Garnet monocrystal, optical insulator and optical processor

FIELD: physics, optics.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to producing a terbium aluminium garnet monocrystal which can be used as a Faraday rotator for optical insulators. In the terbium aluminium garnet monocrystal, a portion of aluminium is at least replaced with scandium and a portion of at least aluminium or terbium is replaced with at least one component selected from a group consisting of thulium, ytterbium and yttrium, wherein the garnet monocrystal has the general formula (Tb3-x-zSczMx) (Sc2-yMy) Al3O12 (1), where M represents at least one component selected from a group consisting of Tm, Yb and Y, and x, y and z satisfy the following relationship: 0<x+y≤0.30 and 0≤z≤0.30.

EFFECT: present monocrystal has a high light transmission factor in a wide wavelength range and a wide Faraday rotation angle with cracking-resistance.

8 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 12 ex

 

The technical FIELD TO WHICH the INVENTION RELATES.

[0001] the Present invention relates to a garnet single crystal, the optical isolator and the optical processor.

The LEVEL of TECHNOLOGY

[0002] Modern development of optical communication using optical fiber cables and laser processors for accurate treatment is accompanied by a problem of large power output of various types of lasers used as light sources. In this regard, it becomes important problem of stabilization of these light sources and the prevention of their destruction. Optical isolators are used as the devices responsible for the stabilization of the light sources and the prevention of their destruction.

[0003] Optical isolators equipped with a Faraday rotator, which rotates the plane of polarization of incident light in response to application of a magnetic field. Genetically garnet is traditionally used in Faraday rotators for applications in optical communication. However genetically garnet has disadvantages, namely the deterioration of the thin film of single crystal with high output power light source, and restrictions on the wavelength ranges in which it can be used because of the narrow strip of transparency. As a result of these circumstances was developed monocrystal is lamotrig pomegranate, which has a large light transmittance in a wide wavelength range from 400 nm to 1500 nm, and also has a large Faraday rotation angle (Patent document 1), and it is expected that this crystal will be used as a Faraday rotator for an optical isolator. This single crystal represented by the following General formula:

(Tb3-xScx)Sc2Al3O12(0,1≤x<0,3).

The documents of the prior art

Patent documents

[0004] Patent document 1: Japanese Laid Patent application No. 2002-293693

DISCLOSURE of INVENTIONS

[0005] the garnet single crystal described in the above Patent document 1 has the following disadvantages.

[0006] In particular, the Faraday rotators are cut from a single crystal of a desired shape obtained by cultivation. However, in the case of the single crystal described in patent document 1 has a problem of cracks formed during the cutting, which prevents obtaining a single crystal of good quality. In this case, it is possible to cut only the area of the crystal, where cracks were not formed. However, even in the case of the section of the site where the cracks are not formed, there still remained a risk of spreading of cracks. Therefore, the single crystal described in patent document 1 cannot be considered eligible the m for mass production or sufficiently practical.

[0007] Therefore, it is desirable to obtain a single crystal, which has a large light transmittance in a wide wavelength range, and which has a large angle of Faraday rotation in resistance to cracking.

[0008] In view of the foregoing, the purpose of the present invention is to provide a garnet single crystal of good quality, which has a large light transmittance in a wide wavelength range, and has a large Faraday rotation angle, the optical isolator and the optical processor.

The solution

[0009] the Authors present invention have conducted extensive studies to solve the above problems. The authors of the present invention have assumed that the above-mentioned problems caused by the reasons stated below. Namely, in the above-mentioned single crystal attempts to achieve stabilization, replacing shestikomnatnyh aluminum (hereinafter, it may be designated as "Al") scandium (hereinafter it may be designated as "Sc"). However, the authors of the present invention found that, as the stabilizing effect when this proved insufficient, the inside of the single crystal, there is tension, leading, eventually, to the formation of cracks. As a result of more extensive research, the authors present asego invention installed, that the above problems can be solved, not only replacing part of Al in the crystal aromaterapia grenade on Sc, but replacing part of at least one of terbium (hereinafter it may be designated as "Tb") or Al on thulium (hereinafter it may be designated as "Tm"), ytterbium (hereinafter it may be designated as "Yb) or yttrium (hereinafter it may be designated as "Y"), thereby leading to completion of the present invention.

[0010] namely, the present invention is to provide a garnet single crystal containing single crystal aromaterapia pomegranate, and part of the aluminum is replaced by scandium, and a portion of at least one of aluminum or terbium is replaced with at least one component selected from the group consisting of thulium, ytterbium and yttrium.

[0011] In accordance with this invention, can be effectively prevented from occurrence of cracks and can be obtained from a single crystal of good quality. Therefore, the garnet single crystal according to the present invention is suitable for mass production and has a satisfactory practical applicability. In addition, in accordance with the present invention, the garnet single crystal can be carried out as having a high light transmittance and having a large Faraday rotation angle in a wide range of wavelengths (400 nm - 1500 nm).

[002] the present invention has suggested the following reasons for absence of cracks. Largely as a result of replacing part of shestiseriynogo Al on Tm, Yb or Y having the ionic radius slightly larger than that of the Sc, or replacement parts cosmicvariance on Tb, Tm, Yb or Y having the ionic radius smaller than that of Tb, the ionic radius in the range of the single crystal becomes substantially balanced, and the garnet structure becomes stable. The authors of the present invention suggested that the formation of stresses in the crystal sufficiently restrained, thereby leading to a lower probability of crack formation in single crystal. In addition, the authors of the present invention believe that the basis for obtaining the garnet single crystal according to the present invention, having a large light transmittance and having a large Faraday rotation angle in a wide range of wavelengths (400 nm-1500 nm)is shown below. Namely, the garnet single crystal according to the present invention combines conventional single crystal aromaterapia garnet patent document 1, which has a large light transmittance and is characterized by a large Faraday rotation angle in a wide wavelength range of 400 nm to 1500 nm, and the components that make up the garnet single, also shared with the single crystal patent document 1, except for the Asti Tb and parts of Al, replaced by Tm, Yb or Y. Therefore, the authors of the present invention believe that this is exactly why the garnet single crystal according to the present invention has a large light transmittance and is characterized by a large Faraday rotation angle in a wide wavelength range.

[0013] in Addition, in the above-mentioned garnet single part and aluminum, and terbium, preferably optionally substituted, at least one component selected from the group consisting of thulium, ytterbium and yttrium.

[0014] In this case, the garnet structure becomes more stable as compared with the case where part only or aluminum, or terbium is replaced with at least a component of one species selected from the group consisting of thulium, ytterbium and yttrium.

[0015] in Addition, in the above-mentioned single crystal garnet, terbium preferably optionally substituted by scandium.

[0016] In this case, the garnet structure becomes more stable when replacing the Tb on scandium, compared with the case where the terbium not replaced by scandium.

[0017] furthermore, the above-mentioned garnet single crystal is preferably represented by the following General formula:

(Tb3-x-zSczMx) (Sc2-yMy) Al3O12 (1)

(where M represents at least one component selected from the group consisting of Tm, Yb and Y, and x, y and z satisfy the following relations:

0<x+y≤0.30

0≤z≤0,30).

[0018] In accordance with the present invention, can be effectively suppressed the formation of cracks, and can be obtained monocrystal best quality. Therefore, the garnet single crystal according to the present invention is suitable for mass production and has a satisfactory practical applicability. In addition, in accordance with the present invention, may be made of such a single crystal of garnet, which has a higher optical transmittance and demonstrates the greater the angle of Faraday rotation in a wide wavelength range (400 nm - 1500 nm).

[0019] In the above General formula (1), x and y preferably satisfy the following relations:

0≤x≤0,30

0≤y≤0,30

x<y.

In this case, the garnet structure becomes more stable.

[0020] in Addition, in the above-mentioned General formula (1), z preferably simultaneously satisfies the following relationship:

0<z≤0,05.

In this case, the garnet structure becomes more stable.

[0021] in Addition, in the above-mentioned General formula (1), x and z are preferably simultaneously satis is tworay following relationship:

x>z.

In this case, the garnet structure becomes more stable.

[0022] in Addition, the garnet single crystal according to the present invention preferably is used as the Faraday rotator.

[0023] furthermore, the present invention is an optical isolator having the Faraday rotator and the Faraday rotator formed of the above-mentioned single crystal of garnet.

[0024] according To this optical isolator of the above-mentioned single crystal having a large light transmittance in a wide wavelength range, is used as the Faraday rotator. Therefore, the absorption of light associated with the single crystal is reduced. Therefore, resistance to damage caused by light, the Faraday rotator can also be increased. In addition, since the above-mentioned single crystal has a large Faraday rotation angle, making it necessary to rotate the plane of polarized light by the application of a constant magnetic field to the above-mentioned single crystal, the length of the Faraday rotator in the direction of light propagation can be reduced, thereby enabling to reduce the size of the optical isolator. In addition, since the above-mentioned single crystal used as the Faraday rotator, free from cracks, frequency of clicks the Finance cracks during processing is very small. Therefore, the service life of the optical isolator may be increased.

[0025] furthermore, the present invention is an optical processor, equipped with a laser light source, and optical isolator placed on the light path of laser light emitted from the laser light source, and optical isolator represents the above-mentioned optical isolator.

[0026] In this optical processor, the garnet single crystal having a large light transmittance in a wide wavelength range (400 nm - 1500 nm)is used as the single crystal of the garnet used for the Faraday rotator, optical isolator. Therefore, the decrease in optical output power of the laser light source can be sufficiently prevented. In addition, the absorption of light associated with the crystal, is small due to the high light transmittance of the single crystal. Therefore, resistance to damage caused by light optical isolator can also be improved. In addition, since the above-mentioned single crystal has a large light transmittance in a wide wavelength range, it can be used as light sources with different wavelengths generation as a working laser light source. In addition, the above-UTY the garnet single crystal has a large Faraday rotation angle for each wavelength in a wide wavelength range (400 nm - 1500 nm). Therefore, in the case when there is a rotation of the plane of polarization of light by application to single crystal of a constant magnetic field, the length of the optical isolator in the direction of propagation of light can be reduced, thereby enabling to reduce the size of the optical isolator. Thus, size reduction of the optical processor may also be performed.

[0027] in Addition, since sufficiently restrained by the formation of cracks in the above-mentioned single crystal used in the optical isolator, the possibility of cracking during processing is very small. Therefore, the service life of the optical isolator can be increased. The result is that the frequency with which the optical isolator is replaced in the optical processor may be reduced.

[0028] In this case, the wavelength of the generation of the above-mentioned laser light source preferably is 1064 nm. This is because the garnet single crystal of the present invention has a large light transmittance, in particular, at a wavelength of 1064 nm, and the absorption of laser light from the laser light source can be made of a single crystal garnet sufficiently small.

The effects of the invention

[0029] In accordance with the present invention are provided with a garnet single crystal, to which the PR cracking sufficiently restrained, having a large light transmittance and having a large Faraday rotation angle in a wide range of wavelengths, the optical isolator and the optical processor.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION of DRAWINGS

[0030] Fig. 1 depicts a schematic diagram showing an implementation option optical isolator in accordance with the present invention;

Fig. 2 is a process drawing showing a step of growing a single crystal of garnet in accordance with the present invention; IFIG. 3 is a schematic diagram showing an implementation option optical processor, which uses the garnet single crystal in accordance with the present invention.

The IMPLEMENTATION of the INVENTION

[0031] Below, with reference to the drawings, provides a detailed explanation of embodiments of the present invention.

[0032] In Fig. 1 shows a drawing of a variant of implementation of the optical isolator of the present invention. As shown in Fig. 1, the optical isolator 10 has a polarizer 1, analyzer 2 and the Faraday rotator 3, placed between a polarizer 1 and an analyzer 2. In this case, the axial plane of the polarizer 1 and an analyzer 2 are set so as to be mutually non-parallel, for example, they are installed at a 45°angle.

[0033] the Magnetic field B is applied to the Faraday rotation is the tel 3 in the direction of the optical axis of polarizer 1 to the analyzer 2, and the Faraday rotator 3 rotates the plane of polarized light L that passes through the polarizer 1, and causes the light to pass in accordance with the axial plane transmittance analyzer 2 due to application of a magnetic field B.

[0034] the Following provides a detailed explanation of the Faraday rotator 3.

[0035] the Faraday rotator 3 is made of single crystal aromaterapia grenade. The aluminium part, at least, is replaced by scandium, and a portion of at least one of aluminum or terbium is replaced with at least one component selected from the group consisting of thulium, ytterbium and yttrium.

[0036] in Addition, in the above-mentioned garnet single pieces of aluminum and terbium, each, preferably optionally substituted by at least one component selected from the group consisting of thulium, ytterbium and yttrium.

[0037] In this case, the garnet structure becomes more stable as compared with the case where only a part of the aluminum or terbium is replaced with at least one component selected from the group consisting of thulium, ytterbium and yttrium.

[0038] in Addition, in the above-mentioned single crystal grenade terbium preferably optionally substituted by scandium.

[0039] the Above-mentioned garnet single crystal is preferably represented by the following General formula:

Tb 3-x-zSczMx) (Sc2-yMy) Al3O12(1)

(M displays at least one component selected from the group consisting of Tm, Yb and Y, and x, y and z satisfy the following relations:

0<x+y≤0,30, and

0≤z≤0,30).

[0040] In this case, the above-mentioned General formula (1) shows the single crystal aromaterapia grenade with scandium. In the above General formula (1) share (Sc2-yMy) indicates that part of the Al is replaced by Sc, or is replaced by Sc and M, or, in other words, at least replaced by one component selected from the group consisting of Tm, Yb and Y, while the share (Tb3-x-zSczMx) indicates that part of Tb may be replaced by at least one of Sc and M

[0041] as described In the above-mentioned General formula (1) garnet single sufficiently restrained by the formation of cracks, and can be performed on a single crystal of good quality. Therefore, the garnet single crystal according to the present invention is suitable for mass production and has a satisfactory practical applicability. In addition, in accordance with the above-mentioned single crystal can also be made of the single crystal garnet, which is has a large light transmittance and is characterized by a large Faraday rotation angle in a wide range of wavelengths (400 nm - 1500 nm).

[0042] the single crystal having a large light transmittance in a wide wavelength range (400 nm - 1500 nm), as previously described, is used for the Faraday rotator 3. Therefore, the absorption of light associated with the single crystal is reduced. Therefore, resistance to damage caused by light, the Faraday rotator 3 can be improved.

[0043] furthermore, the above-mentioned single crystal has a large Faraday rotation angle for each wavelength in a wide wavelength range (400 nm - 1500 nm). Therefore, if the rotation of the plane of polarization of light by application of a constant magnetic field, the length of the Faraday rotator 3 along the direction of propagation of light can be reduced, thereby enabling to reduce the size of the optical isolator 10.

[0044] in Addition, since the above-mentioned single crystal used as the Faraday rotator 3, free from the formed cracks, the possibility of cracking during processing is very small. Therefore, the service life of the optical isolator 10 may be increased.

[0045] In the above General formula (1) M displays at least one component selected from the group consisting of Tm, Yb and Y. namely, M may be one component - Tm, Yb or Y, or can be a combination of two or more of these comp is required.

[0046] In the above General formula (1), x and y satisfy the following relations:

0<x+y≤0,30.

[0047] In this case, although the x or y can be 0, if x+y is 0, it means that neither Tb nor Al is partially replaced by M, the garnet structure is stabilized and can be cases where cracks can be formed, thereby preventing the implementation of the garnet single crystal of good quality.

[0048] in Addition, if x+y is between 0.30 or less, this means that the garnet structure becomes more stable, and the formation of cracks is restrained to a greater degree, thereby allowing the garnet single of the best quality.

[0049] in Addition, x and y preferably satisfy the following relations simultaneously:

0≤x≤0,30

0≤y≤0,30

x<y.

In this case, the garnet structure becomes more stable.

[0050] In this case, x and y preferably satisfy the following relations simultaneously:

0≤x≤0,20

0≤y≤0,20.

[0051] In the above General formula (1), z satisfies the following relation 0≤z≤0,30. If z is a value within these limits, compared with the case where z has a value outside these limits, the garnet structure becomes more stable, the formation of cracks is restrained to a greater degree and can be completed garnet single of the best quality.

[0052] In this case, z preferably satisfies the following relationship:

0≤z≤0,05

In this case, the garnet structure becomes more stable, compared with the case where the value of z lies outside these limits.

[0053] in Addition, z can also be 0. In this case, the concentration of Tb becomes higher compared with the case where z is greater than 0, and as a result, the angle of Faraday rotation of a single crystal can be made large. In this case, z=0 means that part of the Tb is not replaced by Sc.

[0054] in Addition, when z=0, then it is preferable that x=0. In this case, the angle of Faraday rotation of a single crystal can be made even greater, as compared to the case z=0 and x>0. In this case, z=0 and x=0 means that Tb is not replaced neither Sc nor M

[0055] in Addition, in the above-mentioned General formula (1), x and z preferably satisfy the following relations simultaneously:

x>z.

In this case, the garnet structure becomes more stable, compared with the case where x is equal to or less than z.

[0056] the Following provides an explanation of the production method of the above-mentioned single crystal.

[0057] First, before explaining the production method of the above-mentioned single crystal, in connection with Fig. 2, is considered the unit of crystal growth for growing the above-mentioned single crystal. In Fig. 2 shows the technology is a logical drawing step of growing a single crystal of garnet in accordance with the present invention. As shown in Fig. 2, the device 20 crystal growth is primarily an iridium crucible 21, the cylindrical ceramic container 22, which is placed in the crucible 21, and a high-frequency induction coil 23 wound around a cylindrical container 22. High-frequency coil 23 is used to heat the crucible 21 creation in the crucible 21 of the induced current.

[0058] Next, considered is a method of growing the above-mentioned single crystal using the above mentioned device 20 crystal growth.

[0059] First prepared powder Tb4O7powder Sc2O3and powder of Al2O3. The oxide M also prepared. Namely, the powder Tm2O3prepared in the case when M is a Tm. In addition, the powder Yb2O3prepared in the case when M is a Yb, and powder Y2O3prepared in the case when M is a y-oxide Powder of two or more components of the elements of Tm, Yb and Y can be prepared in the case when M is formed from two or more components of these elements.

[0060] the Formula relations powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3, powder M2O3powder and Al2O3determined to obtain a single crystal having a composition represented wiseup the mentioned General formula (1). However, the formula relations powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3, powder M2O3powder and Al2O3respectively are as shown below.

[0061] namely, formula ratio of powder Tb4O7is usually a 21.5 mol%. to 23,5% mol., on the basis of the total number of moles of powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3, powder M2O3powder and Al2O3.

[0062] Formula attitude powder Sc2O3is usually to 27.0 mol%. to 31,0% mol., on the basis of the total number of moles of powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3, powder M2O3powder and Al2O3.

[0063] the Formula ratio of powder M2O3is 0.5 mol%. to 5,0% mol., on the basis of the total number of moles of powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3, powder M2O3powder and Al2O3.

[0064] the Formula ratio of the powder of Al2O3is 45.0 mol%. to 47,0% mol., on the basis of the total number of moles of powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3, powder M2O3powder and Al2O3.

[0065] the Above-mentioned powder Tb4O7powder Sc2O3powder M2O3and powder of Al2O3then dry mixed in a certain formula relations, to receive the th mixed powder.

[0066] Further, the above-mentioned mixed powder is placed in the crucible 21.

[0067] Further, when an electric current is applied to the high-frequency induction coil 23, the crucible 21 is heated, and mixed powder inside of the crucible 21 is melted, forming the melt 24. Next, is prepared having the form of a rod the seed crystal 25, and the sharp end of this crystalline seed crystal 25 is immersed in the melt 24, when rotating at a given speed of rotation and the simultaneous rise of the melt 24 with a given rate of ascent.

[0068] for crystalline seed crystal 25 may be used a garnet single crystal, for example, monocrystal alyumoittrievogo garnet (YAG).

[0069] in Addition, the rotation speed of the crystal seed 25 is preferably from 3 rpm to 50 rpm and, more preferably, from 3 rpm to 10 rpm.

[0070] in Addition, the lifting speed is preferably from 0.1 mm/hour up to 3 mm/hour and, more preferably, from 0.2 mm/h 1 mm/h.

[0071] in Addition, the seed crystal 25 is preferably rises in an inert gas atmosphere, and usually as the inert gas is nitrogen. In addition, the seed crystal 25 is usually rises at atmospheric pressure.

[0072] When the seed crystal 25 is raised from the melt 2 thus, bulk single crystal 26 represented by the above General formula (1)may be obtained at the end of the crystal seed 25.

[0073] Below, in connection with Fig. 3, is considered in detail the optical processor of the present invention. In Fig. 3 the same numeric designations refer to the same components or equivalent to those in Fig. 1, and their repeated explanation is omitted.

[0074] In Fig. 3 shows a schematic diagram of a variant of implementation of the optical processor of the present invention. As shown in Fig. 3, the optical processor 100 has a laser source 11 of the light and the optical isolator 10, placed on the light path P of laser light L emitted from the laser source 11 of the light. In this case, the optical isolator 10 has a Faraday rotator 3. In accordance with this optical processor 100, the laser light L emitted from the laser source 11 of the light emitted through the optical isolator 10, and the processed object Q can be treated with this emitted light.

[0075] In this case, the garnet single crystal having a large transmittance in a wide wavelength range (400 nm-1500 nm), as previously described, is used as the single crystal garnet for the Faraday rotator 3, the optical isolator 10. Therefore, the reduction in the output optical power manhole, the aqueous source 11 of the light can be sufficiently prevented. In addition, since the single crystal has a large light transmittance, absorption of light associated with the crystal, is small. Therefore, resistance to damage caused by light, the Faraday rotator 3 can be improved. In addition, since the above-mentioned single crystal has a high transmittance in a wide wavelength range, the laser light sources with different wavelengths generation can be used as a working laser source 11 of the light.

[0076] furthermore, the above-mentioned garnet single crystal has a large Faraday rotation angle for each wavelength in a wide wavelength range (400 nm - 1500 nm). Therefore, if the rotation of the plane of polarization of light by application of a constant magnetic field, the length of the Faraday rotator 3 along the direction of propagation of light can be reduced, thereby enabling to reduce the size of the optical isolator 10. Thus, size reduction of the optical processor 100 may also be performed.

[0077] in Addition, since the formation of cracks sufficiently restrained in the above-mentioned single crystal used for the Faraday rotator 3, the probability of crack formation during processing is very small. Therefore, the service life of the optical isolator 10 m which can be increased. The result is that the frequency with which the optical isolator 10 is replaced in the optical processor 100 may be reduced.

[0078] the Above-mentioned single crystal has a high transmittance at a wavelength of 1064 nm. Thus, the laser source 11 of the light, especially preferably represents a laser light source having a wavelength of generation of 1064 nm, for example a Nd:YAG laser. However, the above-mentioned single crystal has high transmittance in a wide wavelength range. Therefore, Yb doped fiber laser having a wavelength generation 1080 nm, can also be used as a laser source 11 of the light.

[0079] in Addition, the laser light source having a wavelength generation in the range 400 nm - 700 nm, can also be used. Examples of this type of laser light source include a GaN semiconductor laser having a wavelength of generation of 405 nm, and the laser sapphire-titanium, having the generation wavelength of 700 nm. In addition, in accordance with the optical processor 100 having a laser source 11 of the light with wavelength generation in the short-wavelength cut so the plot of the processed object Q is not subject to damage from heat, thereby allowing the obtaining of a smooth surface section. In addition, the above-mentioned monocristal the l has a sufficiently high transmittance even in the short wavelength region of wavelengths (400 nm - 700 nm). Therefore, even if the generation wavelength of the laser source 11 of the light in the optical processor 100 is 400 nm-700 nm, the reduction in the output power associated with the optical isolator 10, sufficiently prevented.

[0080] the Present invention is not limited to the above variants of implementation. For example, although the wavelengths of the generation laser source 11 of the light is indicated in the above implementation options ranging from 1064 nm or more, or 400 nm - 700 nm, the wavelength generation is not limited to these values. The generation wavelength of the laser source 11 of the light can also be within the range of 700 nm - 1064 nm, for example about 800 nm or in the range of 1030 nm - 1080 nm.

[0081] furthermore, although in the above embodiments, the implementation of the single crystal was used as the optical isolator optical processor, the single crystal is not limited to use as an optical isolator, and can also be used, for example, as an optical magnetic field sensor, which monitors changes in the magnetic field by measuring the angle of Faraday rotation using the Faraday rotator.

EXAMPLES

[0082] Although the following provides a more specific explanation of the present invention in its examples, the present invention is not Ogre is nicelets the following examples.

[0083] Example 1

Initially, there were prepared powder Tb4O7(purity: 99.99 percent), powder Sc2O3(purity: 99.99 percent), powder of Al2O3(purity: 99.99 percent) and powder Tm2O3(purity: 99.99%of all) and then dry mixed to obtain mixed powder. At the same time equational relations powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3, powder Tm2O3powder and Al2O3were 22.8 mol%, 30,4% mol., to 0.8 mol%. and 46,0% mol., accordingly, based on the total number of moles of powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3, powder Tm2O3powder and Al2O3. Then the mixed powder was placed in a cylindrical crucible 21, having a diameter of 50 mm and a depth of 50 mm.

[0084] Next, the crucible 21 is heated by applying current to high-frequency induction coil 23 to melt mixed powder to obtain a melt 24. Was then prepared having the form of a rod the seed crystal 25, made of YAG and having a size of 3mm×3mm×70mm, and the end of the crystal seed crystal 25 was immersed in the melt 24, while the seed crystal 25 is rotated at the rotation speed of 10 rpm, and then was raised with the speed of 1 mm/hour. At this time, in a cylindrical container 22 was admitted nitrogen with a volume flow of 2 l/min, and the rise of crystal seed 25 p is ofodile in nitrogen atmosphere at atmospheric pressure.

[0085] in This way was obtained bulk single crystal having a diameter of 25 mm

[0086] When the thus obtained single crystal was investigated by powder x-ray diffraction, it was confirmed that a peak for Tb3Sc2Al3O12. In addition, the single crystal was subjected to chemical analysis by inductively coupled plasma (ICP)to confirm the composition of the single crystal (atomic relations Tb, Sc, Tm, Al and O). In addition, the structure of the resulting single crystal was analyzed by the method of single crystal x-ray diffraction using Smart Apex, manufactured by Bruker AXS K.K. From the above, it was found that there was obtained a garnet single crystal represented compositional formula (Tb2,97Sc0,01Tm0,02) (Sc1,97Tm0,03) Al3O12.

[0087] Example 2

The single crystal was obtained in the same manner as in Example 1, except for installation of the formula relations powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3, powder Tm2O3powder and Al2O3how to 22.5 mol%, 30,0% mol., a 1.5 mol%. and 46,0% mol., accordingly, based on the total number of moles of powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3, powder Tm2O3powder and Al2O3. When the composition of the thus obtained single crystal was investigated in the same manner as in Example 1, b is lo acknowledged receipt of the single crystal, which is represented by the compositional formula given in Table 1.

[0088] Example 3

The single crystal was obtained in the same manner as in Example 1, except for installation of the formula relations powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3, powder Tm2O3powder and Al2O3as 22,1% mol., 29,0% mol., of 3.1 mol%. and 45.8% mol., accordingly, based on the total number of moles of powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3, powder Tm2O3powder and Al2O3. When the composition of the thus obtained single crystal was investigated in the same manner as in Example 1, it was confirmed receipt of the single crystal, which is represented by the compositional formula given in Table 1.

[0089] Example 4

The single crystal was obtained in the same manner as in Example 1, except for installation of the formula relations powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3, powder Tm2O3powder and Al2O3how to 22.0 mol%, 27,7% mol., of 4.6 mol%. and of 45.7 mol%, accordingly, based on the total number of moles of powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3, powder Tm2O3powder and Al2O3. When the composition of the thus obtained single crystal was investigated in the same manner as in Example 1, it was confirmed receipt of the single crystal, which PR is stavsetra compositional formula, shown in Table 1.

[0090] Example 5

The single crystal was obtained in the same manner as in Example 1, except for using powder Yb2O3instead of powder Tm2O3and the installation of a formula relations powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3, powder Yb2O3powder and Al2O3as of 22.8 mol%, 30,4% mol., to 0.8 mol%. and 46,0% mol., accordingly, based on the total number of moles of powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3, powder Yb2O3powder and Al2O3. When the composition of the thus obtained single crystal was investigated in the same manner as in Example 1, it was confirmed receipt of the single crystal, which is represented by the compositional formula given in Table 1.

[0091] Example 6

The single crystal was obtained in the same manner as in Example 1, except for using powder Yb2O3instead of powder Tm2O3and the installation of a formula relations powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3, powder Yb2O3powder and Al2O3as 22,7% mol., 29,8% mol., a 1.5 mol%. and 46,0% mol., accordingly, based on the total number of moles of powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3, powder Yb2O3powder and Al2O3. When the composition of the thus obtained single crystal was sledovane in the same way, as in Example 1, it was confirmed receipt of the single crystal, which is represented by the compositional formula given in Table 1.

[0092] Example 7

The single crystal was obtained in the same manner as in Example 1, except for using powder Yb2O3instead of powder Tm2O3and the installation of a formula relations powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3, powder Yb2O3powder and Al2O3as 22,4% mol., 28,6% mol., of 3.1 mol% and 45.9% mol., accordingly, based on the total number of moles of powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3, powder Yb2O3powder and Al2O3. When the composition of the thus obtained single crystal was investigated in the same manner as in Example 1, it was confirmed receipt of the single crystal, which is represented by the compositional formula given in Table 1.

[0093] Example 8

The single crystal was obtained in the same manner as in Example 1, except for using powder Yb2O3instead of powder Tm2O3and the installation of a formula relations powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3, powder Yb2O3powder and Al2O3how to 22.0 mol%, 27,6% mol., of 4.6 mol%. and 45.8% mol., accordingly, based on the total number of moles of powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3p the Rosca Yb 2O3powder and Al2O3. When the composition of the thus obtained single crystal was investigated in the same manner as in Example 1, it was confirmed receipt of the single crystal, which is represented by the compositional formula given in Table 1.

[0094] Example 9

The single crystal was obtained in the same manner as in Example 1 except for the use of powder Y2O3instead of powder Tm2O3and the installation of a formula relations powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3, powder Y2O3powder and Al2O3as 22,6% mol., 29,9% mol., a 1.5 mol%. and 46,0% mol., accordingly, based on the total number of moles of powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3, powder Y2O3powder and Al2O3. When the composition of the thus obtained single crystal was investigated in the same manner as in Example 1, it was confirmed receipt of the single crystal, which is represented by the compositional formula given in Table 1.

[0095] Example 10

The single crystal was obtained in the same manner as in Example 1 except for the use of powder Y2O3instead of powder Tm2O3and the installation of a formula relations powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3, powder Y2O3powder and Al2O3as 21,8% mol., 28,0% of the ol., of 4.5 mol%. and of 45.7 mol%, accordingly, based on the total number of moles of powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3, powder Y2O3powder and Al2O3. When the composition of the thus obtained single crystal was investigated in the same manner as in Example 1, it was confirmed receipt of the single crystal, which is represented by the compositional formula given in Table 1.

[0096] Comparative Example 1

The single crystal was obtained in the same manner as in Example 1 except for not using the powder Tm2O3and the installation of a formula relations powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3powder and Al2O3as 23,0% mol., 30,9% mol. and 46,1% mol., accordingly, based on the total number of moles of powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3powder and Al2O3. When the composition of the thus obtained single crystal was investigated in the same manner as in Example 1, it was confirmed receipt of the single crystal, which is represented by the compositional formula given in Table 1.

[0097] Comparative Example 2

The single crystal was obtained in the same manner as in Example 1 except for not using the powder Tm2O3and the installation of a formula relations powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3powder and Al2O3 as 22,1% mol., 32,1% mol. and 45.8% mol., accordingly, based on the total number of moles of powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3powder and Al2O3. When the composition of the thus obtained single crystal was investigated in the same manner as in Example 1, it was confirmed receipt of the single crystal, which is represented by the compositional formula given in Table 1.

[0098] the evaluation of the properties

The properties of the garnet single Examples 1-10 and Comparative Examples 1 and 2 obtained in the manner described above, were investigated as described below.

(1) cracks

The single crystals of Examples 1-10 and Comparative Examples 1 and 2 were visually examined for cracks. The results are shown in Table 1.

(2) the transmittance

The transmittance of the single crystals of Examples 1-10 and Comparative Examples 1 and 2 was measured for wavelengths 405 nm, 633 nm, 1064 nm and 1500 nm. The results are shown in Table 1.

(3) the Angle of Faraday rotation

The analyzer is first rotated without placing a single crystal between the polarizer and the analyzer to create a locked state. Then the single crystals of Examples 1-10 and Comparative Examples 1 and 2 were cut into the shape of a square strips with dimensions of 3.5 mm ×3.5 mm ×20 mm, each single crystal was placed between the polarizer and the analyzer, the light was entered when the application is AI magnetic induction 0,42 T along the longitudinal direction of the single crystal, and the analyzer again revolved to create a locked state. The difference between the rotation angle of the analyzer prior to placing the crystal between the polarizer and the analyzer and the analyzer angle after placing the crystal between the polarizer and the analyzer was calculated, and the difference of these angles was considered as the angle of Faraday rotation of the single crystal. At the same time, the Faraday rotation angles were respectively measured by changing the wavelength of the light source as 633 nm, 1064 nm and 1303 nm. The results are shown in table 1.

Table 1
Compositional formulax+yxyzIences Properties
Tresi-usTransmittance (%)The Faraday rotation angle (°)
405 nm633 nm1064 nm1500 nm633 nm 1064 nm1303 nm
Example 1(Tb2,97Sc0,01Tm0,02)(Sc1,97Tm0,03)Al3O120,050,020,030,01No-point79,683,0to 85.280,673,720,912,9
Example 2(Tb2,94Sc0,02Tm0,04)(Sc1,94Tm0,06)Al3O120,100,040,060,02No-point80,382,685,580,578,723,215,7
Example 3(Tb2,9Sc0,03Tm0,07)(Sc1,87Tm0,13)Al3O120,200,070,130,03 No-point80,082,384,780,370,5of 21.213,0
Example 4(Tb2,88Sc0,02Tma 0.1)(Sca 1.8Tmof 0.2)Al3O120,300,100,200,02No-point80,382,785,080,173,520,513,2
Example 5(Tb2,97Sc0,01Yb0,02)(Sc1,97Yb0,03)Al3O120,050,020,030,01No-point80,183,2to 85.280,674,222,2the 13.4
Example 6(Tb2,96Sc0,0 Yb0,03)(Sc1,93Yb0,07)Al3O120,100,030,070,01No-point79,582,984,280,575,323,014,8
Example 7(Tb2,93Sc0,02Yb0,05)(Scof 1.85Ybof 0.15)Al3O120,200,050,150,02No-point79,181,5to 83.580,373,622,513,1
Example 8(Tb2,89Sc0,02Yb0,09)(Sc1,79Yb0,21)Al3O120,300,090,210,02No-point78,781,383,2 80,174,922,614,5
Example 9(Tb2,95Sc0,01Y0,04)(Sc1,94Y0,06)Al3O120,100,040,060,01No-point78,782,885,179,574,221,814,1
Example 10(Tb2,86Sc0,02Y0,12)(Sc1,82Y0,18)Al3O120,300,120,180,02No-point78,182,5of 83.479,373,6a 21.513,7
Compare-AUX Example 1(Tb2,99Sc0,01)Sc2Al3O1200 0,01Presence-pointImmeasurableImmeasurableImmeasurableImmeasurableImmeasurableImmeasurableImmeasurable
Compare-local Example 2(Tb2,9Sca 0.1)Sc2Al3O120000,10The Pris-Agency-UteImmeasurableImmeasurableImmeasurableImmeasurableImmeasurableImmeasurableImmeasurable

[0099] In accordance with the results shown in Table 1, it was found that the garnet single crystals of Examples 1-10 had formed cracks. On the contrary, it was found that large cracks formed in the garnet single crystals of Comparative Examples 1 and 2.

[0100] in Addition, it was found that the single crystals of Examples 1 to 10 had a high transmittance at all wavelengths 405 nm, 633 n is, 1064 nm and 1500 nm. On the contrary, the transmission coefficient was not measured for single crystals of Comparative Examples 1 and 2 due to the formation of large cracks.

[0101] in Addition, it was found that the single crystals of Examples 1 to 10 had a large Faraday rotation angles for each of the wavelength 633 nm, 1064 nm and 1303 nm. On the contrary, the Faraday rotation angle was not measured for single crystals of Comparative Examples 1 and 2 due to the formation of large cracks.

[0102] based On the above results, it was confirmed that the garnet single crystal according to the present invention becomes a single crystal of good quality, with a high transmittance in a wide wavelength range, and is characterized by a large Faraday rotation angle in a wide wavelength range.

INDUSTRIAL APPLICABILITY

[0103] the garnet single crystal according to the present invention is a single crystal of good quality, has a high transmittance in a wide wavelength range and is characterized by a large Faraday rotation angle in a wide range of wavelengths. Thus, the garnet single crystal according to the present invention can preferably be used as the Faraday rotator, optical isolator used in the light source device for optical processors and optical the Oh connection.

EXPLANATION DIGITAL SIGNS

[0104] 1: Polarizer

2: Analyzer

3: the Faraday rotator

10: Optical isolator

11: a Laser light source

100: Optical processor

1. The garnet single crystal containing single crystal aromaterapia grenade
moreover, the aluminium part, at least, replaced by scandium, and a portion of at least one of aluminum or terbium replaced by at least one component selected from the group consisting of thulium, ytterbium and yttrium,
while the garnet single crystal represented by the following General formula:

and M represents at least one component selected from the group consisting of Tm, Yb and Y, and x, y and z satisfy the following relations:
0<x+y≤0.30
0≤z≤0,30.

2. The garnet single crystal according to claim 1, and x and y satisfy the following relations at the same time:
0≤x≤0,30,
0≤y≤0,30,
x<y.

3. The garnet single crystal according to claim 1, and z simultaneously satisfies the following relations:
0<z≤0,05.

4. The garnet single crystal according to any one of claim 1 to 3, and x and z satisfy the following relations:
x>z.

5. The garnet single crystal according to any one of claim 1-3, which is used as the Faraday rotator.

6. Optical isolator having a Faraday rotator,
moreover, the Faraday rotator formed is from garnet single crystal according to claim 5.

7. The optical processor that contains:
the laser light source and
optical isolator located on the light path of laser light emitted from the laser light source,
moreover, the optical isolator is an optical isolator according to claim 6.

8. The optical processor according to claim 7, whereby the generation wavelength of the laser light source is 1064 nm.



 

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