit energy consumption for crushing granular raw material mixture, preceding her heat treatment, and improve sanitarno hygienic conditions of production. In the developed method saved the main positive features of the known technical solutions, the most important of which is the use for the manufacture of lightweight ceramic insulation building material available widespread silicic rocks.

This technical result is achieved by a method of manufacturing a lightweight ceramic insulation building material includes mixing the pre-treated silica-containing component and an alkaline component, the homogenization of the raw material mixture, drying the granulated raw material mixture, crushing the dried pellets and firing in the metal molds. According to the method of pre-processing of silica-containing component carried out on cannabidiolic rollers to remove tradearabia inclusions and activation of silica, in the drying device to achieve humidity 19-25% and grinding device to achieve maximum particle sizes of 1 mm as the silica component used diatomite or Tripoli and/or flask containing active silica, and as the alkaline component is a mixture of caustic soda and soda ash in the ratio of the attachment of 0.5 to 0.8/1. The mixture of silica-containing component and an alkaline component is carried out in a mixer periodic action with providing content mass fraction in the dry raw mix caustic soda 6-14% soda ash 6-15%. Homogenization of the raw material mixture is carried out by processing in a screw press with filter grid with a cell size of 8-25 mm, drying the granulated raw material mixture is carried out in the drying drum to achieve a moisture content of 5-7%, crushing the dried granules is carried out until the maximum particle sizes of 3 mm Firing silicate mixture obtained by grinding is carried out in metal molds in the oven by raising the temperature to 650°C with a speed of 100-120°C/hour, and up to a maximum 680-800°C with a speed of 15-25°C/h, followed by isothermal holding at the maximum temperature for 1-3 hours, cooling the maximum temperature up to 600°C carried out with a speed of 30-50°C /hour and from 600 to 50°C with a speed of 50-60°C /hour.

Optimal from the point of view of achievement of the specified technical result is a mixture of silica-containing component and an alkaline component in which caustic soda is injected in the form of a 46% solution. It is preferable to carry out drying of the granulated raw material mixture at a temperature of 80-250°C. it is Advisable to implement crushing Vysocany the pellet in the beam mixer or a ball mill, and firing silicate mixture in a tunnel kiln or furnace periodic action.

Technical solution described characterized by a set of essential features, is a new, industrially applicable and involves an inventive step.

The developed method is the result of the further creative development of technology and modes of production of lightweight ceramic insulation building material on the basis of the existing technological equipment and raw materials to meet the increasing sanitarno-hygienic and environmental requirements, quality and cost of production.

The basis of the developed method the author of the principle of synergistic effect of swelling silicate mass when it is firing. In the process of drying the granulated raw material mixture, it removes the physical water, but not all. The remaining moisture 5-7% is sufficient to prevent dusting during crushing, later on when the firing is involved in the process of expansion in the form of water vapor. Because powdered raw mixture in the drying process and subsequent crushing is not exposed to significant temperature effect, it remains not only physical water, and all chemically bound water (hydroxides, aluminum is I, silicon). When firing silicate mixture is dehydration, chemically bound water turns into steam, which ensures the formation of pores in ceramics, its swelling. The most important factor in the expansion of silicate mixture is gas in it occurring during the firing process. Natural raw materials, such as Tripoli, diatomite or flask, containing active silica having the capacity allocation gaseous products during firing in the temperature range 680-800°C. finally, due to the decomposition of soda ash (Na2CO3in the presence of caustic soda (NaOH) while burning silicate mixture, it produces carbon dioxide (CO2), contributing to the swelling. While caustic soda (NaOH) acts as a catalyst for melting and decomposition of soda ash (Na2CO3).

To provide building material since the minimum size and in sufficient quantity silicate, the mixture should be cut to the minimum size of the main fraction. Moreover, the finer the grinding silicate mass, the smaller pores and more is material. It was established experimentally that the resulting synergistic effect of swelling silicate mass when the burning is so powerful that provided quality construction mA is eriala even when crushing the dried granules to achieve maximum particle sizes of 3 mm In this grinding provides a good ratio between the energy consumption for the grinding and the resulting performance characteristics of the material.

Experimentally determined limiting values of technological parameters of processing of raw materials, the ratio of mass fraction of caustic soda and soda ash in alkaline component and the raw material mixture, and the temperature of firing, are optimal and sufficient to obtain the required characteristics of building ceramics products, including their density, durability and moisture absorption. Thus, all elements of the process for the production of lightweight ceramic insulation building material both shared and private, aimed at obtaining a technical result, namely reducing the degree of fragmentation of the granular raw material mixture. These essential features of the method are not clearly follows from the prior art, even for the highly skilled expert testify about the creative nature of the technical solution.

The technical solution is illustrated by the diagram, which shows an exemplary schematic diagram of production of lightweight ceramic insulation building material capacity of 100 thousand m3/year, indicating ashestoashes the technological equipment, implemented in the form of the production line of continuous operation.

In accordance with the technological scheme of production of lightweight ceramic insulation and thermal insulation-structural building material is as follows.

The original silica-containing component, namely natural raw material: diatomite or Tripoli, or flask, or a mixture of Tripoli with the flask containing the active silica, warehouse or directly from the quarry by a grab crane is loaded in the feeder or feeders MA-003 IPD where by belt conveyor arrives at the pre-processing carried out by cannabidiolic rollers VK-1, to remove tradearabia inclusions. Pre-treatment of silica-containing component on cannabidiolic rollers allows significantly intensify active silica. The thus prepared silica-containing component is dried in the drying drum or mill-dryer to a residual moisture content of 19-25%, is processed in the beam mixer to the maximum particle sizes of 1 mm, and then by the weight of the dispenser is loaded into the mixer periodic action. At the same time in the mixer of periodic action by couples who lennyg independent thread line, consisting, respectively, of the hopper caustic soda (NaOH) and the hopper soda ash (Na2CO3), equipped with a screw conveyor and weight batchers, download alkaline component, consisting of caustic soda and soda ash in a ratio of 0.5 to 0.8/1. When this alkali mainly introduced in the form of granules, and soda in powder form, however, depending on humidity silica-containing component, the alkali may be introduced in the form of a 46% solution. The ratio of caustic soda and soda ash in alkaline component depends on the content of active silica in the original silica-containing raw material. The mixture of silica-containing component and an alkaline component is carried out for 3-5 minutes to ensure content mass fraction in the annealed material of caustic soda (NaOH) 6-14% soda ash (Na2CO3) 6-15%. The content in the raw material mixture of caustic soda is not more than 14% and the moisture content of the raw mix to 35% provides it with sufficient flowability and eliminates build-up on the mechanisms of the mixer.

The finished raw mixture discharged from the mixer and through the feeder OMATP-22 sent to homogenization in a screw press granulator QMS-506, providing a continuous loop of high performance and stable particle size distribution the parameters of the material. Existing Nekrassova equipment is equipped with a filter grid with a cell size of from 8-25 mm Received in a screw press granular raw material mixture is sent by belt conveyor for drying in the dryer length of 20 m To avoid dusting and improve crushing in the beam mixer or a ball mill, the pellets are dried to a moisture content of 5-7%. Drying the granulated raw material mixture in the drying drum is carried out at a temperature of 80-250°C. the Final homogenization and fragmentation of the granules is carried out in the beam mixer SC-09, or in a ball mill to obtain a mixture with a maximum particle size less than 3 mm At a moisture content of raw charge 5-7% rod mixers and ball mills operate steadily implement high performance homogeneous mixture with a maximum particle size of up to 3 mm.

Silicate mixture, obtained by crushing, fill metal form products, the shape and size of the products can range from the simple to the size of a few centimeters, to the complex with a size of several meters. Forms sent to the firing tunnel kiln or furnace periodic action, where heated to a temperature of 680-800°C. temperature Rise in the furnace to 650°C carried out with a speed of 100-120°C/hour, the rise of temperature from 650°C to max the maximum 680-800°C - with the speed of 15-25°C/hour. During the rise of temperature in the furnace swelling occurs silicate mixture. Then in the oven consistently perform isothermal exposure at the maximum temperature for 1-3 hours, cooling from the maximum temperature to 600°C at the rate of 30-50°C/hour and from 600 to 50°C with a speed of 50-60°C/hour. Modern ovens have a thermal inertia and temperature control accuracy, from which we determined the temperature of firing. After firing the shaped baked goods removed from the furnace, cooled to ambient temperature, by means of transmission truck passed to the post demoulding products, where the finished material is then removed from the forms and sent to the warehouse of finished products.

The possibility of implementing the method of production of lightweight ceramic insulation and thermal insulation-structural building material is confirmed by the following examples.

Example 1

As the silica component is taken Tripoli Kaluga field of Kaluga region, the chemical composition of which is presented in table 1.

Table 1
The chemical composition trepiline breed Kaluga months is rojdeniya
The content of CO2Name definitions(wt.%)
SiO2A12O3TiO2Fe2O3CaOMgOSO3Na2OK2OLoss on ignitionSiO2activeAl2O3on the calcined substance
by 5.8766,609,730,213,308,090,780,160,240,8110,249,3610,5

Tripoli with career humidity 42% were treated on cannabidiolic rolls. The thus prepared material containing active silica was dried to a residual moisture content of 19-25%, were processed in the beam mixer to the maximum particle sizes of 1 mm, and the ZAT is through weight dispenser was loaded into the mixer periodic action. At the same time in the mixer periodic actions have uploaded the alkaline component, consisting of caustic soda (NaOH) and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3). When this alkali (NaOH) was introduced in the form of granules, and soda (Na2CO3- in powder form. The content of alkali (NaOH) in the raw mix in terms of baked products accounted for 14%, and sodium (Na2CO3) - 15%. The humidity of the raw material mixture was 30.5 per cent. However, she had sufficient flowability and not stuck on the mechanisms of the agitator. Pre-mixed feed mixture was removed from the mixer and with the aim of homogenization were processed in a screw press with filter grille. When processing the mixture in a screw press leaving a press pellets had good uniformity. The granules were dried to a residual moisture content of 5% and then crushed to the main fraction is less than 3 mm in a ball mill. The crushed particles of silicate mass filled rectangular metal mold dimensions 250×120×65 mm and placed in a muffle furnace. Silicate mass was heated to 650°C for 4 hours, then the temperature in the furnace was raised to 680°C for 6 hours and the temperature in the furnace stood at 680°C for 1 hour. Then switch off the heating element of the furnace, and gave material for 10 hours, cooled naturally in the closed furnace to a temperature of 50°C, after which suceuses the sample was extracted from the form.

The cooled samples were obtained construction material of size 250×120×65 mm was removed from the mold and cut into several parts. The homogeneous structure of the material, the porosity of the material is uniform, there are no voids and seals. The pore size up to 1 mm, a Density of 150 kg/m3the conductivity of 0.055 W/m°C, the compressive strength of 18 kN/cm2. The obtained lightweight ceramic building material relates to heat-insulating building materials. The material can be effectively used for thermal insulation of buildings and structures, various industrial plants, equipment, refrigerators, pipelines and vehicles, including for the manufacture of both small and large-scale products, such as blocks, slabs, panels, etc.

Example 2

Raw material mixture is prepared from the same components as in example 1. Material containing active silica, with career humidity 40% were treated on cannabidiolic rolls. The thus prepared material containing active silica was dried to a residual moisture content of 20%, were processed in the beam mixer to the maximum particle sizes of 1 mm, and then loaded into the mixer periodic action. At the same time in the mixer was downloaded alkaline component, consisting of caustic is th soda and soda ash. When this alkali (NaOH) was introduced in the form of a 46%aqueous solution, and soda (Na2CO3- in powder form. The content of alkali (NaOH) in the raw mix in terms of baked products accounted for 14%, and sodium (Na2CO3) - 15%. The humidity of the raw material mixture amounted to 31.5%. However, she had sufficient flowability and not stuck on the mechanisms of the agitator. Pre-mixed feed mixture was removed from the mixer and with the aim of homogenization were processed in a screw press with filter grille. When processing the mixture in a screw press leaving a press pellets had good uniformity. The granules were dried to a residual moisture content of 6% and then crushed to the main fraction is less than 3 mm in a ball mill. The crushed particles of silicate mass filled rectangular metal mold with dimensions 200×200×400 mm and placed in a muffle furnace. Silicate mass was heated to 650°C for 3 hours, then the temperature in the furnace was raised to 720°C for 5 hours and the temperature in the furnace stood at 720°C for 2 hours. Then switch off the heating element of the furnace, and gave material for 10 hours, cooled naturally in the closed furnace to a temperature of 50°C, after which spacewise sample was extracted from the form.

The cooled samples were obtained construction material of size 200×200×400 mm was removed from the mold and cut n the several parts. The homogeneous structure of the material, the porosity of the material is uniform, there are no voids and seals. The pore size up to 1 mm, a Density of 350 kg/m3coefficient of thermal conductivity 0,086 W/m°C, the compressive strength of 46 kgf/cm2. The obtained lightweight ceramic building material refers to insulation-structural building materials. The material can be effectively used for thermal insulation of buildings and structures, various industrial plants, including for the manufacture of both small and large-scale products, such as blocks, panels, etc.

Example 3

Raw material mixture is prepared from the same components as in example 1. Material containing active silica, with career humidity 39% were treated on cannabidiolic rolls. The thus prepared material containing active silica was dried to a residual moisture content of 24%, were processed in the beam mixer to the maximum particle sizes of 1 mm, and then loaded into the mixer periodic action. At the same time in the mixer was downloaded alkaline component, consisting of caustic soda and soda ash. When this alkali (NaOH) was introduced in the form of granules, and soda (Na2CO3- in powder form. The content of alkali (NaOH) in the raw mix in terms of baked products is the Oia was 14%, and soda (Na2CO3) - 15%. The humidity of the raw material mixture amounted to 29.5%. However, she had sufficient flowability and not stuck on the mechanisms of the agitator. Pre-mixed feed mixture was removed from the mixer and with the aim of homogenization were processed in a screw press with filter grille. When processing the mixture in a screw press leaving a press pellets had good uniformity. The granules were dried to a residual moisture content of 5% and then crushed to the main fraction is less than 3 mm in a ball mill. The crushed particles of silicate mass filled in the metal mold dimensions 1500×3000×300 mm and placed in the oven. Silicate mass was heated to 650°C for 8 hours, then the temperature in the furnace was raised to 740°C for 8 hours and the temperature in the furnace stood at 740°C for 3 hours. Then switch off the heating element of the oven and gave material within 12 hours to cool naturally in the closed furnace to a temperature of 50°C, after which spacewise sample panel has been removed from the form.

The cooled samples were obtained building material with size 1500×3000×300 mm was removed from the mold and cut into several parts. The homogeneous structure of the material, the porosity of the material is uniform, there are no voids and seals. The pore size up to 1 mm, the Density of 405 kg/m3coefficient of thermal conductivity 0,091 W/m is C, the compressive strength of 56 kg/cm2. The obtained lightweight construction material is insulation-structural building materials. The material can be effectively used for thermal insulation of buildings and structures, various industrial plants, including for the manufacture of both small and large-scale products, such as blocks, slabs, panels, etc.

Example 4

As the silica component is taken diatomite Potanin field whose chemical composition is presented in table 2.

Table 2
The chemical composition of diatomite Potanin field
The content of CO2Name definitions (wt.%)
SiO2A12O3TiO2Fe2O3CaOMgOSO3Na2OK2OLoss on ignitionSiOsub> 2activeAl2O3on the calcined substance
by 5.8779,12was 9.330,384.09 to0,981,010,310,220,364,3628,409,75

Diatomite with humidity 43% were treated on cannabidiolic rolls. The thus prepared material containing active silica was dried to a residual moisture content of 23%, was treated in the beam mixer to the maximum particle sizes of 1 mm, and then loaded into the mixer periodic action. At the same time in the mixer was downloaded alkaline component, consisting of caustic soda and soda ash. When this alkali (NaOH) was introduced in the form of a 46%aqueous solution, and soda (Na2CO3- in powder form. The content of alkali (NaOH) in the raw mix in terms of baked products accounted for 14%, and sodium (Na2CO3) - 15%. The humidity of the raw material mixture amounted to 30.5%. However, she had sufficient flowability and not stuck on the mechanisms of the agitator. Pre-mixed feed mixture was removed from the mesh is key and with the aim of homogenization were processed in a screw press with filter grille. When processing the mixture in a screw press leaving a press pellets had good uniformity. The granules were dried to a residual moisture content of 5% and then crushed to the main fraction is less than 3 mm in a ball mill. The crushed particles of silicate mass filled in the metal mold with dimensions 200×200×400 mm and placed in the oven. Silicate mass was heated to 650°C for 5 hours, then the temperature in the furnace was raised to 760°C for 7 hours and the temperature in the furnace stood at 760°C for 2 hours. Then switch off the heating element of the furnace, and gave material for 10 hours, cooled naturally in the closed furnace to a temperature of 50°C, after which spacewise sample panel has been removed from the form.

The cooled samples were obtained construction material of size 200×200×400 mm was removed from the mold and cut into several parts. The homogeneous structure of the material, the porosity of the material is uniform, there are no voids and seals. The pore size up to 1 mm, the Density of 465 kg/m3coefficient of thermal conductivity 0,107 W/m°C, the compressive strength of 78 kg/cm2. The obtained lightweight construction material is insulation-structural building materials. The material can be effectively used for thermal insulation of buildings and structures, various industrial plants, including the Isla for manufacturing small, and large-scale products, such as blocks, slabs, panels, etc.

Example 5

As the silica component is taken trepiline-moulding breed Fokine field, the chemical composition of which is presented in table 3.

Table 3
The chemical composition trepiline-moulding breed of Fokine estomatologia
The content of CO2Name definitions (wt.%)
SiO2Al2O3TiO2Fe2O3CaOMgOSO3Na2OK2OLoss on ignitionSiO2activeAl2O3on the calcined substance
1,2081,586,450,172,00is 3.080,40 0,140,251,034,4034,505,59

Trepiline-flask breed with humidity 34% were treated on cannabidiolic rolls. The thus prepared material containing active silica was dried to a residual moisture content of 18%, was treated in the beam mixer to the maximum particle sizes of 1 mm, and then loaded into the mixer periodic action. At the same time in the mixer was downloaded alkaline component, consisting of caustic soda and soda ash. When this alkali (NaOH) was introduced in the form of granules, and soda (Na2CO3- in powder form. The content of alkali (NaOH) in the raw mix in terms of baked products accounted for 14%, and sodium (Na2CO3) - 15%. The humidity of the raw material mixture amounted to 28.5%. However, she had sufficient flowability and not stuck on the mechanisms of the agitator. Pre-mixed feed mixture was removed from the mixer and with the aim of homogenization were processed in a screw press with filter grille. When processing the mixture in a screw press leaving a press pellets had good uniformity. The granules were dried to a residual moisture content of 5% and then crushed to the main fraction is less than 3 mm in a ball mill. The crushed particle is mi silicate mass filled in the metal mold dimensions 250×120×88 mm and placed in the oven. Silicate mass was heated to 650°C for 4 hours, then the temperature in the furnace was raised to 800°C for 8 hours and the temperature in the furnace stood at 800°C during the first hour. Then switch off the heating element of the furnace, and gave material within 12 hours to cool naturally in the closed furnace to a temperature of 50°C, after which spacewise sample panel has been removed from the form.

The cooled samples were obtained construction material of size 250×120×88 mm was removed from the mold and cut into several parts. The homogeneous structure of the material, the porosity of the material is uniform, there are no voids and seals. The pore size up to 1 mm, the Density of 635 kg/m3thermal conductivity is 0.135 W/m°C, the compressive strength of 168 kg/cm2. The obtained lightweight construction material is insulation-structural building materials. The material can be effectively used for thermal insulation of buildings and structures, various industrial plants, including for the manufacture of both small and large-scale products, such as blocks, including Foundation, slabs, panels, etc.

The examples described above, the method clearly demonstrates the versatility of the method and the possibility of its realization within the boundary values of the mass fraction of the components of the clients and technological regimes. However, the examples are not exhaustive and is presented only for the purpose of explanation of the invention and confirm its industrial applicability. Specialists in this field can improve and / or implement alternatives within the essence of the invention as disclosed in the description and in the diagram.

An advantage of the invention is the possibility of production by means of the described method on almost any brick factory of the available raw materials as molded areas of various products and bulk materials with a conditional form of granules, such as expanded clay. Products produced by the present method are characterized by high mechanical strength at low cost and good ecology.

1. Method for the production of lightweight ceramic heat-insulating building material comprising a mixture of pre-treated silica-containing component and an alkaline component, the homogenization of the raw material mixture, drying the granulated raw material mixture, crushing the dried pellets and firing in the metal molds, while the pre-processing of silica-containing component carried out on cannabidiolic rollers to remove tradearabia inclusions and activation of silica, in the drying device to achieve humidity 19-25 % and in the equip grinding to achieve maximum particle sizes of 1 mm, as the silica component used diatomite or Tripoli and/or flask containing active silica, and as the alkaline component is a mixture of caustic soda and soda ash in a ratio of 0.5 to 0.8/1, a mixture of silica-containing component and an alkaline component is carried out in a mixer periodic action with providing content mass fraction in the dry raw mix caustic soda 6-14 % soda ash 6-15 %, homogenization of the raw material mixture is carried out by processing in a screw press with filter grid with a cell size of 8-25 mm, drying the granulated raw material mixture is carried out in the drying drum to achieve a moisture content of 5-7 %, crushing the dried granules is carried out until the maximum particle sizes of 3 mm, the firing silicate mixture obtained by grinding is carried out in metal molds in the oven by raising the temperature to 650°C with a speed of 100-120°C/hour, and up to a maximum 680-800°C with a speed of 15-25°C/h, followed by isothermal holding at the maximum temperature for 1-3 hours, cooling from the maximum temperature to 600°C carried out with a speed of 30-50°C/hour and from 600 to 50°C with a speed of 50-60°C/hour.

2. The method according to claim 1, comprising mixing silica-containing component and an alkaline component, in which the caustic with whom do impose a 46% solution.

3. The method according to claim 2, comprising drying the granulated raw material mixture, which is carried out at a temperature of 80-250°C.

4. The method according to claim 3, comprising grinding the dried granules, which is carried out in the beam mixer or a ball mill.

5. The method according to claim 4, including the firing silicate mixture, which is carried out in a tunnel kiln or furnace batch.



 

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2 cl

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: raw mix for making foam concrete includes, wt %: portland cement 35.0-37.0, foaming agent PB-2000 0.25-0.35, TPP ash 10.65-13.25, crushed foam glass of fraction 5-10 mm 20.0-25.0, mineral wool ground and sifted through sieve No. 2.5 1.0-1.5, haydite sand 5.0-7.0, water 21.0-23.0.

EFFECT: higher heat resistance of foam concrete produced from raw mix.

1 tbl

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: raw mixture contains the following components, pts. wt.: non-caking acid clay 58.0-61.0; expanded perlite ground to specific surface of 4500-5000 cm2/g 13.0-15.0; chalk stone 1.0-2.0; broken silicate glass ground to specific surface of 4500-5000 cm2/g 14.0-16.0; bentonite and/or kaolin 4.0-6.0; liquid potassium glass 4.0-6.0.

EFFECT: increase of product water-resisting property.

1 tbl

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: raw mixture for manufacture of foam concrete contains the following components, wt %: Portland cement 35.0-37.0, foaming agent PB-2000 0.25-0.35, TPP ash 15.65-20.25, crushed foamed glass with particle size of 5-10 mm 20.0-25.0, asbestos fibre cut into 5-15 mm pieces 1.0-1.5, and water 21.0-23.0.

EFFECT: improving heat resistance of foam concrete obtained from raw mixture.

1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction materials, in particular to manufacturing products from ethynol perlite concrete, applied for heat insulation of heat pipelines of heat networks and for manufacturing heat-insulated pipes of full operational readiness with monolithic thermohydroinsulating protection. Ethynol perlite concrete, obtained from composition, which contains perlite gravel with filling agent from inert materials; as such used are dust-like asbestos in form of powder in amount 0.2 ppm, expanded clay aggregate dust in amount 0.2 ppm, and fly ash of thermal power stations in amount 0.2 ppm, and composite cement in form of ethynol enamel based on ethynol varnish in amount 1 ppm and plasticiser, represented by latex SKS-65 in amount 0.1 ppm, and as accelerator of composition polymerisation used is intensive ultraviolet radiation.

EFFECT: increased quality of ethyl perlite concrete due to reduction of water absorption, heat conductivity coefficient, increase of water resistance and acceleration of hardening.

1 ex

Gypsum perlite // 2519146

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: gypsum perlite contains a gypsum binder, such as a processed mechanically activated phosphogypsum ground to 5-40 mcm (active gypsum), hydrophobizated swollen sand, superplasticiser Melflux at the following ratio of components, wt %: active gypsum - 84.8-93.8%, hydrophobizated swollen perlite sand - 6-15%, superplasticiser - 0.2%.

EFFECT: improved heat insulation and strength properties at low prime cost.

1 tbl

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of construction materials and can be used for fabrication of ceramic bricks, stones and blocks. Proposed method comprises preparation of foam-ceramic mix from clay stock, water, foaming agent, binding agent, drying, annealing and forming. Note here that, additionally, foaming agent PB-2007 is admixed as a plasticising agent while finished product ground to 1.25-5.0 mm fraction or perlite sand are used as binding additive. Then, obtained mix is poured in flat moulds and dried, first, at 30-35°C and, then at 50-56°C to make an integral blank to be withdrawn from the mould, annealed at 800-1600°C and formed to blocks.

EFFECT: higher heat- and noise-isolation properties, decreased weight.

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction materials, in particular to polystyrene concretes, used in heat-preserving protective structures of buildings and constructions. Heat-insulating constructive polystyrene concrete with density 225-350 kg/m3, is obtained from mixture, which contains Portland cement, water, complex air-involving and plasticising additive of multifunctional action, which represents balanced mixture in dry or liquid form, consisting of air-involving additive PO-01B based on products of oxidation of food industry wastes and plasticiser of polycarboxilate type or sulfonated product of polycondensation of melamine with formaldehyde with number of links in molecular chain equal 18-27 with weigh ratio: air-involving additive:plasticiser, equal 1:(0.25-0.5), and specific consumption of said complex additive 0.06-0.15 wt % of Portland cement weight, polystyrene foamed granulated (PFG) with volume content in polystyrene concrete - φ in the range 0.40-0.60, obtained after triple foaming of initial polystyrene beads with coarseness 0.7-1.0 mm and characterised by complex dimensionless index of PFG quality - n in the range 1.5-1.75, whose values are determined in the process of designing polystyrene concrete composition by formula: where K1 and K2 are coefficients, reflecting peculiarities of technology of PFG obtaining, values of which are respectively in the range1.1-1.3 and 8.0-10.8; db is the average diameter of initial polystyrene beads, mm; dav is average weighted diameter of PFG granules, mm; ρPFGb and ρPFG are bulk and average densities of PFG granules, kg/m3.

EFFECT: creation of heat-insulating constructive polystyrene concrete with density 225-350 kg/m3 with optimal properties: increased strength and heat-insulating properties.

3 ex, 1 tbl

FIELD: construction engineering; manufacture of building structures.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes preparation of polystyrene concrete mix from binder, foamed polystyrene and water, molding articles from this mixture and heat treatment. Prior to preparation of mixture, foamed polystyrene is subjected to foaming performed at two stages as minimum. At two stages as minimum. At first stage, polystyrene gravel at density of 12-30 kg/cu m is obtained. At subsequent stages its density is brought to 6-11 kg/cu m; polystyrene gravel may be obtained by grinding wastes of articles made from polystyrene to grain composition of fractions to 1-15 mm. Introduced additionally into mixture is air-entrapping additive hardening accelerator and water-reducing additive which are thinned with water. Articles are molded by placing the mixture in metal molds. Mixture is fed to each cell of metal mold by means of hose by forcing it from pneumatic concrete mixer by compressed air. After heat treatment, metal molds containing articles are delivered to demolding station where are subjected to vibration treatment for separation of articles from molds. Then, articles are removed from metal molds. Line proposed for realization of this method includes foaming unit, service bins and proportioners for foamed polystyrene, binder and water, at least one pneumatic concrete mixer for preparation of polystyrene mixture and molding and demolding stations. Proportioners for aqueous solution of hardening accelerator, air-entrapping additive and water-reducing additive, service reservoirs for air-entrapping additive, hardening accelerator and water-reducing additive, screw feeder for delivery of binder to proportioner, vibration table, metal molds with covers, pipe lines with shut-off cocks and swivel chutes, control console and hose. Proportioner is located under service bin forming single reservoir which may be divided by mechanical splitter. Pneumatic concrete mixer is provided with horizontal shaft at volume of 0.6 to 2 cu m. Metal mold is provided with sump having hinged sides, partitions, cargo-gripping mechanism and cover located on sump of cassette. Each cassette is made in form of platform formed by horizontal square sheet and four vertical sheets rigidly secured on horizontal sheet, shifted relative to center axes and interconnected in T-shaped pattern perpendicularly relative to each other forming four cells over perimeter of platform and central cell. Cells over perimeter of platform have three free faces. Cargo-gripping mechanism is located in central cell partitions are mounted between cassettes and are pinched by two vertical sheets. Cover is made in form of metal sheet pressed to upper faces of cells, partitions and sides. According to second version, metal mold has sump and at least one cell heat-insulated articles. Each cell is formed by bottom of sump and two z-shaped profiles clamped together and provided with changeable inserts placed between z-shaped profile. Each z-shaped profile has two side and one central webs. Side surfaces of all webs are perpendicular to plane formed by sump bottom. Changeable inserts are secured on side webs of z-shaped profiles. Each z-shaped profile forms one of subsequent cells by its one cell.

EFFECT: extended technological capabilities; increased productivity; improved quality and enhanced reliability.

11 cl

FIELD: manufacture of building materials.

SUBSTANCE: invention concerns manufacture of articles for heat-retention of furnace units and power equipment operated at surface temperatures up to 1100°C. Invention provides charge mixture containing, wt %: swollen vermiculite 20-60, refractory clay or kaolin 37-55, electrofilter dust 1-20, chamotte fraction below 0.063 mm 1-30, and structure-forming polyelectrolyte 3-5 (above 100%). Charge is moistened to form mass, which is aged in closed space for at least 24 h, molded into crude article, dried to residual moisture at most 5%, and fired at 1000-1100°C. Aforesaid polyelectrolyte is characterized by having carboxyl, amide, nitrile, and ester groups in polymer molecule.

EFFECT: reduced air and fire shrinkage and service deformations, raised softening point, simplified manufacture, and achieved absence of anisotropy of physicochemical and thermal characteristics with extremely low heat-conduction values.

2 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: manufacture of building materials.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to manufacture of polystyrene-concrete parts for use in construction as wall and heat-insulating material. Manufacture of heat-insulation products comprises preparation of molding mix from Portland cement (60.0-65.6%), water, and granulated foamed polystyrene with loose density 10-20 kg/m3 (2.2-4.4%), molding, and heat treatment of products. Invention resides in that molding mix additionally includes microsilica (6.6-12.0%) and superplasticizer S-3 (0.6-0.66), starting mix Portland cement/microsilica/foamed polystyrene is first stirred for 2-3 min, then water containing superplasticizer is added, resulting mix is stirred for further 3-5 min and loaded into molding boxes. Molding involves vibrocompaction and pressing followed by unloading of products from molding boxes and heat treatment: 2 h at 15-25°C, 8 h at 40-60°C, and 1 h at 15-30°C.

EFFECT: reduced consumption of cement, improved placeability and moldability of mix, increased strength of products, and increased productivity.

2 tbl

FIELD: building industry, in particular raw mixtures for production of heat-insulating materials for heat insulating of roofing, building walls, floor, etc.

SUBSTANCE: claimed mixture contains (mass pts): expanded polystyrene foam granules 10-12,5; cement 100-170; and water 80-100; and additionally polymethylenenaphthalene sulfonate 0.8-0.85; and sodium sulfate 0.01-0.08, wherein said granules are obtained by surface treatment of polystyrene with aqueous solution of polymethylenenaphthalene sulfonate and sodium sulfate.

EFFECT: increased cement adhesion to polystyrene foam without application of toxic and expensive additives; decreased component number without losses of heat-insulating properties.

1 tbl

FIELD: building industry, in particular building materials.

SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes providing polystyrene/concrete mixture by blending of cement, sand, water, foamed polystyrene; formation by vibrocompaction; dismantling of forms and article conditioning. Plasticizer and pigment are additionally introduced into polystyrene/concrete mixture during blending. In formation step precursory vibrocompaction is carried out to produce compacted protective and ornamental cement/sand face layer with thickness not less than 0.3 mm. Then finished vibrocompaction under kentledge is carried out to accomplish desired geometrical sizes. Obtained article is hold in form under kentledge at 15-25°C for 24 h or more, and in total article is hold up to 5 days. Article back surface is heat treated to produce porosity in contact sites due to polystyrene volume contraction up to 10 % in contrast with original one.

EFFECT: article with controlled thickness of compacted protective and ornamental layer.

2 ex

Concrete mix // 2272013

FIELD: manufacture of building materials.

SUBSTANCE: object of invention are special refractory concretes based on Portland cement and slag aggregates, which concretes can be used in manufacture of heat assemblies operated under prolonged high-temperature and sharp temperature gradient conditions. Concrete mix contains 16-22% Portland cement, 10-20% alumina hydrate in the form of production waste, 28-36% sand slag-pumice fraction up to 5-20 mm, broken slag fraction 5-20 mm, 0.5-1.5% super-plasticizer S-3, and water, said alumina hydrate being waste coming from synthetic rubber production or from radio component plant, namely from manufacture of electrolytic condensers in the form of aluminum foil etching waste.

EFFECT: increased density due to filled hollows in porous aggregate with alumina hydrate or reaction product thereof with lime releasing on hydration of clinker minerals, increased residual strength after firing at 800°C, and increased heat resistance.

2 tbl

FIELD: manufacture of porous sound-absorbing ceramic bricks, tiles or slabs possessing high sound-absorbing properties in wide range of frequencies.

SUBSTANCE: proposed porous sound-absorbing article is made from porous ceramic material with communicating pores at specific gravity of 0.5-1.0; for obtaining such material, 100-200 parts by weight of at least one sintered material is added to 100 parts by weight of pearlite at grain diameter of 0.50-2.0 mm; sintered materials are selected from group containing ash dust, wollastonite, chamotte, slag, quartz, lava, stones or clay as basic material, 10-20 parts by weight of inorganic binder; then, mixture is sintered; pearlite particles make material porous since pearlite particles get surrounded with basic material and binder after sintering; communicating pores are formed between contact surfaces of particles. Specification gives characteristics of versions of porous sound-absorbing ceramic article and method of its production.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of sound absorption in wide range of frequencies.

45 cl, 3 dwg, 3 ex

FIELD: manufacture of building materials and articles; light-weight structural insulating concrete.

SUBSTANCE: proposed light-weight concrete contains cement, hollow micro-spheres - component separated by reagentless floatation from ash-and-slag mixtures and water; it additionally contains silicon opal-cristobalite mineral - tripolite of the following fractional composition, %: 0.315 - 0.14 mm 27-31.1, 0.14-0.071 mm 30.1-33.2 lesser than 0.071 mm 32.9-39.7 at the following ratio of components, mass-%: cement, 24.9-29.3; tripolite, 6.8-14.2; micro-spheres, 34.8-41.1; the remainder being water.

EFFECT: reduced density and heat conductivity.

5 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: building materials, in particular polystyrene-concrete foam articles.

SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes mixture forming in the next component ratio (mass %): Portland cement 81.0; granulated foamed polystyrene 4.0, wherein three parts thereof have granule diameter of 1-2 mm, and one part has granule diameter of 2-3 mm; plasticizing additive 0.5; air-entraining admixture 0.02; and balance: water. For mixture production 2/3 of Portland cement, both additives and 1/2 of tempering water are charged into mixer and agitated for 2-3 min. Foamed polystyrene having granule diameter of 1-2 mm, is added and agitated for 1-2 min; remained cement, foamed polystyrene having granule diameter of 2-3 mm, and remained water are added and agitated for 2-3 min. Mixture is placed into curb, floated and conditioned at 20°C for 8 hours. Finished articles are laid in stacks for storage or hauling.

EFFECT: building articles of increased heat insulating properties, improved constructive characteristics and decreased average density; simplified technology.

1 tbl

FIELD: building materials, in particular heat insulating article production.

SUBSTANCE: claimed composition contains (mass pts): green vermiculite 1-1.05; mixture of hydrogen peroxide and sulfuric acid in volume ratio of 3:1 1-2,20; and artificial porous additive, namely expanded perlite 1-1,20.

EFFECT: heat insulating articles of increased strength.

2 tbl, 12 ex

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