Method to restore abandoned pits for construction of cemetery

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method includes separate excavation, displacement and piling of soil layer and overburden rocks into separate band dumps, mining of a pit field, filling of the mined space with construction wastes to the border of the upper level of ground water, and the composition of the wastes is close to natural minerals with different size of fractions, in layers with subsequent compaction of each layer, laying of a draining layer with construction wastes having thickness of not more than 0.6 m and with fraction size of 150-200 mm. At the same time they first perform design and planning works for construction of roads, passages, hydraulic engineering and land reclamation structures, then above the draining layer they do primary fill of the mined space of the pit with a mixture made of overburden rocks and ground construction wastes with fraction size of the latter not more of 100 mm that are mixed in equal proportions. Fill is carried out to complete filling of the mined space of the pit, then a layer of soil mixture with seeds of perennial herbs of meadow-weed group is applied onto the surface planed with a bulldozer, and at least in one year they perform final planning, then ploughing of the planed surface with subsequent levelling, afterwards roads are connected, and hydraulic engineering and land reclamation structures are arranged, and the restored area is divided into sections to bury remains.

EFFECT: reduced volumes of soil excavation for creation of a fertile layer and improvement of environmental situation.

 

The invention relates to the technical reclamation career grooves, remaining after the extraction of building stone and other subsurface minerals.

There is a method of recovery of disturbed lands in open field development (1), selected as a prototype, includes separate recess, moving and storage in separate tape stockpiles of topsoil and overburden, the development of career fields, mined-out space to the border of the upper level of groundwater construction waste, similar in composition to natural minerals with different particle size fractions, in layers with subsequent compaction of each layer, laying drainage layer construction waste thickness of not more than 0.6 meter and a particle size fraction 150-200 mm and a filling layer of fertile soil.

The disadvantage of this method is the extraction of large volumes of soil to create a fertile layer, which, in turn, leads to the formation of large areas of disturbed land, rising labor costs and a significant increase in the cost of the rehabilitation works.

The present invention provides reduced labor costs and the cost of reconstruction, and also protects the soil from wind and water erosion. For this purpose, in the way of restoration of worked-out quarries for which stroitelstva cemetery including separate recess, moving and storage of topsoil and overburden, the development of career fields, mined-out space to the border of the upper level of groundwater construction waste, similar in composition to natural minerals with different particle size fractions, in layers with subsequent compaction of each layer, laying drainage layer construction waste thickness of not less than 0.6 meter and a particle size fractions of 150-200 mm, according to the invention is first carried out design and planning work for the construction of roads, passages, hydraulic engineering and land reclamation structures, then on top of the drainage layer produced initial backfilling of mined-out space of the quarry mixture, consisting of mixed in equal proportions overburden and crushed construction waste particle size fractions of the latter is not more than 100 mm of Backfill produce to fill out space career, then planned bulldozer surface from above put a small layer of soil mixture of seeds of perennial grasses of the meadow-weed groups and not less than one year carry out the final layout, then plowing planned surface with subsequent easy alignment, after which down the road and perform hydraulic engineering and land reclamation, division into sections and the lead burial at a standard depth of burial.

Introduction this technical solution reduces the cost of rehabilitation services, through the use of construction waste generated as a result of reconstruction, demolition and repair of buildings and structures, as well as eliminating the need for extraction of large volumes of soil to create a fertile layer. Given that the generated construction waste disposed to landfill disposal of household and industrial waste, the implementation of the present invention will improve the environmental situation and to reduce existing in the Moscow region the lack of land.

The method is as follows.

Initially producing separate the notch career, moving and storage in separate tape stockpiles of topsoil and overburden. After developing career fields produce the mined-out space to the border of the upper level of groundwater construction waste, similar in composition to natural minerals with different particle size fractions, in layers with subsequent compaction of each layer. Then make laying drainage layer construction waste thickness of not more than 0.6 meter and particle size fractions of 150-200 mm

After conducting planning work for the placement and construction of roads, passages, hydraulic engineering and land reclamation structures over treniruyuschego layer produced initial filling goaf career mix consisting of mixed in equal proportions overburden and crushed construction waste, while the particle size of the crushed construction waste fractions should not exceed 100 mm Backfill produce to fill out space career. Then planned bulldozer surface, the top put a layer of soil mixture, mixed with seeds of perennial grasses of the meadow-weed group. In order to prevent deformation carried out reclamation works on the mined-out space career planning surface is performed in two stages. After applying the last layer of soil mixture of seeds of perennial grasses give a temporary restraint for at least one year. Residence time can be two years depending on the deformation of the surface goaf career. The broadening perennial grasses planned surface protects it from water and wind erosion. After the end of exposure time to produce the final plan and, if necessary, additional filling. Then make plowing planned the surface with subsequent alignment. Then lead the construction of roads and erecting hydraulic engineering and land reclamation.

Perform the division restored the area to the plots for burial.

Sources of information

1. Patent Of Russia №2274749, CL. AS 41/32, 2006

The way of restoration of worked-out quarries for the construction of the cemetery, including separate recess, moving and storage in separate tape stockpiles of topsoil and overburden, the development of career fields, mined-out space to the border of the upper level of groundwater construction waste, similar in composition to natural minerals with different particle size fractions, in layers with subsequent compaction of each layer, laying drainage layer construction waste thickness of not more than 0.6 meter and particle size fractions of 150-200 mm, characterized in that the first conducting planning work for the construction of roads, passages, hydraulic engineering and land reclamation structures, then on top of draining layer produced initial backfilling of mined-out space of the quarry mixture, consisting of mixed in equal proportions overburden and crushed construction waste particle size fractions of the latter is not more than 100 mm of Backfill produce to fill out space career, then planned bulldozer surface on top put a layer of soil mixture of seeds of perennial grasses of the meadow-weed groups and not less than one year conduct final planning is, then plowing planned the surface with subsequent alignment, after which down the road and perform hydraulic engineering and land reclamation, division of restored areas on land for burial.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: in the river valley the dams of embankment are constructed for creation of fields of filtration and prevention of spreading of sewage water from the reclamated plot. At that the sewage water from the dredging water reservoir with a high content of suspended clay particles is fed through the hoses on the planned surface of the reclamated plot, and the place of pulp supply is periodically changed on the area of the reclamated plot.

EFFECT: return of the clay material in the pore space of coarse-grained sediment dredging that leads to saturation of deposits with fine soil and to improvement of the hydrothermal regime and increase in soil fertility.

2 dwg

Coal strip mining // 2523246

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises the steps that follow. Top soil layer is removed to be preserves or to be transferred to territories to be reclaimed, loosening, loading and conveying stripped rock to make the waste dumps, dislodging, loading and coal transfer to storage and reclamation of dumps. Note here that seam weathered coal approaching the day surface is extracted and stored separately. Waste dumps are levelled to apply soil and weathered coal layers thereon. Produced layer is loosened with stripped rock and rolled.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method includes separate mining, movement and piling of soil layer and stripping rocks into separate belt dumps, mining of a open-pit field, filling of the mined space to the border of the upper level of ground waters with construction wastes. Afterwards they perform design and planning works to construct roads, passages, hydraulic engineering and land reclamation structures. Then they start filling the mined space in two stages. At first they do the primary filling of the mined space of the pit with a mix made of stripping rocks and ground construction debris with fraction size of the latter of not more than 100 mm mixed in equal proportions. Filling is done until complete filling of the mined space of the pit, then along the surface planned by a bulldozer they apply on top a layer of a soil mixture with seeds of perennial herbs of meadow-weed group, and final planning is carried out not sooner than in one year. Then the planned surface is ploughed, with subsequent levelling and filling of the entire surface of the mined space with a layer of sand with thickness of at least 100 mm with subsequent light levelling. Afterwards roads are connected, hydraulic engineering and land reclamation structures are arranged, and the entire surface of the planned surface of the mined space is divided into sections, in each one they perform burials of certain years and for the standard depth of burial.

EFFECT: reduced labour inputs for restoration works, protection of soil against wind and water erosion.

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining and may be used for recultivation of anthropogenic structures and strengthening of dust-producing surfaces. The method includes treatment of stored tailings with a binding compound, sowing of perennial herbs and compaction of the surface layer. At the same time previously, for formation of a pedogenic layer, they treat the surface of the tailing dump with a zeolite hydraulic mix at the ratio of zeolite-water equal to 1:2 and perform tillage of the surface layer. And treatment of soil with a binding compound, sowing of perennial herbs and compaction of the surface layer is carried out simultaneously, at the same time binding compounds are water-soluble polymers.

EFFECT: creation of a pedogenic layer due to application of zeolite tuffs onto the surface of the tailing dump, making it possible to exclude application of fertilisers, to strengthen development of herbal root systems, thus to increase efficiency of biological recultivation of a tailing dump.

2 cl, 2 ex, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: sowing of herbs and hard-shrub species is carried out in indents of uneven surface of mine dumps. Simultaneously with that Nitraria sibirika is sown into grooves cut on the tops of process crests of dumps.

EFFECT: reduced time for complete design coverage of anthropogenically damaged lands with plants.

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method includes filling of the mined space to the border of the upper level of ground water with construction wastes, arrangement of the drainage layer with construction wastes, formation of a hill in the centre of the pit by dumping of stripping rocks with subsequent terracing of hill slopes and arrangement of places for burial of remains, at the same time underground tomb structures are arranged on terraces, being designed for several graves, besides, each tomb structure is made with hydraulic insulation, drainage system, drainage and ventilation systems, at the same time the ventilation system is additionally equipped with a separate air duct installed with an angle of inclination of not more than 35 degrees and made in the form of a hollow vertical channel filled with stems of cane located in the ground in close proximity from the tomb structure with the possibility to connect each subsequent grace to it in the tomb structure.

EFFECT: reduced labour costs and costs of recovery works, rational usage of land.

1 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method includes filling of a mined-out space of a quarry to the border of the upper level of ground water with construction wastes, arrangement of a drainage layer with construction wastes, formation of a hill in the centre of the mined-out quarry from stripping rocks with terracing of its slopes, installation of a drainage system, retaining walls, and arrangement of places on terraces for burial of remains, at the same time retaining walls for terraces are made of reinforced concrete cylindrical piles by means of their submersion in soil, pile caps are rigidly connected to each other with the help of concrete mortar, and on terraces they arrange underground vault structures with hydraulic insulation, water disposal system, drainage and ventilation systems, at the same time the first burial is made for depth of more than three meters, and the distance from the cover of the last burial to the level of terrace surface ground shall make at least one meter.

EFFECT: rational use of restored land areas.

1 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method includes separate extraction, movement and piling of soil layer and stripping rocks, mining of a quarry field, filling of the mined space of the pit with construction wastes and further compaction. Then terracing is carried out at one of pit slopes with the help of a bulldozer. Places for burial of remains are arranged on terraces. On the other slope of the pit a vertical wall is arranged for burial of urns with ashes of deceased, where horizontal rows of niches are arranged, being made by means of horizontal pushing of pipe sections of rectangular cross section.

EFFECT: reduced labour inputs and cost of recovery works, rational use of land areas.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: separate excavation of soil layer and overburden rocks, their movement and stocking into individual strip dumps is performed; open-pit field development, laying and levelling of overburden rocks and their compaction is performed to form an impervious screen. Then, backfill material is added, which consists of a mixture of overburden rocks and non-organic wastes - dust of electrostatic precipitators from cement production and citrogypsum from production of citric acid in the following ratio (wt %): overburden rocks : dust of electrostatic precipitators from cement production : citrogypsum = 2 : (1 - 1.5): (0.2 - 0.3).

EFFECT: reduction of adverse effect on the environment owing to avoiding open-area storage of wastes, and production of citric acid, and their use as part of backfill material during recultivation of open pits.

1 tbl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: root layer is formed due to removal, loading, transportation and application to the dump surface of overburden rocks from top overburden bench, which consist of fertile soil layer and basement rocks. Then, vegetation cover is formed using the planting material treated with complex biological preparation.

EFFECT: reduction of reclamation periods; increase in durability of cultivated forest and grassy ranges on reclamated lands.

FIELD: earth recovery during drilling work performing.

SUBSTANCE: method involves waterproofing sump walls and bottom; filling thereof with used drilling mud; pumping-out liquid phase and filling thereof with peat and mineral ground. Liquid phase is previously accumulated in the sump and cleaned. Mineral ground, peat and used drilling mud are mixed one with another and supplied to bank slope or to road slope. Then grass is planted on slopes. Cleaned liquid phase is used for grass watering.

EFFECT: increased quality of earth sump reclamation.

1 dwg

FIELD: mining, particularly reclamation of surface-mined areas in agriculture and building industry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves selectively excavating, moving and accumulating ground layer and overburden in separate strip dumps; excavating open-pit field; filling and smoothing thereof and ground layer laying. After open-pit field excavation the excavated space is filled with building waste up to high ground water layer. The building waste has composition close to that of natural minerals with different fraction dimensions. The building waste is laid in several layers each having thickness of 40-60 cm. Each layer is compacted with soil compactors or compacting mechanism. Then draining layer is laid. The draining layer has particle dimensions of 150-200 mm and thickness of not less than 0.6 m. The draining layer is compacted by vibratory plates. Draining layer is covered with fertile ground so that fertile ground layer having thickness of not less than 0.3 m is created. Then straw layer in which chemical fertilizers and perennial grass seeds are added is formed over fertile ground layer. The straw layer is smoothed and sprinkled with dispersions containing water-soluble polymeric substances and synthetic water-soluble phosphates, wherein synthetic water-soluble phosphates are taken in amount of 1-4% by ready dispersion weight.

EFFECT: reduced labor inputs and reclamation work costs, improved land protection against wind erosion and scouring.

4 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining, particularly reclamation of surface-mined areas in agriculture and building industry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves selectively mining, moving and accumulating ground layer and overburden in separate strip dumps; excavating open-pit field; smoothing thereof and ground layer laying. After open-pit field excavation the excavated space is filled with building waste up to high ground water layer. The building waste has composition close to that of natural minerals with different fraction dimensions. The building waste is laid in several layers each having thickness of 40-60 cm. Each layer is compacted with soil compactors or compacting mechanism. Then draining layer is laid. The draining layer is layer of gravel-sand ground with particle dimensions of not more than 200 mm and has thickness of not less than 0.6 m. The draining layer is compacted by vibratory plates. Then two parallel spiral channels are excavated along each pit perimeter from slope side. Coil of each channel starts at pit slope top and terminates at bottom thereof at upper ground water level. Both channels are filled with building waste having particle dimensions of not more than 150 mm. After that holes for trees planting are dug out, wherein the holes are arranged between channel coils. Drainage layer is located on hole bottoms so that the drainage layer is connected with building waste of the channels and holes are filled with fertile ground. Then perennial grass, bushes and trees are planted in the reclamated land.

EFFECT: reduced labor inputs and reclamation work costs, improved land protection against wind erosion and scouring.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: environment protection, particularly to protect nature against dust blown off with wind from man-made massif surfaces.

SUBSTANCE: method involves contouring dust-forming surface and creating protective structures on dust-forming man-made massif surface in two mutually perpendicular directions, namely transversely to and along prevailing wind action directions; determining wind speed Vlim, m/s which provides maximum permissible dust concentration and maximal prevailing wind speed Vmax, m/s at massif sanitary zone boundary; partitioning man-made massif surface into square areas; installing protective barriers along protective barrier perimeters, wherein the protective barriers are formed of cellular material. Each square area has side length Lar determined from mathematical expression.

EFFECT: reduced dust carryover.

2 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining, construction engineering, possible use during technical reclamation of quarry pits.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extracting the quarry field, forming paired stopping walls in extracted space of quarry field, filling the space between paired stopping walls by construction wastes, while preserving full height of draining and ventilation channels, and building a ceiling. After extraction of quarry field, present hanging sides of quarry walls are collapsed to impart required verticality to them, flexible longitudinal links are attached to quarry walls with following guniting of quarry walls with solidifying solution across whole perimeter of extracted quarry space. Then, quarry bottom is evened out with following densification by means of rolling with appropriate machines and devices, after that wells are drilled in soil by means of washout and soil is mixed with solidifying solution, then reinforcing cage is mounted therein with simultaneous feeding of concrete mixture for making iron-concrete pile in soil-cement cover, while diameters of soil-cement covers overlap one another, creating a foundation having increased filtration and hardness characteristics, paired stopping walls are built along perimeter of quarry, letting flexible longitudinal links through them with their following attachment inside paired stopping walls, and columns are set up to make a ceiling.

EFFECT: expanded area of possible use of extracted and reclaimed quarries, for example, for further industrial construction.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining industry, possible use for reclamation of damaged lands in agriculture, power-construction industrial branches.

SUBSTANCE: method includes, after extraction of quarry field is finished, closure of each quarry by reinforced structures made in form of sleeves of geo-synthetic material and filled with milled construction wastes, while ends of sleeves are sewn shut. Reinforced structures are placed one after another, closely to each other. On top of reinforced structures, draining layer is filled, then a layer of stripping rocks and finally a layer of potentially fertile soil with following seeding thereof with perennial grasses, brushes and trees.

EFFECT: decreased laboriousness and costs of restorative operations.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes separation of fertile layer during opening of mineral resources and stocking of rock during extraction of same, planning of open mines by backfill with rock and application of fertile layer with restoration of vegetation in accordance to land usage direction. During backfill of rocks into open mines, inclined trench is made from earth surface to open part of exposed formation outlet being left in sides of mine, which provides access and following underground extraction of left deposit resources, and is meant to be a part of payable area.

EFFECT: combination of coal extractive processes with reclamation of lands and preservation of access to concealed resources for their later extraction.

4 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: methods of underground or surface mining, particularly reclamation of surface-mined areas after production of building stone and other surface-sited minerals.

SUBSTANCE: method involves developing open-pit field; caving hanging walls of the pit; forming floor; installing one-sided form and filling the created space with claydite-concrete; arranging heat-insulation and water-proofing screen along pit wall so that the screen extends for the full wall length, wherein the heat-insulation and water-proofing screen includes heat-insulation material combined with waterproofing sheets of surface waterproofing agent; erecting paired support walls provided with natural ventilation system along pit perimeter so that the support walls are spaced predetermined distance from pit wall; covering space between paired support walls and pit wall with surface waterproofing agent and filling the treated space with ice.

EFFECT: extended field of exhausted pit usage, for instance for further freezing facility construction.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining and processing industry, particularly to reclaim soil in agriculture and building and power engineering industries.

SUBSTANCE: method involves performing selective mining, conveying and stacking ground layer and overburden in separate strip dumps; developing pit field; filling exhausted space with building waste in several layers along with rolling of each building waste layer; leveling thereof with overburden and laying ground layer. Pit is filled with building waste up to mid-height pit level, but not under ground water level. After that building waste is rolled and covered with overburden for total pit filling. Then overburden layer is leveled. To prevent ground settlement wells are formed along filled pit surface, wherein the wells are formed up to design depth and are filled with building waste with each building waste portion compaction. Overburden layer, building waste layer, reinforced structure level formed of geo-synthetic sleeves filled with building waste milled to obtain particle dimensions of not more than 150 mm are serially laid on filled pit.

EFFECT: decreased labor inputs and costs.

1 dwg

FIELD: construction and mining, particularly reclamation of pit depressions after building stone and other surface mineral production.

SUBSTANCE: method involves working out pit; filling the worked-out space; leveling thereof and laying ground layer thereon. After pit working-out ditch and water-draining trenches are formed along pit perimeter to impart regular geometrical shape to pit along with pit side flattening to obtain pit sides inclination of not more than 30° along with following pit side compaction by rolling thereof with compaction machines and mechanisms; pouring sand on designed pit slopes; laying impervious screen made of high-density polyethylene on sand layer; pouring ground layer having thickness of not less than 0.5 m on the impervious screen; covering pit bottom with clay layer; compacting clay layer and inclining thereof towards collecting well composed of reinforced concrete rings; arranging radial bed drainage of crushed stone and sand on pit bottom so that the drainage is directed towards collecting well; forming water-removal ditch along pit perimeter; filling the pit with compacted building waste briquettes; arranging clay screen having thickness of not less than 0.3 m over building waste briquettes; arranging plant layer on clay screen.

EFFECT: decreased labor inputs and reclamation work costs.

Up!