Method of modifying carbon nanotubes
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used to obtain modified carbon nanotubes. The method of modifying carbon nanotubes includes treatment of carbon nanotubes with an aqueous solution of an oxidising agent in the form of a persulphate or hypochlorite solution at pH higher than 10, carried out simultaneously with mechanical treatment.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain modified carbon nanotubes having good dispersability in water and in polar organic solvents with low consumption of reactants compared to known methods.
3 cl, 2 ex
The invention relates to the technology of carbon nanomaterials, particularly to a technology for production of modified carbon nanotubes.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTS) tend to form agglomerates, which complicates their distribution in different environments. Even if nanotubes uniformly distributed in some environments, for example, the intense action of ultrasound, after a short time they spontaneously form agglomerates. To obtain stable dispersions of carbon nanotubes using various methods of modification of carbon nanotubes, which are made by attaching to the surface of the CNTS those or other functional groups, ensuring the compatibility of CNTS with the environment, use of surfactants, shortening too long CNTS by various methods.
In the description of this invention the term "modification" means a change in the nature of the surface of the CNTS and the geometric parameters of individual nanotubes. A special case of the modification is the functionalization of CNTS consisting in grafting to the surface of the CNTS those or other functional groups.
The known method of the modification of CNTS, which involves the oxidation of carbon nanotubes under the influence of various liquid or gaseous oxidizing agents (nitric acid in the form of liquid or steam, hydrogen peroxide, solutions of ammonium persulfate in the ranks pH, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and others). In this way there is a lot of publications. However, since the essence of various methods of oxidation of carbon nanotubes is one and the same, namely the oxidation of the surface of carbon nanotubes with the formation of surface hydroxyl and carboxyl groups, this gives grounds to consider a variety of methods described as variants of the same method. As a typical example, the publication Datsyuk V., M. Kalyva, K. Papagelis, J. Parthenios, D. Tasis, Siokou A., I. Kallitsis, Galiotis C. Chemical oxidation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes //Carbon, 2008, vol.46, p.833-840, which describes several options (using nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide and ammonium persulfate).
Common essential features of the considered method and the claimed invention is the treatment of carbon nanotubes with a solution of an oxidant.
The discussed method is characterized by a lack of efficiency for the breakdown of agglomerates of CNTS and achieve good dispersive ability of the pigment oxidized CNTS in water and polar organic solvents. Typically, the oxidized known methods carbon nanotubes are well dispersed in water and polar organic solvents (under the action of ultrasound) only at very low concentration of nanotubes in a liquid (usually on the order of 0.001-0.05% mass). When exceeding the threshold concentration n is notrouble gather in large agglomerates (flakes) precipitated.
In some works, for example, Wang Y., Deng W., Liu X., Wang X. Electrochemical hydrogen storage properties of ball-milled multi-wall carbon nanotubes //International journal of hydrogen energy, 2009, vol.34, p.1437-1443; J. Lee, Jeong T., Heo J., Park S.-H., Lee, D., Park, J.-B., Han, H., Y. Kwon, I. Kovalev, S.M. Yoon, Choi J.-Y., Jin Y., Kirn J.M., An, K.H., Lee Y.H., Yu S. Short carbon nanotubes produced by cryogenic crushing //Carbon, 2006, vol.44, p.2984-2989; Konya, Z., J. Zhu, K. Niesz, D. Mehn, Kiricsi I. End morphology of ball milled carbon nanotubes //Carbon, 2004, vol.42, p.2001-2008, the described method of the modification of CNTS by shortening, which is achieved by prolonged mechanical processing of carbon nanotubes in liquids or in frozen matrices. Shortened CNTS have better dispersibility in liquids and the best electrochemical properties.
Common essential characteristics considered and the proposed methods is the machining of carbon nanotubes dispersed in any environment.
The disadvantage of the considered method is that it does not provide functionalization of CNTS polar groups, resulting processed in such a way CNTS is still not well dispersed in polar environments.
Closest to the claimed invention is a method described in Chiang Y.-C., Lin, W.-H., Chang Y.-C. The influence of treatment duration on multi-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized by H2SO4/HNO3 oxidation //Applied Surface Science, 2011, vol.257, p.2401-2410 (prototype). According to this method, the modification of CNTS is achieved by deep oxidation when cont is liteline boiling in aqueous solution, containing sulfuric and nitric acid. When this first happens grafting to the surface of the CNTS polar functional groups (in particular, carboxyl), and when a sufficiently long processing time is achieved by shortening of the nanotubes. At the same time there was also a decrease in the thickness of the nanotubes due to complete oxidation of surface carbon layer to carbon dioxide. Variants of this method are described in other sources, for example in the above-mentioned article V. Datsyuk, M. Kalyva, etc, and K.J. Ziegler, Z. Gu, H. Peng, Flor E.L., R.H. Hauge, R.E. Smalley Controlled oxidative cutting of single-walled carbon nanotubes //Journal of American Chemical Society, 2005, vol.127, issue 5, p.1541-1547. In the published sources noted that the shortened oxidized carbon nanotubes have improved dispersibility in water and in polar organic solvents.
General the essential feature of the proposed method and the prototype method is the handling of CNTS in an aqueous solution of oxidizer. The inventive method and prototype method are the same as on the achieved result, and it is achieved by grafting to the surface of the CNTS polar functional groups simultaneously with the truncation of long CNTS.
The disadvantages of the prototype method are the necessity of using a large excess of acid, which increases the process and creates environmental problems with disposal ododo is, as well as the oxidation of part of the carbon nanotubes to carbon dioxide, which reduces the yield of the final product (modified carbon nanotubes) and expensive. In addition, this method is difficult to scale. In laboratory conditions it is possible to use glass devices, however, for the pilot production of preferably stainless steel equipment. Boiling nanotubes in acid solution creates a problem of corrosion resistance equipment.
The basis of the claimed invention is the task by selecting oxidizing reagent and oxidizing conditions to eliminate the disadvantages of this method.
The problem is solved because, according to the method of modifying carbon nanotubes, including processing of carbon nanotubes with an aqueous solution of oxidizing agent, processing carbon nanotubes with an aqueous solution of oxidizing agent is conducted simultaneously with machining and as an oxidant solution using persulfate or sodium hypochlorite at pH greater than 10.
Machining is performed using a bead mill.
The oxidizer charge in an amount equivalent to from 0.1 to 1 g-atom of active oxygen per 1 g-atom of carbon nanotubes.
An excess of hypochlorite in the reaction mixture at a pH of more than 10 are removed by the addition of hydrogen peroxide.
Conducting education is otci carbon nanotubes with an aqueous solution of oxidizing agent simultaneously with machining and use as oxidant solution of persulfate or sodium hypochlorite at pH more than 10 provide the necessary exception use a large excess of acid, more expensive process and creating environmental problems with disposal of waste and loss of the finished product due to oxidation of a part of carbon nanotubes to carbon dioxide.
For machining can be used known in the art device, such as a bead mill, a vibration mill, ball mill, or other similar device. Practically bead mill is one of the most convenient devices to accomplish the task.
As oxidizers can be used ammonium persulfate, sodium persulfate, potassium persulfate, sodium hypochlorite, potassium hypochlorite. Most effectively the inventive method is carried out when processing carbon nanotubes with a solution of an oxidant at pH greater than 10. At lower pH the possible corrosion of equipment and improper decomposition of the oxidant with the release of chlorine (hypochlorite) or oxygen (persulfate). To establish the desired pH value by adding to the solution of a known substance having an alkaline reaction, such as ammonia, sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide and other alkaline substances which do not react under the conditions of the treatment with the oxidizing agent. This should take into account the known data that the hypochlorite react with ammonia. Thus, the system is IU with hypochlorite to apply ammonia cannot. When using persulfate to establish an alkaline pH you can use all of the listed substances.
For the implementation of the proposed method is optimal quantity of oxidant equivalent to from 0.1 to 1 g-atom of active oxygen per 1 g-atom of carbon nanotubes. When the amount of the oxidant is less than the specified lower limit, the resulting modified carbon nanotubes worse dispersed in water and polar organic solvents. The excess of the same amount of oxidant in excess of the upper limit is impractical because, although speeds up the process of oxidation of nanotubes does not improve the effect.
The following are data proving the possibility of implementing the claimed invention and its effectiveness.
For the implementation of the proposed method was applied the following source materials and equipment:
- Carbon nanotubes brands "Taunit" and Taunit-M production LLC Nanocenter", Tambov.
The ammonium persulfate grade analytical grade.
- Sodium hypochlorite according to GOST 11086-76 in the form of an aqueous solution containing 190 g/l of active chlorine and 12 g/l free sodium hydroxide.
- Ammonia 25%aqueous brands of analytical grade.
- Sodium carbonate anhydrous grade analytical grade.
- Distilled water.
- Dimethylacetamide grade analytical grade.
- Ethyl alcohol 96%.
The horizontal mill is the material of bead MSPM-1/0,05-BK-04 NPO "DESPOT". As the grinding media used balls made of Zirconia with a diameter of 1.6 mm
Ultrasonic installation of IL-10.
4-liter capacity stainless steel poured 1460 ml of distilled water and dissolved 228,4 g of ammonium persulfate, and then added 460 ml of 25%aqueous ammonia. This solution has made a 1099 g water paste with carbon nanotubes Taunit-M (purified from mineral impurities by treatment with hydrochloric acid)containing 5.46 percent dry matter, and thoroughly mixed until a homogeneous suspension. The resulting suspension was loaded into a ball mill with balls with a diameter of 1.6 mm Zirconia and were processed within 7 hours. Then the treated suspension was unloaded, was filtered from the balls, was acidified with hydrochloric acid to acid reaction, was filtered through a filter of non-woven polypropylene material and washed with water until neutral wash water. The washed precipitate was sucked out into the vacuum and Packed up in a sealed plastic containers. Mass dry matter content (nanotubes) in the obtained paste was charged 8.52% (the rest is water). The resulting product was dried in a drying Cabinet at 80°C to constant weight.
Further modified carbon nanotubes obtained according to example 1 will be shown as UTM-1.
To test the solubility (dispersi is hemosta) a portion UTM-1 was dispersible in water or in organic solvents by ultrasonic treatment. Experiments have shown that UTM-1 well dissolved in water, preferably in the basic pH (generated by the addition of ammonia or organic bases). Additive Foundation promotes the formation of a stable solution (dispersion) of nanotubes, because it leads to ionization of surface carboxyl groups and the emergence of a negative charge on the nanotube.
Thus, there was obtained a stable aqueous solution (which can be seen in the transparency of the solution and no flakes), containing 0.5% UTM-1 in the presence of 0.5% triethanolamine as a pH regulator. The solubility of UTM-1 in this system is approximately 1%, above this concentration appear inclusion gel.
In dimethylacetamide (without other additives) sonification were obtained stable transparent solution UTM-1 with a mass concentration of 1 and 2%. In this case, dimethylacetamide, which in itself is a weak base, effectively dissolves UTM-1 without the addition of extraneous pH regulators. 1%solution was indefinitely stable when stored, 2%same after a few days began to show signs of thixotropy, but without the formation of agglomerates.
4-liter capacity stainless steel poured 2,7 liters of distilled water, poured 397,5 g of anhydrous sodium carbonate and displaced ivali until dissolved. After dissolution of the sodium carbonate was poured a solution of sodium hypochlorite (0,280 l) and the mixture was thoroughly mixed. Then gradually with stirring gave 60 g of the crude Taunit-M (containing about 3% of the mass. the admixture of catalyst, preferably magnesium oxide) and stirred until a homogeneous suspension. This suspension was loaded into a ball mill with balls with a diameter of 1.6 mm Zirconia and were processed within 7 hours. Then the treated suspension was unloaded, was filtered from the balls, was acidified with hydrochloric acid to acid reaction and survived 3 days at room temperature for complete dissolution of the catalyst residues and possible impurities of iron compounds (from the chassis and fingers bead mill). Thus, at the same time spent acid cleaning nanotube impurities from the catalyst. Received an acidic suspension was filtered through a filter of non-woven polypropylene material and washed with water until neutral wash water. The washed precipitate was sucked out into the vacuum and Packed up in a sealed plastic containers. Mass dry matter content (nanotubes) in the obtained paste was 7,33% (the rest is water). The resulting product was dried in a drying Cabinet at 80°C to constant weight.
If the amount of hypochlorite in the reaction mixture with nanotubes excessive, it speeds up the t oxidation of the surface of the nanotubes, but creates an environmental problem, because the acidification of the mixture of unreacted hypochlorite allocates chlorine according to the reaction equation:
In order to neutralize the excess hypochlorite, to the reaction mixture at a pH of more than 10 add the hydrogen peroxide. As established by us, when this reaction occurs:
The result is the formation of harmless products.
Further modified carbon nanotubes obtained according to example 2 will be denoted as OTM-2.
To test the solubility (dispersive ability of the pigment) hitch UTM-1 was dispersible in water or in organic solvents by ultrasonic treatment. Experiments have shown that UTM-1 well dissolved in water, preferably in the basic pH (generated by the addition of ammonia or triethanolamine). Additive Foundation promotes the formation of a stable solution (dispersion) of nanotubes, because it leads to ionization of surface carboxyl groups and the emergence of a negative charge on the nanotube.
Thus was obtained a stable aqueous solution (which can be seen in the transparency of the solution and no flakes), containing 0.5% UTM-1 in the presence of 0.5% triethanolamine as a pH regulator. The solubility of UTM-1 in this system, the e is approximately 1%, when exceeding this concentration appear to activate the gel.
In dimethylacetamide (without other additives) sonification were obtained stable transparent solution UTM-1 with a mass concentration of 1 and 2%. In this case, dimethylacetamide, which itself is the basis, effectively dissolves UTM-1 without the addition of extraneous controls pH, 1%solution was indefinitely stable when stored, 2%same after a few days began to show signs of thixotropy, but without the formation of agglomerates.
For comparison we have studied the solubility (under the action of ultrasound in the same conditions) in the same solvent of carbon nanotubes Taunit-M, oxidized according to the method specified in the method-prototype, a mixture of nitric and sulphuric acids without mechanical processing. Experiments have shown that carbon nanotubes oxidized by an excess of nitric acid without mechanical processing, have the same solubility as obtained according to the claimed invention. However, the inventive method can easily be scaled, no problems with corrosion resistance equipment and environmental problems with waste neutralization. The process of mechanochemical processing according to the present method proceeds at room temperature. The way the prototype requires such great is th excess nitric and sulfuric acids, what scaling it and ensuring environmental security is very problematic.
These data confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method for production of modified CNTS. It does not apply aggressive acid solutions, as in the method prototype, and the loss of carbon nanotubes by oxidation to carbon dioxide (carbonate in alkaline solution) is virtually absent.
Thus, the inventive method allows to obtain a modified carbon nanotubes having a good dispersibility in water and polar organic solvents, can be easily scaled, provides ecological safety.
1. Method of modifying carbon nanotubes, including processing of carbon nanotubes with an aqueous solution of oxidizing agent, characterized in that the processing carbon nanotubes with an aqueous solution of oxidizing agent is conducted simultaneously with machining, and as oxidant solution using persulfate or sodium hypochlorite at a pH of more than 10, and the oxidizer charge in an amount equivalent to from 0.1 to 1 g-atom of active oxygen per 1 g-atom of carbon nanotubes.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the machining is performed using a bead mill.
3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that an excess of hypochlorite in the enjoyment of the operating mixture at a pH of more than 10 are removed by the addition of hydrogen peroxide.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention may be used when producing carbon nanotubes and hydrogen. Microwave plasma converter comprises flow reactor 1 of radiotransparent heat-resistant material, filled with gas permeable electrically conductive material - catalyst 2 placed into the ultrahigh frequency waveguide 3 connected to the microwave electromagnetic radiation source 5, provided with microwave electromagnetic field concentrator, designed in the form of waveguide-coax junction (WCJ) 8 with hollow outer and inner conductors 9, forming discharge chamber 11 and secondary discharge system. Auxiliary discharge system is designed from N discharge devices 12, where N is greater than 1, arranged in a cross-sectional plane of discharge chamber 11 uniformly in circumferential direction. Longitudinal axes of discharge devices 12 are oriented tangentially with respect to the side surface of discharge chamber 11 in one direction. Nozzle 10 is made at outlet end of inner hollow conductor 9 of WCJ 8 coaxial. Each of discharge devices 12 is provided with individual gas pipeline 13 to supply plasma-supporting gas to discharge zone.
EFFECT: invention permits to increase the reaction volume, production capacity and period of continuous operation, stabilise burning of microwave discharge.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a porous carbon composite material. The porous carbon composite material is formed of (A) a porous carbon material, obtained from a material of plant origin, with content of silicon (Si) constituting 5 wt % or higher, as an initial material, and the said porous carbon material has content of silicon constituting 1 wt % or lower, and (B) a functional material, fixed on the porous carbon material, and has specific surface area of 10 m2/g and larger, which is determined by nitrogen adsorption by BET method, and pore volume 0.1 cm3/g or larger, which is determined by BJH method and MP method. The obtained carbon material can be used, for instance, as a medical adsorbent, a composite photocatalytic material, a medication carrier, an agent, a supporting medication release, for selective adsorption of undesired substances in an organism, a filling for blood purification columns, a water-purifying adsorbent, an adsorbing sheet.
EFFECT: invention provides obtaining the material with high functionality.
19 cl, 21 dwg, 8 tbl, 11 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of polymer materials science and can be used in aviation, aerospace, motor transport and electronic industries. Nanotubes are obtained by a method of pyrolytic gas-phase precipitation in a magnetic field from carbon-containing gases with application of metals-catalysts in the form of a nanodisperse ferromagnetic powder, with the nanotubes being attached with their butt ends to ferromagnetic nanoparticles of metals-catalysts. Magnetic separation of the powder particles with grown on them nanotubes, used in obtaining a polymer-based composite material, is carried out. After filling with a polymer, a constant magnetic field is applied until solidification of the polymer takes place. The material contains carbon nanofibres and/or a gas-absorbing sorbent, for instance, silica gel, and/or siliporite, and/or polysorb as a filling agent.
EFFECT: increased mechanical strength, hardness, rigidity, heat- and electric conductivity.
4 cl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical industry. Carbon-metal material in form of mixture of carbon fibres and capsulated in non-structured carbon nickel particles with diameter from 10 to 150 nanometers are obtained by catalytic pyrolysis of ethanol at atmospheric pressure. Catalyst in form of nickel and magnesium oxides, applied on the surface of graphite foil as inert substrate in dust-like or granulated state, is placed into closed hermetic capacity, in which constant temperature 600 - 750 °C is supported. Ethanol vapour is supplied through input collector, and gaseous pyrolysis products are discharged through output collector. Ethanol vapour is diluted with inert gas, for instance, argon, with weight ratio ethanol: inert gas 1:4…5. Time of synthesis is from 1 to 180 min.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to obtain carbon nanomaterials from renewable raw material and simplify the process.
6 cl, 3 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in obtaining composite materials. Initial carbon nanomaterials, for instance, nanotubes, nanothread or nanofibres, are processed in mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acid at temperature 50-100°C for not less 20 min, washed with water and dried. After that, it is empregnated with alcohol solution of oligoorganohydride siloxane, for instance, oligoethylhydride siloxane or oligomethylhydride siloxane, evaporated, air-dried at temperature not higher than 200°C for not less than 20 min, then tempered in inert medium at temperature 600-800°C for not less than 20 min.
EFFECT: obtained carbon nanomaterials with applied silicon dioxide have high resistance to oxidation.
2 cl, 4 dwg, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of physical and colloidal chemistry and can be used in obtaining polymer compositions. Finely-disperse organic suspension of carbon metal-containing nanostructures is obtained by interaction of nanostructures and polyethylene polyamine. First, powder of carbon metal-containing nanostructures, representing nanoparticles of 3d-metal, such as copper, or cobalt, or nickel, stabilised in carbon nanostructures, are mechanically crushed, after which, mechanically ground together with introduced in portions polyethylene polyamine until content of nanostructures not higher than 1 g/ml is reached.
EFFECT: invention ensures reduction of energy consumption due to the fact that obtained finely-disperse organic suspension of carbon metal-containing nanostructures is capable of recovery as a result of simple mixing.
2 cl, 5 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to petrochemical industry and plasma chemistry and can be used for plasma processing and disposal of refinery waste. Liquid hydrocarbon material 5 is decomposed by electric discharge in discharger placed in vacuum chamber 6. The device includes copper cathode 1 and anode 2, and busbars 3 connected to them. Cathode 1 is placed in dielectric ditch 4 and its surface is covered with a layer of hydrocarbon material 5 with thickness of 1-4 mm. Voltage sufficient for disruption of interelectrode gap is supplied to cathode 1 and anode 2. Decomposition of hydrocarbon material 5 is made in high-voltage and highly-unbalanced electrical discharge at pressure of 20-50 Torr.
EFFECT: invention provides production speed for the target product obtained of refinery waste.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of nanotechnology, and particularly to methods for filling the inner cavities of the nanotubes with chemical substances, and can be used to fill the inner cavities of nanotubes with necessary substance when used in the form of nanocontainers and for manufacturing the nanomaterials with new useful properties. In the method of filling the inner cavities of nanotubes with chemical substance the nanotubes are placed in a vacuum chamber, heated in vacuum for desorption of gaseous and liquid impurities, cooled under vacuum, after that the liquid or gaseous chemical substance is placed into the vacuum chamber up to complete coverage of the nanotubes with the liquid chemical substance or before filling the vacuum chamber with gaseous chemical substance up to atmospheric pressure.
EFFECT: increase in the degree of filling of inner cavities of nanotubes with the necessary substance.
SUBSTANCE: invention is referred to electronic graphene device. Flexible and stretchable translucent electronic device contains the first graphene electrode, the second graphene electrode, graphene semiconductor and control graphene electrode located between the first and second graphene electrodes and being in contact with graphene semiconductor. Each of the above electrodes has porous graphene layer with a number of pores, at that each of the above electrodes has porous graphene layer and power supply source. Graphene semiconductor, the first and second graphene electrodes are configured so that current from power supply source between the first location at the first graphene electrode and the second location at the second graphene electrode sets difference of potentials between the first and second locations and this difference of potentials remains permanent when the first or second location changes.
EFFECT: improving charge-carrier mobility, ensuring ballistic transport, increasing current density and specific conductivity and possibility to control electric performance of the device.
15 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in chemical industry. Material which contains fullerene and silicon is obtained by heat treatment of starting materials in a reaction chamber using a jet of high-temperature plasma. Fullerene (3) and silicon (4) are successively fed into said jet at different levels. Both components undergo sublimation and mutual coagulation of particles of said materials is carried out. The formed composition is exposed to a cyclonic stream of an inert gaseous medium (5), generated along the walls of the reaction chamber, on the periphery of the removed stream of material.
EFFECT: obtained material, which contains fullerene and silicon, has high conductivity and sensitivity to electromagnetic and acoustic signals.
1 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nanotechnology, namely the material and method of production of spherical conglomerates containing nanoparticles (NP) of metal, particularly copper, in the shell of another substance or organic polymer. At that the NP is obtained in the individual state or in the form of component parts of the nanocomposites, including polymer-containing. The invention relates to a method of production of the polymer copper-bearing composite consisting of homogeneous spherical conglomerates with a diameter of 50-200 nm of the polymer with spherical copper nanoparticles embedded in it with a diameter of 5-10 nm. The invention also relates to a method of production of the polymer copper-bearing composite consisting in thermal decomposition of the precursor of the composite at 450°C in the inert atmosphere.
EFFECT: obtaining the composite of uniform spherical conglomerates comprising a plurality of nanoparticles of copper embedded in the polymer matrix, with a narrow area of distribution in size.
4 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a matrix carrier composition for use in a pharmaceutical delivery system for oral administration, which is a suspension consisting of particles of a material in a continuous oil phase. The material consisting of particles comprises a first solid phase comprising silicon dioxide nanoparticles having hydrophobic surface, with particle size of 5-1000 nm, and a second solid phase comprising a biopolymer having hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts, said biopolymer containing polysaccharide. Said continuous oil phase is associated with the first and second solid phases, and the weight of the biopolymer is double that of the silicon dioxide nanoparticles. The invention also relates to a method of producing a matrix carrier composition, which includes mixing a first solid phase comprising silicon dioxide nanoparticles with oil, activating a second solid phase containing polysaccharide, wherein activation includes grinding, vacuum treatment, chemical treatment or ultrasonic treatment, adding said activated second solid phase to the oil and mixing the oil containing the first solid phase and oil containing the activated second solid phase.
EFFECT: improved efficiency and bioavailability of a medicinal agent encapsulated in a matrix carrier.
13 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 8 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a polymer electrochromic device which is capable of varying light absorption in a controlled manner when voltage is applied. The polymer electrochromic device includes at least two electrodes and an electrochromic composition. The electrochemical composition contains a cathode component(s) and an anode component(s), at least one of which is an electrochromic component, and an electrolyte. The electrochromic component is a dispersion of nanoparticles of an insoluble electrochromic polymer in an organic solvent.
EFFECT: invention ensures easy production of the device by using a more readily available insoluble electrochromic polymer compared to insoluble electrochromic polymers currently used.
4 cl, 4 dwg, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: use: of new products nanoelectronics for a closed cycle of production. The essence of the invention consists in that in nanotechnology complex based on ion and probe technologies, comprising a distribution chamber with pumping means, in which there is a central robot-distributor with the ability of axial rotation, comprising a grip of substrate carriers, at that the distribution chamber comprises flanges by means of which it is connected to the loading chamber and the module of ion implantation, the grip of substrate carriers has the ability of interaction with the loading chamber and the module of ion implantation, the measuring module is integrated, comprising a scanning probe microscope and a module of ion beams with a system of gas injectors, and they are connected to the flanges of the distribution chamber and have an ability to interact with the grip of substrate carriers. The technical result: providing an ability to vary the technological routes and enhance the functional capabilities of the distribution chamber and have an ability to interact with the grip of substrate carriers.
EFFECT: implementation extends the functional capabilities of the nanotechnology complex.
5 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the chemical industry and can be used to produce composites which are used in photocatalytic processes as catalysts of oligomerisation of olefins and polymerisation of ethylene. The composite material based on silica gel is obtained by precipitation of silicon dioxide from sodium silicate in the presence of titanium dioxide or copper oxide by bubbling of carbon dioxide through the thickness of the suspension at the atmospheric pressure to form the composite material with the type "core (silicon dioxide)/shell (metal oxide)". The method can be used both in the laboratory and in industrial conditions.
EFFECT: invention enables to simplify the process of obtaining a composite, as the need for complex instrumental execution of the process is eliminated, connected with the use of high pressure of carbon dioxide in obtaining the silica gel, as well as environmental safety of the technology, which is connected to the lack of carbon dioxide emissions, achieved by its repeated use.
3 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves application of a fluoropolymer layer onto a metal electrode, application of a discrete layer consisting of isolated nano-sized aggregates out of titan-containing nanostructures onto the fluoropolymer surface, and further electreting in positive corona discharge. Prior to the application of titan-containing nanostructures the fluoropolymer surface is treated by plasma of high-frequency capacitive discharge in the atmosphere of saturated water vapour. The usage of this technical solution enables increase of positive charge surface density in fluoropolymers by at least 1.45 times and increase charge temporal and thermal stability.
EFFECT: increase of magnitude and stability of positive charge surface density in film fluoropolymers.
2 dwg, 5 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed coat for solar hearing is applied metal substrate, in particular, thin aluminium sheet. Said coat represents sol-gel-type coat based on metal oxide sol. Wherein pigment particles are thoroughly mixed with sol with subsequent application of mixed sol lacquer on said substrate. Then, said mix is air dried at 180-600°C it increased temperature to get sol-gel coat. Said coat represents sol-gel-type metal oxide sol-based coat with particles of pigments of manganese black ferrite (Mn3Cu2FeO8) to be thoroughly mixed with sol prior to application on substrate.
EFFECT: sufficient solar power absorption, thermal emissivity, thermal stability and durability.
14 cl, 3 dwg, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to organic electronics and specifically to organic photovoltaic devices (solar panels and photodetectors) using organic fluorine-containing compounds as modifying additives. The invention relates to an organic photovoltaic device with a bulk heterojunction, comprising series-arranged substrate, hole-collecting electrode, hole-transporting layer, photoactive layer consisting of a mixture of an n-type semiconductor material, a p-type semiconductor material and an organic fluorine-containing compound, an electron-transporting layer, an electron-collecting electrode and a substrate. The photoactive layer further contains a fluorine-containing modifier F1-F8 in concentration of 0.000000001-40 wt %. The invention also relates to a method of making a photovoltaic device, where a fluorine-containing modifier is added to a solution of semiconductor components, from which photoactive films are formed. The invention also relates to use of fluorine-containing modifiers F1-F8 to enhance performance of organic solar panels with a bulk heterojunction.
EFFECT: developing novel nano-structure modifying additives for polymer-fullerene systems capable of enhancing performance of photovoltaic devices.
3 cl, 14 dwg, 8 tbl, 8 ex
SUBSTANCE: method includes modification of a carrier, which is represented by amine-containing nanoparticles of silicon dioxide with a size up to 24 nm, by processing the latter with N-hydroxysuccinimide ether of aliphatic azido acid, then obtaining modified nucleosidetriphosphate (pppN) by processing the latter with a mixture of triphenylphosphine/dithiodipyridine with further incubation of the formed active derivative pppN with 3-propinyloxypropylamine and further immobilisation of the modified pppN on the obtained asidomodified nanoparticles for 2-4 hours.
EFFECT: reduction of the method duration and an increased quality of the target product.
3 cl, 4 dwg, 9 ex
SUBSTANCE: nanoparticles of carbonyl iron, as such used are magnetite particles with size from 5.0 to 10.0 nanometers, covered with surface-active substance, as such used is oleic acid, are introduced into kerosene. After that, kerosene with nanoparticles of carbonyl iron is sprayed through sprayer in 20-30 mcm drops into chamber with three-phase electric winding, creating spiral rotating magnetic field. Glass powder, which is caught by kerosene drops rotating in magnetic field, is supplied into the same chamber by compressed air. After that, it is supplied into first zone of low intensity of microwave oven, where particles of carbonyl iron are heated to 700-800°C, and as a result kerosene is decomposed and nanoparticles of carbonyl iron precipitate on the surface of glass powder particles. As particles of glass powder with nanoparticles of carbonyl iron continue moving, temperature of nanoparticles increases to 1300-1350°C. Glass melts and under action of molecular forces moves throughout the entire volume and forms microballs, which later are cooled, nanoparticles of carbonyl iron are restored and attracted to poles of permanent magnet.
EFFECT: improving efficiency and safety.
FIELD: carbon materials.
SUBSTANCE: weighed quantity of diamonds with average particle size 4 nm are placed into press mold and compacted into tablet. Tablet is then placed into vacuum chamber as target. The latter is evacuated and after introduction of cushion gas, target is cooled to -100оС and kept until its mass increases by a factor of 2-4. Direct voltage is then applied to electrodes of vacuum chamber and target is exposed to pulse laser emission with power providing heating of particles not higher than 900оС. Atomized target material form microfibers between electrodes. In order to reduce fragility of microfibers, vapors of nonionic-type polymer, e.g. polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinylbutyral or polyacrylamide, are added into chamber to pressure 10-2 to 10-4 gauge atm immediately after laser irradiation. Resulting microfibers have diamond structure and content of non-diamond phase therein does not exceed 6.22%.
EFFECT: increased proportion of diamond structure in product and increased its storage stability.