Flocculant modification method
SUBSTANCE: polyacrylamide-based flocculant modification method includes using microwave radiation directed on the starting crystalline polyacrylamide product. The microwave radiation has the following properties: frequency 2.45 GHz, power 700 W, duration of irradiating crystals of the starting flocculant 5-7 s.
EFFECT: method creates conditions for further interaction of macromolecules with each other and increase in molecular weight thereof, which improves the process.
1 tbl, 2 ex
The invention relates to the chemistry of polymers, namely the method of production of high-molecular compounds based on polyacrylamide (PAA) with high molecular mass needed to accelerate the deposition of the solid phase and increase the level of treatment, suspensions, using solid-phase modification of the original product.
A method of obtaining flocculant based on PAA as the modifying agent used, the reaction product of epichlorohydrin and a mixture of salts of higher fatty acids With16-C20.
The disadvantage of this technical solution is that this mixture is atomized in the solution of the grafted copolymer PAA with carboxymethylcellulose, interaction takes place at a sufficiently high temperature 60-80°C and is relatively small, the efficiency of the flocculant.
Closest to the claimed technical solution is the modification of PAA in solution using physico-chemical effects of microwave irradiation (MWI). This information source is selected as the prototype .
The disadvantage of this technical solution is carrying out modifications in solutions. This creates great technological difficulties in large-scale industrial production (mining, pulp and paper, mining and other the IDA industry).
The task, which directed the claimed invention is a method of direct solid-phase modification with the use of MIM, the original crystalline product - PAA, which creates conditions for an additional interaction of PAA macromolecules with each other and increase their molecular weight.
This task is solved by a direct solid-phase modification using MIM. According to modern scientific views directed solid-phase degradation of polymers, consists of two stages:
1 is a partial destruction of the individual macromolecules in the solid phase;
2 - subsequent Assembly of new structures or new polymerization when they are dissolved in an effective solvent.
Feature MIM: frequency of 2.45 GHz, power of 700 W, the duration of irradiation of the crystals original flocculant 5-7 C.
The experiment is carried out with the original powder product (flocculant), which before the dissolution was subjected to purposeful effect MIM with a frequency of 2.45 GHz for 5-7 with microwave power of 700 W, which creates conditions for an additional interaction of macromolecules with each other and increase their molecular weight.
According to theoretical studies it is known that the processes of polymerization in the solid phase can be divided into slow and fast. Slow polymerization of proishodit with a high value of activation energy. It starts with the occurrence of stresses and defects in the crystal lattice with the change of interatomic distances, obtaining radicals (impact MIM). To complete this reaction requires the elimination of defects when received rearrangement of atoms and join in the reaction of the resulting radicals. The lifetime of the radicals in the solid phase is large - up to several months. By electron microscopy proved that rapid polymerization (the second part of the process of destruction) occurs with explosive speed, with the addition of the solid phase suitable for the dissolution of the solid phase of the solvent (dissolving)that is explained by the higher mobility of parts of the crystal lattice and previously arisen radicals. Such techniques physical modification of polymers allow you to create new classes of high-molecular compounds and in a wide range to change their properties and applications .
Example 1 (the original PAA). Exact sample was prepared with a 0.5%aqueous solution of PAA volume of 100 ml of powder flocculant brand Magnafloc-919 English company Ciba and carried out the measurement of kinematic viscosity using a glass viscometer with subsequent determination by known methods characteristic viscosity and calculation of the molecular weight of PAA by the equation Mark-Houwink .
Primer (the prototype). Exact sample was prepared with a 0.5%aqueous solution of PAA volume of 100 ml of powder flocculant brand Magnafloc-919 English company Ciba, which was subjected to MWI for 5 s at microwave power of 100 watts. It was further conducted measurement of kinematic viscosity using a glass viscometer with subsequent determination by known methods characteristic viscosity and calculation of the molecular weight of PAA by the equation Mark-Houwink.
Examples 3-5 (the proposed method). Preparing a 0.5%aqueous solution of PAA brand Magnafloc-919 English company Ciba. Crystals are the source of flocculant (PAA) before dissolution was subjected to MWI with a frequency of 2.45 GHz for 5-7 with microwave power of 700 watts. It was further conducted measurement of kinematic viscosity with subsequent determination of the characteristic viscosity and calculation of the molecular weight of PAA by the equation Mark-Houwink. The test results presented in the table.
From experimental data it follows that the molecular weight of the original PAA in the implementation of the proposed technical solution increases 1.6 times.
1. USSR author's certificate No. 1595850, CL C08F 220/56, 02F 1/56, publ. 1990, bull. No. 36.
2. RF patent №2330814 ÁL 3 SL 5/14, 3 ÁL SL 5/10 / Ulrich E.V., Shevchenko T.V., Yakovchenko M.A., Allenco VP, Chu the Cove A.S., publ. 10.082008, bull. No. 22 (prototype).
3. Shevchenko, T.V. studies of the physico-chemical properties of modified polyelectrolytes based on polyacrylamide / Twichell, Maakotka, Everrich // Chemical industry today. - 2004. No. 10. - P.27-31.
4. Shevchenko,T. the Influence of wave exposure on the modification process and physical-chemical properties of the modified flocculants / Twichell, Austempered, Evelina, Launcherone // Chemical industry today. - 2008. No. 5. - C.11-15.
Modification of flocculant based on polyacrylamide, namely, that the original crystalline product polyacrylamide is subjected to microwave radiation with a frequency of 2.45 GHz, with an output of 700 W, the duration of irradiation of the crystals original flocculant 5-7 C.
SUBSTANCE: claimed invention relates to a method of obtaining heterogeneous mixture used in the paper industry. Described is the method of manufacturing heterogeneous mixture of polymers, including: (a) introduction into a solution of the first portion of a polymerisation initiator and one or several anionic or cationic monomers, with monomers carrying the same charge; (b) introduction into the solution of the second portion of the polymerisation initiator and one or several non-ionic monomers; (c) introduction of the third portion of the polymerisation initiator and one or several ionic monomers, whose charge is opposite to the charge of monomers from (a); (d) gradual introduction of the fourth portion of polymerisation initiator for a reaction of any remaining monomer with formation of a heterogeneous mixture of polymers; and (e) in case of necessity neutralisation of the obtained heterogeneous mixture of polymers, with anionic monomers being selected from the group, consisting of: (1) acrylic acid, (2) methacrylic acid, (3) styrene sulfonic acid, (4) vinyl sulfonic acid, (5) acrylamido methylpropane sulfonic acid and (6) their mixtures; cationic monomers are selected from the group, which includes: (1) diallyldimethylammonium chloride, (2) acryloylethyl trimethylammonium chloride, (3) methacryloylethyltrimethylammonium chloride, (4) acryloylethyltrimethylammonium sulfate, (5) methacryloyl ethyltrimethylammonium sulfate, (6) acrylamidopropyltrimethylammonium chloride, (7) methacrylamidopropyl trimethylammonium chloride, (8) non-quaternised forms (2)-(7), (9) vinylformamide (further hydrolised into vinylamine) and (10) their mixtures, and non-ionic monomers are selected from the group, consisting of: (1) acrylamide, (2) methacrylamide, (3) N-alkylacrylamide, (4) vinylformamide and (5) their mixtures. Also described is the heterogeneous mixture of polymers, intended for increasing the content of a filling agent in paper or carton, obtained by the method described above. Methods of increasing the content of the filling agent in a paper or carton sheet with application of the said heterogeneous mixture of polymers are described.
EFFECT: increase of the content of an inorganic filling agent in paper with simultaneous preservation of weight, strength and suitability of the final product for processing.
17 cl, 9 tbl, 14 ex
SUBSTANCE: composite material can be used to produce sheet decorating and heat-insulating materials in residential, agricultural and industrial construction, as well as for producing moulded packaging elements and containers susceptible to biodegradation, i.e., having biodegradable properties. The polymer composite material consists of, wt %: fibre filler - waste cardboard and/or paper 11.0-12.0, cationic-anionic polyacrylamide resin Ultrarez DS-150 56.0-57.0, polyvinyl alcohol in form of a 15 wt % aqueous solution 27.0-28.0, sodium tetraborate 6.0-3.0. Described is a method of producing a composite material which involves separating fibres of the fibre filler on a rotary disperser with rotor speed of 2500-3000 rpm, wherein the polyvinyl alcohol is added at the mixing step in form of a 15 wt % aqueous solution together with the cationic-anionic polyacrylamide resin Ultrarez DS-150 and sodium tetraborate, pressing and drying.
EFFECT: improved physical and mechanical properties of the polymer composite material while simplifying the production technique.
2 cl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: composite material consists of the following, wt %: polyethylene 277 50-55 and a copper polyacrylamide polycomplex 50-45. The copper polyacrylamide polycomplex is obtained by dissolving copper powder in ammonia solution, mixing the obtained solution with aqueous polyacrylamide solution and separating the polycomplex from the solution with acetone or ethyl alcohol.
EFFECT: longer service life of friction assemblies operating in a dry environment, high hardness of articles.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: suspension-emulsion composition of anti-turbulent additive contains the following, wt %: polyacrylamide with "м.м." 5.5·106 and particle size of not more than 200 mcm - 30-20, polyethyleneglycol - 11-13, stearic acid - 2, ethanol - 42-50 and glycerin - 15.
EFFECT: anti-turbulent additive has decreased viscosity and provides reduction of hydrodynamic friction in oil flow.
FIELD: oil and gas production.
SUBSTANCE: method to stabilise an aqueous solution of polyacrylamide consists in preparation of polyacrylamide in water with concentration from 0.15 to 0.30 wt %. Then polyacrylamide is dispersed by mixing of the produced solution with angular speed from 14000 rpm to 17000 rpm.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to reduce energy intensity and time for solution preparation, to preserve rheological properties of a solution within a long period of time, to increase efficiency of using the produced solution due to stabilisation of its dynamic viscosity.
SUBSTANCE: method of producing hybrid organic-inorganic material comprises the following steps: (a) peptisation of material of inorganic particles selected from oxides, sulphides, sulphates, phosphates, arsenides and arsenates of noble metals and mixtures thereof, in anhydrous sulphuric acid or hydrogen fluoride, to obtain a solution of material of inorganic particles; (b) fractionation of the solution obtained at step (a) to obtain a solution of inorganic particles having particle size ranging from 5 nm to 100 nm; (c) mixing the fractionated solution obtained at step (b) with an organic solvent; (d) reacting the mixture from step (c) with a solution of a reactive organic monomer with silane functional groups in an organic solvent.
EFFECT: method of obtaining hybrid organic-inorganic monomer material enables to obtain monomer materials which combine desired products of material of inorganic particles and an organic monomer, in addition to unique nanoparticle properties.
SUBSTANCE: silicone-hydrogel composition for soft contact lenses contains a silicone monomer N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)acrylamide and 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate, to which a water-soluble monomer N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone or N,N-dimethylacrylamide is added to improve hydrophilic properties, as well as a cross-linking agent, such as ethylene glycol dimethacrylate or divinylbenzene, to improve hydrophilic properties, high content of water, high oxygen permeability, good elongation and optical transparency.
EFFECT: obtaining hydrophilic lenses with high content of water and high oxygen permeability.
7 cl, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a system of reagents for extracting paint materials from recycled water, based on acrylic, melamine, polyurethane, nitrocellulose, epoxy and alkyde film-forming agents and can be used in wood processing, machine building, motorcar and other industries. Disclosed is a flocculant consisting of (wt %) polyacrylamide (6-10), activating additive selected from aminotriazole, guanidine carbonate and semicarbazide (0.1-1.5), hydrazine hydrate (0.1-1.5) and water (the rest).
EFFECT: possibility of varying the structure of the obtained deactivated wastes of paint materials, which enables processing of paint material wastes for reuse or recycling with minimum expenses.
1 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an acrylic composition for plugging threaded joints, particularly for fixing high frequency connectors of inter-block cables. The acrylic composition consists of an acrylic amide-containing resin, an organic colour pigment and a solvent. The acrylic amide-containing resin is a copolymer of butylmethacrylate and acrylamide. The solvent used is a mixture of acetone, xylene and butylacetate. The acrylic composition has high adhesion to different metals, long working life and a wide range of working temperature from minus 40 to plus 50°C. The composition can be used on vertical surfaces.
EFFECT: use of the composition prevents self-unfastening of low-loaded threaded joints subjected to vibration loads and, if needed, enables dismantling of assembled elements.
SUBSTANCE: description is given of a flocculant based on polyacrylamide, containing water, partially hydrolysed polyacrylamide and hydrophobic-hydrophilic flocculated amido-imide polymer with the following ratio of components: partially hydrolysed polyacrylamide - 2g, amido-imide polymer - 3g, water - 100 cm3.
EFFECT: more efficient extraction of suspended substances from recycled water in industrial plants, particularly coal-cleaning plants.
1 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of removing endotoxins from aqueous solutions is carried out by passing a solution through a chitosan-modified zeolite, which is further successively treated with copper sulphate and potassium ferrocyanide solutions.
EFFECT: high efficiency of treatment.
1 dwg, 3 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in the mining industry and refers to deslimation of circulating saponite-containing waters. The deslimation is carried out by the exposure of electric current to circulating water passed between the drums-cathodes 1 and the drum-anode 2, followed by separation to the underflow and the clarified liquid. The clarified draining is removed simultaneously from the drums-cathodes 1, and the saponite-containing substances - from the drum-anode 2. In the flow mode the separation parameters are controlled: performance, linear current, voltage, rate of rotation of the drums.
EFFECT: invention enables to reduce the content of saponite-containing substances in circulating water to the requirements of circulating water supply of the processing plant with the extent of purification of circulating waters to 99,5%.
2 cl, 6 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method includes treating water with a calcium-containing composite sorbent while stirring to obtain solid treatment products and purified water. The sorbent consists of calcium sulphate particles immobilised on fibrillated cellulose fibres containing not less than 95 wt % of fibres with length of not more than 1.2 mm and not less than 55 wt % of fibres with length of not more than 0.56 mm, in amount of 100-1200 pts.wt of calcium sulphate per 100 pts.wt fibres. The solid treatment products obtained are a composite material consisting of fibres and calcium fluoride and/or phosphate particles immobilised thereon.
EFFECT: invention simplifies the method of treating water with extraction of fluorine or phosphates in a wide range of concentration thereof.
2 cl, 4 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water treatment device. Proposed device comprises at least two filter medium sized relative to each other so that ensure, first, saturation with filter medium to filter first contaminant and time-delayed saturation with filter medium to filter second contaminant.
EFFECT: lower costs treatment.
20 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: proposed sorbent comprises thermoplastic polymer with fibre-forming properties produced by aerodynamic forming and unsterile Sphagnum plants incorporated with thermoplastic polymer during its aerodynamic forming in amount of 10-50 wt % of polymer weight. Note here that material formed of thermoplastic polymer features bilk density of 50-220 kg/m3 and fibre diameter of 4-41 mcm. Polymer is selected from the group including polypropylene or its copolymer with ethylene, copolymer of acrylonitrile with methyl acrylate.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of sorbent.
2 cl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method includes electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride solution in an electrolysis cell with unseparated cathode and anode spaces and is characterised by that electrolysis is carried out using an anode made of aluminium or aluminium alloys.
EFFECT: use of the disclosed method broadens functional capabilities of the obtained agent.
2 cl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of obtaining drinking water includes intake of water from a natural source, purification from solid admixtures and processing by passing water through an apparatus, which represents a device, which has an external and an internal cylinder. Water from a supplying tube is passed through the central cavity of the device with a possibility of spiral twisting by countercurrent flows at a rate of 0.2-3.0 m/s and magnetisation. Water processing is carried out at a temperature of 5-25°C, with further realisation of flow-through magnetic processing in an apparatus, which represents a magnetic tube with a diameter of 5-20 cm, through which water flows at a rate of 0.2-3.0 m/s.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to create water, which can be used for constant consumption by people without damage to health, as well as to reduce energy consumption, increase reliability, ecological compatibility and resource saving.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the methods eliminating biological contamination of fluids used for treatment of subsurface wells, and may be used in oil and gas industry. The countermeasure to biological contamination of fluids used for treatment of subsurface wells includes the following operations: receipt of the fluid for treatment with the first microbial count within limits from about 103 up to 1030 bacteria/ml; addition of the organic compound for fluid treatment that reduces virulence of microorganisms up to about 5 wt % of the fluid for treatment; placement of the fluid for treatment to the system equipped with a source of ultraviolet light; provision of potential interaction of free radicals with microorganisms in the fluid to reduce the first microbial count and to ensure placement of the fluid in subsurface.
EFFECT: invention allows enhancing biocidal effect and removing recontamination.
11 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention includes a settlement chamber, a vessel for acceptance of floating fat mass, an auger enclosed within a perforated housing, and two vessels connected with the latter: one for collection of dehydrated wastes and the other -for collection of liquid. The control unit is connected to the sensors monitoring the level of wastewater and sediment in the settlement chamber and the level of liquid in the liquid collection vessel. In the lower part of the settlement chamber a brush with a drive is installed. The chamber has an opening wall connected to the drive and is equipped with horizontally oriented perforated partitions. The system is additionally equipped with a waste collection vessel, a chamber for coagulant solution preparation, a chamber for mixing water being treated with the coagulant solution and, having an automated doser and a flotator. The coagulant solution preparation chamber, the mixing chamber, the floating fat mass receptacle vessel, the flotator, the waste collection vessel and the dehydrated waste collection vessel are equipped with liquid level sensors. The settlement chamber is equipped with sediment level sensors with pressure sensors installed in the auger and in the settlement chamber. The system pipelines are equipped with water flow rate and pH sensors. All the sensors are connected to the control unit.
EFFECT: high quality of preliminary treatment of wastewaters and automation.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises reacting a ferric salt with sodium hydroxide in an aqueous medium containing fibrillated cellulose fibres (FCF). The resultant ferric hydroxide particles are immobilised on the FCF to form a sorbent. The obtained sorbent contains ferric hydroxide in amount of 2500 pts.wt per 100 pts.wt fibres.
EFFECT: obtained sorbents are effective in treatment of waste water and process water containing reduced sulphur compounds and other contaminants.
FIELD: devices for purification of household and industrial sewage.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with devices for purification of household and industrial sewage and intended for electrical and cavitational treatment of sewage containing a large quantity of organic compounds. The device for purification of sewage consists of a body made out of a dielectric material partitioned by diaphragms for two electrode chambers and one working chamber, that contains a filtering material. The electrode chambers have cavitational field sources installed and the working chamber is supplied with a the bubbler installed in it. The technical result consists in an increase of recuperation of the filtering material at the expense of application of a cavitational field to it, decrease of the microbiological semination, and an increase of cavitational effect on particles.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increase of the filtering material recuperation, decreased microbiological semination and increased the cavitational effect on particles.