Method of carrying out counter-heading drivage at their breakthrough

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises determining the direction of carrying out counter-heading drivage using instrumental method, drilling counter-heading drivage, charging and blasting the holes, airing the bottomhole and removal of the exploded rock mass. In one of the counter-heading drivage the hole is drilled in the center of the bottomhole. Before drilling in the counter-heading drivage opposite to it the direction of counter-heading drivage is additionally determined on the greatest degree of exposure of vibration of the surface of the rock mass by the palm of the hand by applying the palm of the hand to the surface of the rock mass in the center and in other parts of the bottomhole.

EFFECT: reduction of costs for counter-heading drivage at their breakthrough by reducing the amount of deviation from the predetermined direction at their breakthrough.

3 dwg

 

The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used when conducting counter-workings with their breakthrough in the ore mines.

The invention relates to the priority direction of development of science and technology "Technology is environmentally safe mining and mining" [Alphabetical subject index to the International patent classification in priority directions of development of science and technology / YG Smirnov, E.V. Skidanov, S.A. Krasnov. - M.: PATENT, 2008. - s].

The problem of conducting counter-workings in their works is that they often do not coincide, which leads to unnecessary costs, reduce safety and environmental protection.

There is a method of conducting counter-workings with their breakthrough with the use of the compass (George Agricole. About mining and metallurgy. -Publishing house of the USSR Academy of Sciences, 1962, 602 S., str). The method includes determining the direction of the conduct of counter-workings with their breakthrough with the use of mountain compass, drilling, loading, blasting holes, ventilation and cleaning of the exploded array of rock from the face.

Common features known way with the claimed invention are:

- identifying areas for counter-mining with the use of the instrumental method is.

- drilling, loading and blasting holes, ventilation slaughtering and cleaning of the exploded array of rock.

The disadvantages of this method is the considerable costs of elimination of the results of the breakthrough counter workings due to errors in the determination of the direction of their conduct. This is the result of the next. When using known instrumental method is the deviation from the direction of conducting counter-workings with their breakthrough due to errors known method. With roulette and mountain compass to determine the azimuth direction of the conduct of counter-workings. All results display on the graph paper using a compass and protractor. Then bind to the mountainous terrain. To inform areas for counter workings with their breakthrough use the weights. Plummet is a weight with a flexible filament attached to the roof framing. The direction is determined by x-raying miner's lamp located on the same line two plumb.

For the prototype accepted way of conducting counter-workings with their breakthrough with the use of theodolite with laser pointer (Member P. P. surveying: a Textbook for high schools. - M.: Nedra, 1982, - s). The method includes determining the direction of the conduct of counter-workings under their linkage with the application is receiving theodolite with laser pointer drilling, loading and blasting holes, ventilation and cleaning of the exploded array of rock from the face.

Common features known way with the claimed invention are

instrumental method of determining the direction of conducting counter-workings in their works.

- drilling, loading and blasting holes, ventilation slaughtering and cleaning of the exploded array of rock.

The disadvantages of the method are significant costs on the elimination results deviate from the direction of the breakthrough, reducing the safety and environmental work due to the instrumental error of the method. This is the result of the next. When using known instrumental method is the deviation from the direction of conducting counter-workings with their breakthrough due to errors known method. With the aid of a theodolite with laser pointer to determine the direction of carrying out counter-workings for mine points straight. The direction is determined by x-raying miner's lamp located on the same line two plumb.

The reason for the shortage is the lack of technical solutions aimed at eliminating mistakes in identifying areas for counter workings in their works.

The claimed invention is directed to solving the problem occur is the existence of the way of oncoming workings in their works, to facilitate a more accurate, safer and more environmentally friendly and less costly their sinking.

The technical result of the invention is to improve the accuracy of the sinking of counter-workings with their works by reducing the magnitude of the deviation from the predetermined direction when the linkage. In addition, the technical result is to increase safety, and environmental ways, precluding the development of undue amounts of rocks.

The technical result of the claimed invention is achieved in that in the method of conducting counter-workings with their works, including identification of areas for in-counter workings using an instrumental method, drilling counter excavation, loading and blasting holes, ventilation slaughtering and cleaning the blasted rock mass, according to the invention, in one of opposite openings of the hole drilled at the center of the face, and prior to drilling in the opposite counter development is additionally determine the direction of holding the oncoming generation using tactile sensory system by applying the palm of the hand to the surface of the array of rocks in the center and at other points on the bottom for the greatest impact the vibration of the surface of the rock mass on the palm of the hand

Additional definition of areas for counter workings when the linkage is essential to reduce the error in determining the direction of the instrumental method. This reduces the cost of conducting counter-workings in their works and are aimed at achieving a technical result.

Drilling the hole in the center of the face oncoming generation creates the vibration of the rock mass in the center of the face oncoming generation and facilitates orientation of this generation in space. Therefore, this solution contributes to the achievement of a technical result.

In the centre and at other points on the face opposite the oncoming generation to the surface of the rock rock bottom this generation put the palm of the hand. On the palm of the hand are the nerve endings of the sensitivity of the receptors that perceive the vibrations of the surface of the rock mass, distinguishing these fluctuations in amplitude and frequency.

It is known that tactile sensor system is designed for the analysis of pressure and touch. Its receptors are free nerve endings and complex education (bullock Meissner, pacinian corpuscles), in which the nerves are enclosed in a special capsule. They are located in the upper and lower layers of the skin, in the skin of the vessels at the base of the hair. Especially a lot of them on the fingers of ru and legs, palms, soles, lips. This mechanoise-Torah, reacting to tension, pressure and vibration (sensor systems. Article 18.11.2007. Mode of access: http://sportzal.com/post/861/).

The hole in the center of the face oncoming generation are drilling hammer, which produces 2100-3000 beats per minute of the drill crown on the rocks, causing oscillations with frequency vibration 35-50 Hz and an amplitude of 0.40 to 0.15 mm (Mining engineering. Terminological dictionary. LI Baron, G., Ledeen and others-M.: Nedra, 1991, 479 SSTR). Vibration from the bore-hole generation counter extends to the surface of the rock mass slaughter opposite counter output. The amplitude and frequency of this vibration affects pressed against the face opposite the oncoming generation palm of the hand. The palm of the hand responds not only to the vibration in General, but also determines the degree of vibration is more or less at the same level. It is believed that the sense of touch works exclusively on spatial principle: our skin is covered with a grid of tactile receptors, and we feel the surface, comparing different areas (Source: sciencelife.uchospitals.edu article: "HowOurSenseofTouchisaLotLiketheWaywe Hear"), However, as shown by the experiments conducted at the Medical center of the University of Chicago (USA), the sense of touch has a temporary option. In other words, tactile receptors can feel h is a frequency, like the auditory receptors.

The researchers used a special apparatus, which produced complex oscillations. The vibrations created by this instrument would give to feel makaka-retusum and several volunteers. Simultaneously recorded the activity of tactile neurons that transmit information from the center in the brain. It was found that the neurons will fire in full accordance with the fluctuations that they have to feel. And even more: the nature of nervous hesitation, you can guess the nature of the vibration surface. To understand why, you need to present vibrant, and peaceful surface - for example, silk thread. We can touch to distinguish silk from wool. However, when we have your finger on silk or wool thread, feel a certain specific structure, which has a repeating pattern of irregularities. These bumps are on our receptors like oscillations, i.e. the same receptor is excited through some intervals, and these intervals are an important characteristic of the surface. In short, the feeling of the silk thread can be called even without touching the material. Researchers emphasize the fact that in their experiments, they used are not correct, sinusoidality and "contaminated", irregular fluctuations that normally occur in the erode.

Drilling holes creates fluctuations in rocks of high frequency and insignificant amplitude, i.e. vibration. The amplitude and frequency of vibration of a rock mass depends on the distance between the source of excitation (point of drilling the borehole) and the point of perception of this vibration - place applications the palm of the hand to the surface of the rocks opposite the counter output. Set out the reception aims to achieve a technical result.

Drilling the hole in the center of the face opposite the production and use of palm of hand in the center and at other points on the face opposite the oncoming generation to the surface of the array of rocks are performed simultaneously. Only while drilling the borehole and placed the palm of the hand to the surface of the array of rocks you can determine the direction of propagation of vibration. Such a processing method aims to achieve a technical result.

The direction of carrying out counter-workings when the linkage is determined by comparing the degree of exposure to the vibration surface of the rock massif in the centre and at other points on the face opposite the oncoming generation in the palm of the hand. The amplitude and frequency of vibration of the surface of the rock mass at different points of the face opposite the oncoming generation depends on the distance IU the remote location of the drilling hole and place of attachment of the palm of the hand. The greater this distance, the less the amplitude and frequency of vibration of the surface, and Vice versa. Therefore, the greatest amplitude and frequency of vibration of the surface rocks of the face opposite the oncoming generation corresponds to the smallest distance between the opposite faces of mine. The smaller the amplitude and frequency of vibration of the surface rocks of the face opposite the oncoming generation corresponds to a greater distance between the opposite faces of mine. The impact of vibration of the surface of a rock mass slaughter opposite counter elaborate on the palm of the hand is determined by applying the palm of the hand not less than 3 points. In the absence of deviations from the specified direction of the impact of vibration on the palm of the hand in the middle point should be the greatest, and at the endpoints of the lowest and equal. Distance from average to extreme points must be equal. The direction of carrying out counter-workings is determined graphically. Therefore achieved technical result.

Differences from prototype to prove the novelty of the method and the uncertainty of the prior art the influence of distinctive features in the claimed technical result proves the conformity of the way the condition of patentability "inventive step".

Pic is b holding opposing openings when the linkage is illustrated by drawings, where :

Figure 1 - method of determining the direction of conducting counter-workings under their linkage with minimal deviation from the specified direction.

Figure 2 - method of determining the direction of holding the opposing openings in the linkage when the deviation from the target direction by an amount not exceeding half the width counter workings.

Figure 3 - the method of determining the direction of holding the opposing openings in the linkage when the deviation from the target direction by an amount exceeding half the width of the opposing openings. This drawing shows the possibility of application of the method in determining the extent of vibration of the rock mass in the side wall opposite the counter output.

The position of the way of oncoming workings when their works are marked with the numbers.

1 - counter output.

2 - the bottom of the counter output.

3 - the hole in the center of the counter output.

4 - the center of the face of the counter output.

5 - the opposite of the counter output.

6 is a bottom opposite the counter output.

7 center of the face opposite the counter output.

A, B, C, G, where lay the palm of the hand to the surface of the rock bottom opposite the counter output.

In figure 1, 2, 3 advanced dashed lines with arrows indicate the direction of which is hraneniya vibration of the rock from the hole to the place of application of the palm of the hand. Fig. 1 to 3 show the possibility of application of the method in determining the extent of vibration of the surface rocks in the side wall opposite the counter output.

The method of conducting counter-workings when the linkage is as follows.

When conducting counter generation 1 (figure 1) in the bottom 2 this production drilling the hole 3. The hole is placed in the centre of the 4 bottom 2 this counter generation 1. In the opposite counter-develop 5 to the surface of the rock rock bottom 6 this generation put the palm of the hand. The palm of the hand make not less than three points a, B, C, including in the center of the bottom 6. The impact of vibration on the palm of the hand is compared at points a, B, C. When the mutual arrangement of opposing openings 1, 2 shown in Fig. 2, the greatest vibration is felt by the palm of the hand in the center 7 of the face 6 opposite the oncoming generation 5. At point B, the vibration that is felt by the palm of the hand, less than the point And the center 7 of the face 6 opposite the oncoming generation 5. Others point B, located at equal distances to the center 7 of the bottom 6. In addition, the vibration surface of the array of rock at points B and C, is felt by the palm of the hand, the same. The equality of the distances from point a (center of 7 bottom 6) to points B, C, and equality impact, vibration, feel the way the new hands at these points (B, C) shows that the counter output 1 and opposite counter output 5 is carried out without deviating from the predetermined direction. This is confirmed by the graphical determination of the direction of carrying out counter-workings. To do this, hold the semicircle with center at point A. the radius of the semicircle is equal to the length of the segments a-b (A-B). Through the middle of a semicircle and a dot And hold a straight line. This straight line is the direction of carrying out the oncoming generation 1 when the linkage on the opposite counter output 5. When conducting counter-workings 1, 5 each cycle of penetration is accompanied by the determination of the degree of exposure to the vibration surface of the array of rocks in the center and in other parts of the face on the palm of the hand. If necessary, the direction of the oncoming generation 1 and the opposite oncoming generation 5 is adjusted. In the result set that counter 1 and the opposite counter 5 production conducted without deviating from the given direction and their works will be performed at no additional cost. To conduct counter-workings in their works without deviating from the direction you want the impact of vibration on the palm of the hand in the center of the face opposite the oncoming generation exceeded the impact of vibration on hand at other locations.

Figure 2 on Asano mutual location counter and opposite counter workings under their linkage with the deviation from the target direction by an amount not exceeding half the width of the counter output. In the centre of the 4 bottom 2 counter generation 1 drilling the hole 3. In the face 6 opposite the oncoming generation 5 determines the degree of exposure to the vibration surface of the array of rocks by applying the palm of the hand at points a, B, C, G, located across the width of the bottom output 5. The impact of vibration on the palm of your hands the next. At point B is greater than at points a, B; at point a is greater than at the point, the Greatest degree of vibration is at the point B. In the result set that the face 6 opposite the oncoming generation 5 are offset from the bottom 2 the oncoming generation 1 and generation counter is performed with deviation from a specified direction by a distance equal to A-b Is a semicircle with centre B and radius equal to the distance A-B. Accept that the deviation counter generation 1 from the predetermined direction is A-B. Define a new direction for the conduct of counter-framing 1. Taking into account the deviation of the a-b Share variance A-B plots the deviation, equal parts of the displacement of the bottom 2 the oncoming generation 1 when it is carrying out on a new direction. Number of lots deviation is equal to the number of lots bias. While the total length of the plots of the deviation must be equal to the total lengths of the offset. In the counter expressed the otka 1 published with the linkage in the point a (the center of the counter 7 generation 5) or in a specified direction. With each cycle of counter sinking the generation 1 and the opposite oncoming generation 5 determine the degree of exposure to the vibration surface of the rock massif in the centre and other parts of the face on the palm of the hand. If necessary, the direction of carrying out counter-workings adjusted. Therefore, the linkage of the oncoming generation 1 from the opposite counter output 5 you need to change the direction of their conduct with regard to the deflection at a distance equal to A-B. In the process of breakthrough counter workings 1, 5 decreases a distance equal to a-B (between the center 7 of the face 6 opposite the oncoming generation 5 and point B, which is the greatest impact of vibration on the palm of the hand). This distance when the linkage of the counter workings will be zero.

Figure 3 shows the relative location of the counter, and opposite counter workings under their linkage with the deviation from the target direction by an amount exceeding half the width of the opposing openings. In the centre of the 4 bottom 2 counter generation 1 drilling the hole 3. In the face 6 opposite the oncoming generation 5 determine the degree of exposure to the vibration surface of the array of rocks on the palm of the hand applying the palm of the hand at the points a, B, C, D. the impact of vibration on the palm of your hands the next. At point B is greater than at points a, G, at point a pain the neck, than at point C. the Highest degree of vibration is at the point B. In the result set that the face 6 opposite the oncoming generation 5 are offset from the bottom 2 the oncoming generation 1 and generation counter is performed with deviation from the predetermined direction by an amount exceeding half the width of counter-workings. To determine the direction of the breakthrough counter workings take equal distances a-B and B-G, with an equal degree of influence of vibration on the palm of the hand at points a, , Spend a semicircle with centre B and radius equal to the length of the segments a-B or B-, Through the middle of the semicircle and B hold a straight line, determine the direction of holding the oncoming generation 1. A new direction this generation take into account the deviation of the length of the line segment A-B. When conducting counter generation 1 on the new direction of the bottom 2 slip on the length of the deviation of the line segment A-B. When performing each cycle of counter sinking the generation 1 and the opposite oncoming generation 5 determine the degree of exposure to the vibration surface of the rock massif in the centre and other parts of the face on the palm of the hand. When necessary, conducting counter-workings when the linkage is adjusted.

The proposed method of carrying out counter-workings with their breakthrough aprobado is an in terms of the mine to them. Matrosov, located in the Magadan region. Tested schemes in the mutual arrangement of opposing openings, shown in figures 1, 2, 3, and schemes with a significant deviation from the given direction - more than 3.0 m In all schemes obtained positive results.

As a result of application of the invention reduces the cost of conducting counter-workings with their breakthrough not only in consequence of the reduction of deviations from a given direction, but also the reduction of the time of their sinking. This is confirmed by the reduction of downtime during the breaking of steeply dipping ore zones, due to the increased precision drilling development workings in their works.

The novelty of the claimed invention consists in the absence of such technical solutions to identify areas for counter workings in their works. Inventive step of the claimed invention is that when using known techniques received a new, previously unknown technical result. To well-known techniques include drilling holes and using the palm of the hand to determine the degree of impact of various factors. However, joint use of vibration during the drilling of boreholes and the effect of vibration on the palm of the hand leads to a new technical result consists in measuring the relocation areas for counter workings in their works. Application of the proposed method lies in the positive results in practical terms.

The method of conducting counter-workings with their works, including identification of areas for in-counter workings using an instrumental method, drilling counter excavation, loading and blasting holes, ventilation slaughtering and cleaning the blasted rock mass, characterized in that one of the opposing openings of the hole drilled at the center of the face, and prior to drilling in the opposite counter development is additionally determine the direction of holding the oncoming generation using tactile sensory system by applying the palm of the hand to the surface of the array of rocks in the center and at other points on the bottom for the greatest degree of exposure to the vibration surface of the rock mass on the palm of the hand.



 

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1 ex, 2 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: method for development of sticky oil or bitumen accumulation includes drilling and infrastructure development of at least one pair of horizontal wells for steam gravity drainage with borehole location of the injection well parallel in vertical plane over the producing well borehole, steam injection to the injection well and product recovery from the producing well. Configuration of wells corresponds to the formation shape: ascending at the formation start, horizontal in the central part and descending at the formation end. Ascending and descending angles of the producing well is equal to the formation pitch angle and ascending and descending angles of the injection well is 1-2.2 times more than the formation pitch angle. Minimum distance from perforated holes of the producing well to oil-water contact is taken equal to 2 m, minimum distance between boreholes of the producing and horizontal wells is equal to 3 m, maximum distance between horizontal sections of the boreholes of the producing and injection wells is equal to 10 m. Distribution of shot density and ascending and descending sections shall be determined as per the formula: nx=n0+Lx/A, where nx is a number of perforation holes at ascending and descending sections at distance X from the beginning of the perforated borehole; n0 - minimum shot density at the section with minimum distance between the producing and injection wells in the perforated parts of boreholes; Lx - length of ascending and descending sections of the perforated borehole at distance X from its beginning; A=30-60 m. When drilling and infrastructure development is completed the bottom-hole zone is heated up within 1-6 months by steam injection into producing and injection wells under pressure of 1-2 MPa or by downhole heaters, thereafter injection well is started up with permanent steam intake of 75-95 m3/day while in the producing well recovery is started with bottom-hole pressure of 0.25-0.35 MPa.

EFFECT: increasing oil recovery factor for the productive stratum and reducing water flowing rate of the producing wells at development of sticky oil or bitumen accumulation of massive or structural lithological types.

1 ex, 2 dwg

FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises drilling crossing and communicating vertical and main horizontal wells. Another main horizontal well is connected to vertical well opposite the main horizontal well. Several extra horizontal wells are connected to vertical and main horizontal wells. Then, similar elements are created at the pool. Note here that extra horizontal wells of element are located between extra horizontal wells of adjacent elements. Initially, said elements are operated as injection-extraction wells with injection of working agent, holding and extracting the product prior to draining of hole-bottom zone. Then, adjacent elements are operated in turns as injection and operating ones till pool exhaustion or, without draining adjacent elements are operated as injection and extraction.

EFFECT: higher pool oil recovery and efficiency of operation.

4 cl, 1 ex, 2 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: development method of deposits of high-viscosity oil or bitumens involves drilling of injection and production horizontal wells with location of a working face of an injection well above middle part of horizontal production well, pumping of heat carrier through injection wells, extraction of product through production horizontal wells with monitoring of the product temperature; when allowable temperature is exceeded, a packer is installed and its further transfer in a production well for extraction in a section of horizontal shaft with lower temperature. An injection well is drilled above a production well in its direction. A packer is installed after break of heat carrier from injection well to production well with creation of hydrodynamic communication between those wells for cutout of heat carrier break section. At further break of heat carrier from injection well to production well above the installed packer, it is reinstalled in series above heat carrier break sections.

EFFECT: increasing oil recovery, increasing the coverage range of the formation with an agent acting with simultaneous cost reduction.

1 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: development method of deposits of high-viscosity oil or bitumens involves drilling of injection and production horizontal wells with location of a working face of an injection well above middle part of horizontal production well, pumping of heat carrier through injection wells, extraction of product through production horizontal wells with monitoring of the product temperature; when allowable temperature is exceeded, a packer is installed and its further transfer in a production well for extraction in a section of horizontal shaft with lower temperature. An injection well is drilled above a production well in its direction. Horizontal section of production well is drilled with packing of perforation holes from the head to the working face, and section of injection well is drilled from the working face to the head. A packer is installed after break of heat carrier from injection well to production well with creation of hydrodynamic communication between those wells for cutout of heat carrier break section. At further break of heat carrier from injection well to production well above the installed packer, it is reinstalled in series above heat carrier break sections.

EFFECT: increasing oil recovery of a formation, increasing the coverage range of the formation with an agent influencing due to enlarging the formation warm-up zone.

1 ex, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: draining systems, drilled in horizontal well along bed deposit, connected to system of vertical wells drilled from surface, provide access to broad underground area, while vertical well or wells allow effective removal and/or extraction of water, hydrocarbons and other mineral resources.

EFFECT: higher efficiency and productiveness.

10 cl, 11 dwg

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