Device to control materials and substances

FIELD: testing equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of non-destructive control of materials and substances, measurement of statistic characteristics of random processes. A device to control materials and substances comprises serially connected a source of physical field, an element with a control object, a converter of physical field, and also the first and second conversion circuit, each of which comprises serially connected an accumulating averaging summator and a count block, at the same time the outlet of the first circuit is connected to the first inlet of a computing device, and the outlet of the second circuit is connected to the second inlet of the computing device, the first outlet of which is connected to inlets of strobing of accumulating averaging summators combined into a bus "Measurement time", the first multiplier, the first analogue-digital converter and the second analogue-digital converter, the second multiplier, the first controlled frequency multiplier, serially connected the second controlled frequency multiplier and the controlled phase changer, the outlet of which is connected to the second inlet of the second multiplier, the outlet of which is connected to the inlet of the second analogue-digital converter, and the first inlet of the multiplier is combined with the first inlet of the first multiplier and is connected to the outlet of the first controlled frequency multiplier, the inlet of which is connected to the outlet of the physical field converter, and the outlet of the source of physical field is connected to the inlet of the second controlled frequency multiplier, the outlet of which is connected to the second inlet of the first multiplier, the outlet of which is connected to the inlet of the first analogue-digital converter, in which the outlet is connected to the inlet of the first circuit of conversion, and the inlet of the second conversion circuit is connected to the outlet of the second analogue-digital converter, besides, control inlets of the first and second controlled frequency multiplier and controlled phase changer are combined into a bus "Plant Vm" and are connected to the second outlet of the computing device.

EFFECT: simplification of a circuit of a device for control of quality of materials and substances.

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The invention relates to measuring technique and can be used in the field of non-destructive testing of substances, measurements of the statistical characteristics of random processes.

In non-destructive testing statistical method improves the accuracy of decision-making when assessing the quality of material, substances or products.

The statistical analysis used the statistical average of the form [Tikhonov Century. And. Statistical radio engineering. M.: Radio and communication, 1982, p.32]

θ(Vm)=m1{exp[jVmη]}=-W1(η)exp(jVmη)dη,(1)

called the characteristic function (H.F.), where Vm=mΔV - parameter H.F.; η is a random variable; m1- the sign of the mathematical expectation. Transformation of the expression (1) leads him in mind

θ1(Vm)= m1{cos[Vmη]}+jm1{sin[Vmη]}=A(Vm)+jB(Vm),(2)

where A(Vm), B(Vm) - the real and the imaginary part of H.F. respectively.

A device for measuring the density of probability of phase signal [Patent 2313101, CL G01R 25/00. The analyzer probability density phase signal / Uminescence, Mowcher. Publ. 20.12.2007. Bull. No. 35]. The device comprises an analog storage unit, two unit sampling and storage, two ADC driver Gating pulse shaper reference oscillations driven generator, a control unit, the first and second accumulating adders, first and second multiplier products, operational adder, the first and second functional converters, additional accumulating adder, the reference block memory.

The principle of this device is to measure the real and imaginary parts H.F. when different values of the parameter Vmand the definition is tighter the particular probability of the phase signal in accordance with the algorithm [Veshkurcev Y.M. Applied analysis of the characteristic function of random processes. M.: Radio and communication, 2003, p.58].

W1(x)=12π+1πm=1M[A(Vm)cos(xVm)+B(Vm)sin(xVm)].(3)

The disadvantage of this measuring device is the complexity of constructing circuits for signal conversion.

Known the closest in technical essence is the device control materials and substances [Veshkurcev N, Veshkurcev, Y.M. Metrological certification of the laboratory stand // Science, education, business: materials of the regional scientific-practical konferentsii. - Omsk: publishing house "Printing center KAHN, 2011. - S. 241-245], containing series-connected source of physical fields, the element with the object of control, the transducer of physical fields, as well as the first and second chain the conversion, each of which contains consistently United accumulating averages the adder and the reporting unit, and the first output circuit connected to the first input of the computing device and the second output circuits are connected to the second input of the computing device, the first output of which is connected to the inputs of the Gating accumulating averaging adders, United in the bus "measurement Time", the first multiplier, analog-to-digital Converter first. The device monitors the quality of materials and substances statistical method has a complicated scheme of signal conversion, as it contains such complex elements as the first and second functional converters.

The task of the invention is the simplification of the circuit control device of the materials and substances.

This object is achieved due to the fact that in the known device, containing series-connected source of physical fields, the element with the object of control, the transducer of physical fields, as well as the first and second circuit transformations, each of which contains consistently United accumulating averages the adder and readout unit, and the first output circuit connected to the first input of the computing device and the second output circuits are connected to the second input of the computing device, first the th output of which is connected to the inputs of the Gating accumulating averaging adders, United on the bus "measurement Time", the first multiplier, analog-to-digital Converter first, according to the invention introduced the second analog-to-digital Converter, the second multiplier, the first controlled frequency multiplier, connected in series, a second controlled frequency multiplier and controlled phase shifter, the output of which is connected to the second input of the second multiplier, the output of which is connected to the input of the second analog-to-digital Converter and the first input of the multiplier combined with the first input of the first multiplier and connected to the output of the first controlled frequency multiplier, the input of which is connected to the output of the transducer of physical fields, and the output of the source physical fields attached to the entrance the second controlled frequency multiplier, the output of which is connected to the second input of the first multiplier, the output of which is connected to the input of the first analog-to-digital Converter, whose output is connected to the input of the first conversion circuit and the input of the second conversion circuit is connected to the output of the second analog-to-digital Converter, and the control inputs of the first and second controlled frequency multiplier and controlled phase shifter incorporated in the bus Setting Vm" and connected to the second output of the computing device.

On IG shows the structural diagram of the monitoring device; figure 2 - block diagram of the algorithm for calculating the value of the quality indicator substances; figure 3 - example of construction of the triangle.

The control device contains a source physical fields 1, element 2 with the control object, the transducer of physical fields 3, the first 4 and second 5 controlled frequency multipliers, controlled phase shifter 6, the first 7 and second 8 multiplier products, the first 9 and second 10 analog-to-digital converters, the first 11 and second 12 accumulate averages the adders, the first 13 and second 14 reading blocks, computing device 15.

The output of a source physical field 1 is connected to the input element 2, with the object of control, the output of which is connected to the input transducer of physical fields 3, whose output is connected to the input of the first 4 managed frequency multiplier and the second input 5 of the controlled frequency multiplier connected to the output of a source physical field 1. The output of the second 5 managed frequency multiplier connected to the input of the control phase shifter 6 and the second input of the first 7 multiplier, and the output of the first 4 managed frequency multiplier connected to the first inputs of the first 7 and second 8 multiplier products. The outputs of the first 7 and second 8 multiplier products connected respectively to the inputs of the first 9 and second 10 analog-to-digital converters, the outputs of which are connected to the respective is about to inputs of the first 11 and second 12 accumulating averaging adders, while their outputs are connected respectively to the inputs of the first 13 and second 14 reading blocks. The output of the first 13 reading unit connected to the first input of the computing device 15 and the outlet 14 second reading unit connected to the second input of the computing device 15, which has a first output connected to the gate inputs accumulating averaging adders 11, 12, and these inputs are combined bus "Time dimension". The second output of the computing unit 15 is connected to the control inputs of the first 4 and second 5 controlled frequency multipliers and controlled phase shifter 6, and these inputs are combined bus "Setting Vm".

Control is based on the analysis of the interaction of physical fields with object control, for example substance. Source physical fields 1 can serve as a generator of electromagnetic radiation or the element of light (incandescent, led and others)connected to the generator AC voltage.

The transducer of physical fields 3 is consistent with the type of radiation source, and when using incandescent or led light is a photodiode included in the circuit of the photodetector [Zakharenko, VA, Kolesnikova, ETC, Skew A.G. Calculation and design of opto-electronic devices. The tutorial. - Omsk: in Omsk University, 2002, p.51].

The first 4 and second 5 is pravlenie frequency multipliers have a deformer signal, tunable oscillator, the mixer frequency and filter. They have a lot of circuits build and operate in accordance with the description given in the book [Veshkurcev, Y.M. Applied analysis of the characteristic function of random processes. - M.: Radio and communication, 2003, s-116].

Controlled phase shifter 6 sets a phase shift of 90°between the signals at the outputs of the first 4 and second 5 controlled frequency multipliers. This phase shift is equal to

φ=Vmωt,(4)

where Vm- option H.F.; ω - circular frequency of the signal at the output of the controlled frequency multiplier; τ=90°/ωVm- the time constant of the delay line. Depending on the scheme managed frequency multiplier in the formula (4) parameter Vmcan be variable, i.e., Vm=var or constant Vm=const, for example, Vm=1. The delay line signal is based on well-known scheme [Baev E.F., Burylin H. Miniature electrical delay lines. - M.: Owls. Radio, 1977, s-220].

Accumulate averages the adders 11 and 12 are designed to obtain samples H.F. by summing up the codes on the outputs of the analog-to-digital converters 9 and 10, respectively. The adders is based on chips from reference [YaKU who's SV, Barkanov N.A., Kudryashov BP and other Analog and digital integrated circuits. - M.: Owls. Radio, 1979, s]. Each of the accumulative adders 11 and 12 includes an adder, a memory register, an entry in which occurs under the action of the pulse at the input synchronization with the level of the log."1"at the input of Gating adder, one-shot, ensuring the discharge of the contents of the memory register when the leading edge of the pulse at the input Gating.

Reading units 13 and 14 provide a digital display of inspection results and contain buffer register for communication with the computing device 15.

Computing device 15 may be made in the form of microcomputers built on the basis of microprocessor kit To 588 and memory To 537 from reference [Jakubowski SV, Barkanov N.A., Kudryashov BP and other Analog and digital integrated circuits. - M.: Owls. Radio, 1979. - 469].

The device control materials and substances is as follows.

After power cleans adders, registers, memory accumulating averaging adders 11, 12 and the buffer register reading units 13, 14. The first output of the computing device 15 receives the impulse duration T is the measurement time. On the second output of the computing device 15 code set corresponding to the first value of the parameters is and V mi.e. the unit.

The substance is placed in the element 2 and interacts with the electromagnetic field of the light wave band, amplitude modulated. As a result of interaction of the field with matter at the molecular level is a random change in the fundamental parameters of an electromagnetic wave, i.e. the probability characteristics of the physical fields. Passed through the substance of the electromagnetic wave received in the transducer of physical fields 3, where they are converted into an electrical signal with a frequency related to the frequency modulation of the amplitude of the physical wave field. Probabilistic characteristics of the instantaneous values of this signal is dependent on the substance.

Let the mathematical model of the electric signal has the form

U(t)=(U0+ε)cos(ωt+η),

where η is a random phase change signal, ε is a random change of signal amplitude, ω is the circular frequency modulation of the amplitude of the physical wave field. Using the first 4 managed multiplier frequency electric signal is converted into a voltage

u1(t)=U1cos(Vmωt+Vmη),(5)

and the output of the second 5 managed frequency multiplier have

u2(t)=U2cos(Vmωt),(6)

if the source physical field 1 is connected to the generator AC voltage

uG(t)=UGcos(ωt).(7)

Controlled phase shifter 6 adds the signal (6) phase shift (4), and then get

uC(t)=UCcos(Vmωt+φ).(8)

When any Vm phase shift equal to 90°Button

uC(t)=UCsin(Vmωt). (9)

In the first 7 multiplier are multiplied signals (5), (6), and the second 8 are multiplied signals (5), (9). On the first input 9 analog-to-digital Converter signal

up1(t)=12U1U2cos(Vmη)+12U1U2cos(2Vmωt+Vmη),(10)

and on the second input 10 analog-to-digital Converter signal

up2(t)=12U1U2sin(Vmη)+12U1U2sin(2Vmωt+Vmη),(11)/mo>

The amplitude of the signal (10), (11) is chosen equal to unity, thenU1=U2=U3=2

Digital code, equal to the instantaneous value of the signal (10), with the first 9 analog-to-digital Converter receives the first 11 doctors averaging the adder and the digital code, equal to the instantaneous value of the signal (11), arrives in the second accumulating 12 averages the adder. Upon completion of the N samples of the instantaneous values of the signals in nakaplivaya averaging the adder 11 receives the evaluation of the real part of the characteristic function

A(Vm)=1Ni=1Ncos(Vmηi)

at Vm=1, and in nakaplivaya averaging the adder 12, the evaluation of the imaginary part of H.F.

B(Vm)=1Ni=1 Nsim(Vmηi)

at Vm=1, since the average value of the fast oscillating harmonic oscillations is equal to zero, ie,

1Ni=1Ncos(2Vmωti+Vmη)=0,1Ni=1Nsin(2Vmωti+Vmη)=0

The rear edge of the pulse "Time of measurement" evaluation of the real and imaginary parts H.F. recorded in the reference blocks respectively, the first 13 and second 14.

Then on the second output of the computing device 15 code set corresponding to the value of the parameter Vm=2. The first output of the computing device 15 receives the impulse duration T is the time dimension. The work device is istwa proceeds similarly to the above. This is repeated m times, where Vm=1,2,3,...,m. Upon completion of the operation of the device in the first reading unit 13 written evaluation of the real part of H.F.

A(1)And(2)And(3),...,A(Vm)

and the second reading unit 11 written evaluation of the imaginary part of H.F.

B(1),B(2),B(3),...,B(Vm).

These values are estimates, H. F. entered into the memory of the computing device 15, which stores the known estimates of a(0) and(0)arising from the analysis of the basic properties of the characteristic function. In particular, the well-known equality A(0)=1, V(0)=0 [Veshkurcev, Y.M. Applied analysis of the characteristic function of random processes. - M.: Radio and communication, 2003, p.48].

An array of estimates of the characteristic function stored in the memory of the computing device 15, at the end of the measurement process is a set of estimates of the real and imaginary parts of the characteristic function, which in accordance with the flowchart of the algorithm (figure 2) by the well-known formulas [Veshkurcev, Y.M. Applied analysis of the characteristic function of random processes. - M.: Radio and communication, 2003, pp.62, 23] allow to obtain the initial moments of the distribution of the first m1,the second m2the third m3the fourth m4and the Central moments of the distribution of the second M2the third M3the fourth M4orders of magnitude. After that, the Central moments of the distribution are used for Vici the population quality indicator substance.

The quality of the substance is determined by the area of a triangle constructed in three-dimensional rectangular Cartesian coordinate system. The vertices of the triangle coincide with the values of the Central moments of the distribution plotted on the axes (figure 3). On the well-known formula [Bronstein, I.N., Semendjajew K.A. Handbook of mathematics for engineers and students of technical colleges. - M.: State. ed. technical - theoretical. Literature, 1956, p. 166] find area

S=p(p-a)(p-b)(p-c),

wherep=12(a+b+c), a,b,c are the sides of the triangle (figure 3). These sides are equal:a=M22+M32;a=M22+M42;c=M32 +M42. Computing device 15 calculates the area of a triangle in accordance with the flowchart of the algorithm (figure 2). The area of a triangle quantifies the quality of a substance, while its values define the boundaries of linguistic terms: "good", "satisfactory", "unsatisfactory".

Thus, the introduction of the first and second controlled frequency multipliers, controlled phase shifter, a second multiplier and a second analog-to-digital Converter with corresponding connections allows to simplify the design of the monitoring device by performing functional converters, sine and cosine in analog form.

The device control materials and substances containing series-connected source of physical fields, the element with the object of control, the transducer of physical fields, as well as the first and second circuit transformations, each of which contains consistently United accumulating averages the adder and readout unit, when the first output circuit connected to the first input of the computing device and the second output circuits are connected to the second input of the computing device, the first output of which is connected to the inputs of the Gating accumulating FCP is dstudy adders, United on the bus "measurement Time", the first multiplier, analog-to-digital Converter of the first, characterized in that it introduced the second analog-to-digital Converter, the second multiplier, the first controlled frequency multiplier, connected in series, a second controlled frequency multiplier and controlled phase shifter, the output of which is connected to the second input of the second multiplier, the output of which is connected to the input of the second analog-to-digital Converter and the first input of the multiplier combined with the first input of the first multiplier and connected to the output of the first controlled frequency multiplier, the input of which is connected to the output of the transducer of physical fields, and the output of the source physical fields connected to the input of the second controlled frequency multiplier, the output of which is connected to the second input of the first multiplier, the output of which is connected to the input of the first analog-to-digital Converter, whose output is connected to the input of the first conversion circuit and the input of the second conversion circuit is connected to the output of the second analog-to-digital Converter, and the control inputs of the first and second controlled frequency multiplier and controlled phase shifter incorporated in the bus Setting Vm" and connected to the second output of the computing device.

 

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Antioxidant sensor // 2263904

FIELD: analytical chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: sensor can be used for inspecting level of oxidants and antioxidants in liquid. Device for detecting absence or presence of reduction-oxidation reactive-capable analyzed matter in water sample has electro-chemical cell with sensor chamber, first and second electrodes, hole for introducing sample into sensor chamber and reagent placed inside sensor chamber. Electro-chemical cell is designed to be removable after usage in any unique experiment. Reagent is capable of subjecting to reduction-oxidation reaction directly with analyzed matter to generate electric signal indicating absence or presence of analyzed matter. Method of detecting level of reduction-oxidation reaction-capable matter is also proposed as well as method of measurement of sulfur dioxide in sample of vine and method of producing device mentioned before.

EFFECT: improved precision.

36 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: measurement technology; criminology.

SUBSTANCE: main and ancillary electrodes are installed before procedure of getting imprints of dust trace. Voltage applied to main and ancillary electrodes is regulated within wide high-voltage range. Device for getting imprints of dust traces has electric charge storage, main and ancillary electrodes and connecting cable of ancillary electrode, mechanical unit driven into action by muscle force of expert. Mechanical unit is connected with mechanical energy/electric energy converter which is connected with electric charge storage. Main electrode is coated with insulating dielectric film and connected with electric charge storage.

EFFECT: improved exploitation characteristics; independence on external electric power sources; reduced chance of electric current shock.

2 cl, 2 dwg

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