Method and device for conversion of heat energy to electricity, heat of increased potential and cold

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: method for conversion of heat energy to electricity, heat of increased potential and cold involves the following stages. A cooling agent is evaporated from a strong solution. A heated vapour flow is expanded with the performance of work and formation of spent vapour. Vapour is condensed. A liquid cooling agent is expanded and evaporated so that the cooling effect is formed. The cooling agent vapour of reduced temperature is absorbed. Pressure of the solution is increased and the solution is heated before evaporation. The heated cooling agent vapour is separated into two flows after evaporation, one of which expands with the performance of work, and the other one is condensed and used for generation of cold and/or heat energy. The cooling agent vapour flow, after its expansion with the performance of work, and the flow of the cooling agent vapour of reduced temperature and reduced pressure, which is obtained at evaporation of the cooling agent with the formation of the cooling effect, are absorbed using a common weak solution and with the formation of a strong solution including the cooling agent of both flows that are specified above. A device for conversion of heat energy to electricity, heat of increased potential and cold is described.

EFFECT: group of inventions is aimed at improvement of efficient generation of mechanical energy, heat and cold.

13 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl

 

The invention relates to a power system, in particular to the process of converting thermal energy of a relatively low temperature level, and can be used for combined or separate mechanical (electrical) energy, thermal energy of high potential and cold.

Widely known vapor compression method thermotransformation [Sokolov DEATH, Brodyansky V.M. Energy basis of transformation of heat and cooling processes. - M.: Energoizdat, 1981, 49], including the evaporation of the working fluid (refrigerant) under reduced pressure with the advent of refrigeration effect, the subsequent vapor compression refrigerant with a compressor, further cooling and condensation of this vapor emitting thermal energy of high potential and, finally, lowering the pressure of the working medium (typically, throttling) before evaporation.

Known absorption method of producing cold and/or heat energy [Bodylines Y.S., Danilov R.L. Absorption refrigerating machine. - M., Food industry, 1966, p.131], in which the working environment is a mixture of low-boiling (refrigerant) and high-boiling (absorbent) components. In this way refrigerant vapor obtained by evaporating the alcoholic solution at elevated temperature and elevated pressure, initially cooled and to desirous with the transfer of heat to the external consumers. Then the temperature and pressure of the refrigerant condensate is reduced by partial expansion in the throttling process and evaporated with the advent of refrigeration effect under reduced pressure and reduced temperature, for example -30°C. the Resulting pairs of low pressure then absorb in a weak solution at constant temperature and pressure with the exhaust heat of low temperature capacity in environmental. In turn, a strong solution generated in the absorption process, compressed, heated and served to re-evaporation.

Known as the Kalina cycle [Kalina A. Method and Apparatus for Converting Low Temperature Heat to Electric Power. Patent USA No. 5,029,444, Date of Patent: Jul. 9, 1991], in which two-component working medium (usually water-ammonia solution of NH3+H2O), is used to convert thermal energy into mechanical (electrical) energy. In this way, the flow of steam, comprising a pair of ammonia (NH3and water, obtained by evaporation of the alcoholic solution at elevated temperature and elevated pressure, and the steam expands in the turbine to produce work. The steam flow after the turbine having a high temperature, for example, 45-70°C, initially mixed with the flow of weak solution, and then condense at constant pressure with removal of the heat released in the process is e-condensing, external heat transfer with the ambient temperature.

The above methods are designed to produce only one type of energy, either mechanical (electrical) energy, or heat and cold. In addition, the effectiveness of these methods is relatively low.

Also known absorption method [David N. Wells. System and Method for Selective Heating and Cooling. Patent Application Publication, Pub. No.: US 2005/0086971 A1, Pub. Date: Apr. 28, 2005] combined production of electric energy and cold, in which the working medium is a mixture of low-boiling (refrigerant) and high-boiling (absorbent) components and which is selected here as an analogue that is closest to the proposed invention by a combination of traits (prototype).

In this way the flow of vapor obtained by vaporizing solid solution at elevated temperature and elevated pressure, initially expands in the turbine to produce work (electrical energy) with the formation of the flow of exhaust steam.

Moreover, the exhaust steam has some intermediate values of pressure and temperature sufficient to convert (condensation) exhaust steam into a liquid state using an external cooled (ambient air or water).

Then exhaust steam condense to form a liquid chill of the enta (condensate), and released during this thermal energy is given by the external cooled (ambient air or water) into the environment.

Next, the pressure and temperature of the refrigerant liquid (condensate) is additionally reduced by the additional extension with the formation of the refrigerant of low pressure and low temperature.

Then, the refrigerant of low pressure and low temperature evaporated to form a pair of refrigerant of low pressure and low temperature. The evaporation of the refrigerant at low pressure and low temperature is accompanied by the appearance of the refrigeration effect.

The resulting pairs of low pressure and low temperature, lower the temperature of the external heat transfer fluids (external heat sources), absorb in a weak solution at constant pressure and heat due to the heat given to the environment, i.e. the emitted heat energy is absorbed by external fluids, such as water or air.

In the process of absorption forms a strong solution, which is then compressed, heated and served to re-evaporation.

In addition, additional features of this method are:

1) a relatively low degree of expansion with production work, at approximately 5-6 units

2) the selected sequence of operations of a method, according to which the absorption of steam after expansion in the turbine is possible only in the presence of such intermediate operations, condensation and evaporation,

3) use a throttling process performed using a thermostatic expansion valve, for additional expansion of the refrigerant (condensate) by lowering its pressure and temperature.

A device for the transformation of thermal energy [David N. Wells. System and Method for Selective Heating and Cooling. Patent Application Publication, Pub. No.: US 2005/0086971 A1, Pub. Date: Apr. 28, 2005], which includes circulating a refrigerant circuits and solution with installed separator, turbine connected to the generator, condenser, thermostatic expansion (throttling) valve, evaporator, absorber, a pump, a regenerator heat, a boiler connected to a source of heat of high temperature. In this device, the absorber is connected by a communication to the source of warmth temperature.

At the present level of technology, the efficiency of power cycles is relatively small, as a further extension of the useful temperature range of the cycle by reducing the steam temperature after the turbine (heat engine), usually substantially higher than the ambient temperature, it is not possible.

Efficiency the efficiency of known cycles, used for heating and cooling, also not high enough.

The aim of the invention is to further improve production efficiency mechanical (electrical) energy, as well as heat and cold, especially when using low-grade renewable or secondary heat sources.

This goal is achieved by the fact that in the process of transformation of thermal energy, including

emission (evaporation) of the refrigerant from the strong solution at an elevated temperature and an elevated pressure with the formation of the flow of heated vapor of the refrigerant and the flow of weak solution,

- expansion of the flow of heated steam of the refrigerant with the production and formation of waste steam,

- the condensation of vapor to transfer heat due to the heat to an external fluid and the formation of liquid refrigerant,

- expansion (throttling) of the liquid refrigerant and its subsequent evaporation with the formation of the cooling effect at low pressure and low temperature, lower the temperature of the external coolant used in the process of condensation, and

- the absorption of vapor refrigerant of low temperature and low pressure in pre-cooled weak solution with the formation of solid solution,

- higher is their strong pressure solution and heated before serving (return) for evaporation,

heated steam of the refrigerant after evaporation is divided into two streams, one of which expands with production work, and the other is condensed and used for the production of cold and/or heat,

moreover, the flow of vapor refrigerant after expansion with the production of work (exhaust steam and the steam flow of the refrigerant of low temperature and low pressure, obtained by evaporation of the refrigerant with the formation of a refrigerating effect, absorbed using a General weak solution and the formation of a solid solution comprising (containing) the refrigerant both of the above threads.

This goal is achieved by the fact that in the process of transformation of thermal energy, including

- the evaporation of the refrigerant from the strong solution at elevated temperature and pressure with the formation of the flow of heated vapor of the refrigerant and the flow of weak solution,

- lowering the temperature and pressure of the heated steam of the refrigerant through the expansion of production work at temperatures higher than the temperature of condensation of steam when using an external coolant,

- a further reduction in temperature and pressure of the refrigerant to form a pair of refrigerant of low temperature,

- the absorption of vapor of low temperature in a pre-chilled labom the solution with formation of a solid solution,

the heat generated by absorption of a strong solution, and

- the increased pressure of the solution

a further reduction in temperature and pressure of the refrigerant to form a pair of refrigerant of low temperature is carried out by an additional expansion of vapor production.

In addition, features of the proposed method, leading to the technical result is:

additional cooling of the weak solution prior absorption with heat transfer high capacity external coolant;

- expansion of vapor in the production operation to a temperature lower than the temperature of any external fluid (ambient temperature);

the pressure increase absorption through the use of vapor-liquid ejectors or two-phase (vapor-liquid) compressors;

- use as a solvent fluids used for lubrication of the compressor.

A device for converting thermal energy into electricity, the high heat capacity and cold, including

- boiler (heater) with cage for evaporation of the refrigerant and its separation from the solution,

- heat engine (turbine generator)connected to the separator lines (pipelines) for feeding a pair of hedge is the and/or

capacitor with utilities to supply to the condenser steam and the liquid refrigerant in the evaporator with expansion (regulating) valve

absorption apparatus (absorber)with input communications for entering the absorber of vapor and weak solution, and the output of utilities to supply to the boiler solid solution,

- pump to increase the pressure of the solution and its circulation,

- regenerative heat exchanger and the cooler (heat exchanger),

a heat engine is supplied communications for supplying exhaust steam (steam after the engine) in the absorber.

Other distinguishing features of the proposed device are:

- installation of on-line weak solution between the separator and the absorber cooler with external cooling, providing the heated external fluid and lowering the temperature of the weak solution to the absorber;

connection of thermal engine to the separator in parallel with the capacitor, with the possibility of distribution of steam between the motor and the capacitor by using a regulating valve (valve);

supplying the absorber vapor-liquid jet apparatus (ejector), reduces the vapor pressure before the absorber and the increased pressure of the solution in the absorption process;

- use the as absorber screw or scroll compressor.

The essence of the proposed method is illustrated in the circuit diagram of the installation for the combined production (generation) of various types of energy (electricity, heat and cold), presented in figure 1. In addition, the essence of the proposed method is illustrated the concept of installations for the production (generation) of electric and thermal energy, are presented in figure 2, and the conventional image of the characteristic processes of this method on the chart with coordinates lg p-(-1/T), where p is the pressure, T is absolute temperature, is presented in figure 3.

The device in figure 1 includes circulating the refrigerant circuit 1 and the circulation loop solution 2 with installed separator 3, nodes 4 and 5 of the interaction of the refrigerant with the energy consumers of electric energy and cold respectively, the absorber 6, a receiver 7, a pump 8, a regenerator 9, the boiler (boiler) 10 and the cooler (heat exchanger) 11.

In turn, node 4 includes a turbine 12 connected to an electric generator 13 and the shut-off and control valves for the distribution of vapor flow between nodes 4 and 5, and the node 5 to the condenser 14, the control valves 15 and the evaporator 16. The proposed method allows for the regulation of plant performance for production of electricity and heat (cold) by RA the distribution of vapor flow between nodes 4 and 5 through valve 17 to 1.

Figure 2 shows one of possible variants of the proposed method, in which the steam after the separator is directed to the turbine and is used to generate electricity.

In this case, the device includes:

1 - turbine generator,

2 - absorber with ejector,

3 - pump,

4 - exchanger solutions

5 - steam generator refrigerant (boiler),

6 - separator

7 - subcooler weak solution.

Figure 3 presents these processes change the state of the working fluid (refrigerant and solution):

1-2 - education-heated steam of the refrigerant and the weak solution by evaporation of the alcoholic solution;

2-3 - cooled weak solution in the regenerator and the cooler and lowering its pressure by throttling;

3-4 - absorption of the refrigerant at constant pressure and 3-4k with increasing pressure and temperature of the solution and refrigerant;

4-1 and 4k-l is to increase the pressure of the strong solution and its recuperative heat by absorption with constant and variable pressure, respectively;

2-5-6 - possible cooling of vapor and its condensation (portrayed matching points 5 and 6 are diagrams);

6-7 - throttling of the refrigerant condensate;

7-8 - evaporation of the refrigerant (indicated coincident points);

2-8 and 2-8k possible expansion of vapor with PR the production of the work, accordingly, the initial (higher possible condensing temperature) and additional (in the temperature range below possible condensing temperature);

8-3 - vapor mixture of refrigerant from the weak solution in the absorption process.

Consider how energy generation scheme is presented in figure 2, as follows. Refrigerant vapor of high temperature and pressure, for example, with a temperature of 80°C and pressure of 20 bar, after the separator 6 is directed to the turbine 1, which is expanding with the production of original work in the temperature range 80-25°C, significantly higher than the possible temperature of condensation, for example a temperature of 10°C. Further, as a result of further expansion of the production operation, the temperature of the vapor additionally decreases to a value less than the temperature of the possible condensation of steam, for example to a temperature of minus 30°C, while the temperature of the possible condensation can be plus 10°C. In this case, the total the degree of expansion of the steam in the turbine is increased in almost 3-4 times compared with the same period in the known method, which in this case makes appropriate use of turbines with a large number of steps of expansion compared with turbines known method (the use of two - or multi-stage extension).

After turb who are pairs of low temperature and low pressure is absorbed in the absorber 2. The heat released in the absorption process, partially consumed to increase the temperature of the solution of refrigerant and absorbent, and partly absorbed by the heated external fluid, such as air or water with an initial temperature of the environment.

Formed in the absorber 2 strong solution having a temperature of, for example, 30-40°C, then fed by the pump 3 to the recuperative heat exchanger solutions 4. In the heat exchanger 4 a strong solution additionally heated returned from the separator 6 in the apparatus 2 a weak solution, for example, to a temperature of 60-100°C and then sent to the boiler (steam generator) 5, the heated external fluid.

In the boiler 5 is boiling solution with formation of a mixture of saturated vapor refrigerant and a weak solution, which is then shared more fully in the separator 6 with the formation of the heated vapor refrigerant and a weak solution.

In this cycle weak solution returned from the boiler to the absorber, after the heat exchanger has solutions elevated temperature, for example a temperature of 35-45°C. Therefore, before entering the absorber 2 this solution is further cooled in the subcooler weak solution 7, transferring its heat energy to the external fluid.

When the device is presented in figure 1, the refrigerant vapor high t is emperature and pressure, for example at a temperature of 80°C and pressure of 20 bar, separator 3, the circulation of the refrigerant circuit 1 is supplied to the nodes 4 and 5, associated with the consumers of electric energy and cold respectively. Couples received by the node 4, is expanded in the turbine 12 to electrical energy in the generator 13. Initially, this expansion is carried out in the temperature range 80-25°C, significantly higher than possible condensing temperature of steam. Next, the steam expands advanced turbine 12 with production work in the temperature range substantially smaller possible condensing temperature of the steam, for example plus 10 to minus 30°C, and then, bypassing the stage of condensation, throttling and re-evaporation, flows into the absorber 6.

In turn, couples received by node 5, initially condensed in the condenser 14, for example, at a temperature of 40-50°C, with the transfer of heat due to thermal energy to the external coolant. Next, the temperature and pressure of the refrigerant is reduced by extending it using the regulating valve 15, and then evaporated in the evaporator 16, for example, at a temperature of minus 30°C, with the formation of the refrigeration effect. From the evaporator the flow of steam of low pressure and low temperature is fed into the absorber 6, which also is a stream of exhaust steam of low pressure and onigen the second temperature, formed by the expansion of steam in the turbine 12. Simultaneously with the flow of vapor in the absorber 6 of the separator 3 goes weak solution, pre-cooled in the regenerative heat exchanger (regenerator) 9 and a cooler (heat exchanger) 11, for example, to a temperature of 15°C.

As a result of absorption of steam above flows into the absorber 6 is formed a solid solution with a higher temperature compared with the temperature of the absorbed vapor, for example a temperature of 30-40°C. After this strong solution from receiver 7 is fed by a pump 8 through a regenerative heat exchanger 9 in the boiler 10, where a strong solution is heated with the formation of vapor and weak solution elevated temperature and pressure while receiving heat from an external source of high temperature. Further refrigerant vapor and weak solution from the boiler 10 are fed into the separator 3, where it is more complete separation.

The proposed method can be implemented using the traditional working environments, widely used in the absorption and vapor compression heat (cooling) machines or power plants type of Kalina cycle and Rankine cycle organic fluid. In particular, for the implementation cycle can be used water-ammonia solution (a solution of NH3+H2O). In addition, in this case, quality is the firmness of the low-boiling components of the solutions can be used, for example, such refrigerants as R21, R124, R142b, R134a, R245fa, or their mixtures with normal boiling temperature close to ambient temperature. The absorbents is the preferred use of such organic solvents as DME-TAG (dimethyl ether of tetraethyleneglycol), DMA (dimethyl formamide), DBP (dibutyl phthalate) and other known absorbents [David N. Wells. System and Method for Selective Heating and Cooling. Patent Application Publication, Pub. No.: US 2005/0086971 A1, Pub. Date: Apr. 28, 2005].

In some cases, as a solvent, you can use mineral or synthetic oil, usually used for the lubrication of refrigeration compressors, which provides increased temperature difference between the evaporating refrigerant and solvent.

Some typical performance of the proposed method using as a working body of water-ammonia solution are given in Table 1.

Table 1.
Some typical performance of the proposed method using as a working body of water-ammonia solution
The name of the parameterThe parameter value in the manufacture
heat and coldelectricity
Steam pressure (bar): initial (separator) / end (before the absorber)20/1,220/1,2
Steam temperature (°C): initial (separator) / end (before the absorber)80/minus 30,680/ minus 30,6
Temperature absorption (solution), (°C)30-3530-35
Disposable temperature range (°C)110,6110,6
The ratio of disposable temperature ranges in the proposed and conventional methods-1,7
The amount of produced energy, kJ/kg~1300 cold~200 power

As follows from Table 1, have a (useful) temperature range that defines the degree of expansion in the turbine, the proposed method increases to values similar indicator of the absorption refrigeration cycle, defined in this case, the temperature difference between the vapor of the refrigerant at the outlet of the separator and the inlet and the sorber. Moreover, when the electric power generation this indicator can be significantly large compared to other known similar ways. In particular, in the proposed method, the generation of energy this is almost 1.7 times higher than in known, if we assume that the initial temperature of both cycles are the same, and the temperature of condensation of steam in the known method coincides with the ambient temperature of 10°C.

In addition, in the proposed method, the condensation of vapor can be conducted at higher temperatures (e.g. 80°C)than in the method prototype, without decreasing the work produced. In this case, the heat released upon condensation of the steam, along with thermal energy released during cooling of the weak solution to the absorber, can be used useful, for example, for heating purposes.

The proposed method allows for combined generation of various types of energy (electricity, heat and cold) and the possibility of regulating the relations between them depending on the time of year and consumer demand, which, along with efficiency, you can reduce the payback period of capital investment.

It can also be used for power generation in stationary or mobile environment, with the use of what Finance various heat sources, including renewable and fossil fuels, as well as to create a new generation of air conditioners, chillers, heat pumps and similar equipment.

In this case, the efficiency of mechanical transformations in the field of low temperatures is significantly higher in comparison with other known methods.

1. The method of converting thermal energy into electricity, the high heat capacity and cold, including
- the evaporation of the refrigerant from the strong solution at elevated temperature and pressure with the formation of the flow of heated vapor of the refrigerant and the flow of weak solution,
- expansion of the flow of heated steam of the refrigerant with the production and formation of waste steam,
- the condensation of vapor to transfer heat due to the heat to an external fluid and the formation of liquid refrigerant,
- expansion of the liquid refrigerant and its subsequent evaporation with the formation of the cooling effect at low pressure and low temperature, lower the temperature of the external coolant used in the condensation process, and
- the absorption of vapor of low temperature, lower the temperature of the external fluid, and reduced pressure in the pre-cooled weak solution with the formation of tight what about the solution,
- the increased pressure of the solution and heated before serving for evaporation, characterized in that the heated steam of the refrigerant after evaporation is divided into two streams, one of which expands with production work, and the other is condensed and used for the production of cold and/or heat, and the steam flow of the refrigerant after expansion with the production of work and the flow of vapor refrigerant of low temperature and low pressure, obtained by evaporation of the refrigerant with the formation of a refrigerating effect, absorbed using a General weak solution and the formation of solid solution, which includes the refrigerant both of the above threads.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the refrigerant vapor after expansion with production work has a temperature equal to or lower than the temperature of the weak solution used in the absorption process.

3. The method according to any of paragraphs. 1-2, characterized in that a weak solution before absorption is cooled by transfer of heat high capacity external coolant.

4. The method according to any of paragraphs. 1 to 2, characterized in that the pressure in the absorption process increases with temperature and/or concentration of the solution.

5. The method of converting thermal energy into electricity, heat raised the CSOs capacity and cold, including
- the evaporation of the refrigerant from the strong solution at elevated temperature and pressure with the formation of the flow of heated vapor of the refrigerant and the flow of weak solution,
- lowering the temperature and pressure of the heated steam of the refrigerant through the expansion of production work at temperatures higher than the temperature of condensation of steam when using an external coolant,
- a further reduction in temperature and pressure of the refrigerant to form a pair of refrigerant of low temperature,
- the absorption of vapor of low temperature pre-cooled weak solution with the formation of solid solution,
the heat generated by absorption of a strong solution, as well as
- the increased pressure of the solution,
characterized in that a further reduction in temperature and pressure of the refrigerant to form a pair of refrigerant of low temperature is carried out by an additional expansion of vapor production.

6. The method according to p. 5, characterized in that a weak solution before absorption is further cooled by transfer of heat high capacity external coolant.

7. The method according to p. 5 and 6, characterized in that the flow of heated steam of the refrigerant as a result of further expansion with the production of the work is cooled to t is of Imperator, equal to or lower than the temperature of the weak solution used for absorption.

8. The method according to any of paragraphs. 5 and 6, characterized in that the pressure of the solution in the absorption process increases with increasing concentration of the refrigerant and/or increasing its temperature.

9. A device for converting thermal energy into electricity, the high heat capacity and cold, including
- boiler with separator for evaporation of the refrigerant and its separation from the solution,
a heat engine is connected to the separator utilities to supply vapor of the refrigerant,
and/or
capacitor with utilities to supply to the condenser steam and the liquid refrigerant in the evaporator with expansion valve
absorption apparatus with input communications for entering the absorber of vapor and weak solution, and the output of utilities to supply to the boiler solid solution,
- pump to increase the pressure of the solution and its circulation
- regenerative heat exchanger and cooler,
characterized in that
a heat engine is supplied communications for supplying exhaust steam in the absorber.

10. The device according to p. 9, characterized in that between the separator and absorber installed the cooler with external cooling, providing external heating warm the vehicle and lowering the temperature of the weak solution to the absorber.

11. Device according to any one of paragraphs. 9 and 10, characterized in that the heat engine is connected to the separator in parallel with the capacitor, with the possibility of distribution of steam in the engine and the condenser using the control valve.

12. Device according to any one of paragraphs. 9 and 10, characterized in that the absorber is gas-liquid jet apparatus that reduce the vapor pressure before the absorber and the increased pressure of the solution in the absorption process.

13. Device according to any one of paragraphs. 9 and 10, characterized in that the absorber is used screw or scroll compressor.



 

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FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: working substance is carbon oxide, which in the working cycle is used in liquid and gas phases and in the form of a double-phase mixture. The device is equipped with a compressor, which is installed in a manifold for working substance supply into the main chamber. The outlet hole of the manifold is made as capable of locking with a piston as the latter moves towards the lower dead centre and accordingly unlocking as the piston moves towards the upper dead centre during the time I, which is chosen from the range of 0.85τ≤t≤1.5τ, where τ - time of relaxation of the main chamber determined as the ratio of the mass of the working substance in the main chamber to the mass flow rate of the working substance in the specified manifold.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of heat transfer and reduced material intensity.

1 dwg

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: thermodynamic circuit includes three heat exchangers (W1, W2, W3), separator (4), turbine (2), coupler (5) and bypass pipeline (31). The first heat exchanger (W1) for generation of the first heated or partially evaporated flow (15) of working medium by heat transfer from thin flow (12) of working medium. The second heat exchanger (W2) for generation of the second flow (18) of working medium by partial evaporation or additional evaporation of the first flow (15) of working medium using the heat that is transferred from external heat source (20). The third heat exchanger (W3) for full condensation of thin flow (12a) of working medium. Separator (4) for separation of liquid phase (19) from vapour phase (10) of the second flow (18) of working medium. Turbine (2) for exhaustion of vapour phase (10), conversion of its energy to useful form and generation of thin vapour phase (11). Coupler (5) for generation of thin flow (12) of working medium by combining liquid phase (19) and thin vapour phase (11). Bypass pipeline (31) for bypassing vapour phase (10) of turbine (2) and the first heat exchanger (W1). Pipeline (31) is branched from pipeline (32) between separator (4) and turbine (2) and enters pipeline (30) between the first heat exchanger (W1) and the third heat exchanger (W3).

EFFECT: preventing hazardous pressure pulsations in the circuit during start-up.

12 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: when converting thermal energy into mechanical energy using a working medium, which consists of a mixture with at least two substances, which have different temperatures of boiling and condensation, the working medium is supplied to a condenser and is condensed there. To avoid exfoliation of the mixture of substances, prior to or in process of working medium condensation in the condenser the liquid phase of the working medium is fixed with the steam-like phase of the working medium. Therefore, a homogeneous mixture of substances is again produced, which is condensed at lower pressure compared to the exfoliated working medium.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase efficiency of thermal energy conversion into mechanical one.

19 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: conversion method of energy to mechanical operation and method for increasing the enthalpy and compressibility factor of water vapour involves connection of working liquid contained in vessel, heat energy. Vaporous working liquid is condensed and cyclically returned as liquid phase to the vessel. To working liquid (prior to and after the beginning of heating process) there added is catalytic additive in the form of catalytic substance or catalytic mixture of substances in quantity of 0.0000001 to 0.1 wt %. Additive represents solid substance, its solution or suspension, or liquid substance or its emulsion. Catalytic substance and mass ratio of individual substances in catalytic mixture is chosen so that it prevents decomposition of substance or mixture under action of high temperature and pressure in compliance with existing need and workshop conditions.

EFFECT: invention allows increasing the efficiency of the target process, enlarging operating capabilities at economic attraction of available and safe processes.

3 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: energy storage plant includes turbine, working medium receiver connected to turbine outlet, compressor and cooling heat exchanger connected to working medium storage, which is connected to turbine inlet through heating heat exchanger. Inner cavity of working medium receiver is interconnected with the first hydraulic pressure compensator. Inner cavity of working medium storage is interconnected with the second hydraulic pressure compensator connected to liquid storage system with possibility of using hydrostatic liquid head for compensation of working medium pressure.

EFFECT: improving reliability of the plant and reducing energy production cost.

7 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: plant includes closed operating cycle in which heat source for hydraulic turbine from hot water boiler has been replaced with sources from gas-turbine plants (GTP) both base and auxiliary as actuator to circulating pump; at that, plant includes intermediate water heater from independent heat source.

EFFECT: invention allows increasing the efficiency, reducing auxiliary electric power consumption and decreasing the impact on environment.

2 cl, 1 dwg

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