Method of open development of mineral deposits

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the mining industry and can be used in open development of mineral deposits. The method comprises opening the deposit and recovery of mineral deposits with ledges with formation of the inclined surfaces of slopes and pit edges, drilling wells, loading of wells with explosives, breaking of the rock mass with blasting of explosives in units, distributed on the pit ledges, loading and transportation of the rock mass to the sites of its storage or further processing. The location sites and size of rock blocks are determined, hovering on the slopes of the ledges. From the earth's surface or upstream sites of ledges the workers and drilling equipment is descended on the lifelines to the upper surface of the hovering rock block. In the hovering rock block the wells are drilled with the distance between the wells not exceeding the maximum distance equal to the twice depth of distribution in the rock mass in the vicinity of the well of area of the rock destruction that occurs when blasting explosives in the well. The wells are drilled parallel to the surface of the slope of the ledge, and the distance between the wells and the surface of the slope of the ledge is taken as equal to the depth of distribution in the rock mass in the vicinity of the well of area of the rock destruction that occurs when blasting explosives in the well.

EFFECT: improving the safety of open mining operations.

2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used in the development of solid mineral deposits in an open way.

There is a method of open pit mining of mineral deposits (Patent RU №2394158, publ. 10.07.2010), including the construction of a deep pit with different angles of slope of the sides in line with declining natural and man-made disturbed rock masses, Stripping and mining of mineral ledges forming inclined steeply inclined and vertical sections of the pit mount them in the deep zones in the finalization of the quarry, drilling, loading wells explosives, blasting rock during blasting explosives blocks, dispersed over ledges quarry, loading and haulage.

There is a method of open pit mining of mineral deposits (Patent RU №2361081, publ. 10.07.2009), adopted as the prototype, including the development and mining of mineral ledges forming inclined surfaces of ledges and slopes of the pit, drilling, loading wells explosives, blasting rock during blasting explosives blocks, dispersed over ledges quarry, loading, Transporter is the W of the rock mass to its storage or further processing.

The disadvantage of this method is the increased risk of mining operations under the rock blocks, hanging on the slopes of the scarp (the pitwall).

The technical result of the claimed method of opencast mining is safer conduct surface mining.

The technical result is achieved in that in the method of open pit mining of mineral deposits, including the development and mining of mineral ledges forming inclined surfaces of ledges and slopes of the pit, drilling, loading wells explosives, blasting rock during blasting explosives blocks, dispersed over ledges quarry, loading and haulage to storage or further processing, determine locations and sizes of the rock blocks, hanging on the slopes of the scarp, with the earth or sites upstream of ledges attached to safety ropes lowered working and drilling equipment to the upper surface of the hanging rock block in hanging rock block drilled wells with the distance between the wells does not exceed a distance equal to twice the depth distribution in the rock mass in acres the surface of the well zone of rock fracture, occurs when blasting in the well of explosives, wells drilled parallel to the surface slope of the ledge, the distance between the wells and the surface slope of the ledge is equal to the depth distribution in the rock mass in the vicinity of the well zone of rock fracture that occurs when blasting in the well of explosives.

The essence of the proposed method open pit mining of mineral deposits is illustrated by the scheme shown in figure 1 and 2.

The diagram in figure 1 illustrates the typical location of the hanging rock block on the slope of the ledge and the orientation of the wells relative to the surface of the slope of the escarpment.

Figure 2 shows the locations of the wells and shows the zone of rock fracture that occurs when blasting in the well of explosives.

Figure 1 is displayed: 1 - well; ABCD - the rock block, hanging on the cliff ledge; EF - surface (Playground upstream scarp or berm); CD upper surface of the hanging rock unit; H - height of the ledge; KADE - surface slope of the ledge; Z is the distance between the wells and the surface slope of the ledge; L is the length of the well.

Figure 2 illustrates: 1 - well; 2 - boundary zone of rock fracture that occurs in the vicinity of the borehole when blasting in the well of explosives; S is the distance between the wells; r - the depth distribution in the rock mass in the vicinity of the well zone of rock fracture, occurs when blasting in the well of explosives.

The emergence of dangerous hangs rock blocks (savica) on the slopes of the scarp associated with various impacts of mining on the breed significantly different strength and deformation characteristics. Such species typically presents mountain ranges of solid mineral deposits.

The cause dangerous hangs is also different tendency of rocks to weathering.

Descent to safety ropes workers and drilling equipment from the surface or sites upstream of ledges EF (figure 1) to the upper surface of the CD hanging rock unit provides safety miners when carrying out drilling and blasting associated with the destruction of hanging rock block. Workers and equipment during all periods of execution of works are above the zone of falling rocks. Before blasting explosives in wells miners and equipment with a safety rope climb outside the scope of the explosion.

When the value of the distance S (figure 2) between the wells does not exceed a distance equal to twice the depth of (2r) distribution in the rock mass in the vicinity of the well zone of rock fracture that occurs when blasting in the well of explosives to ensure aceveda reliable forced the collapse of the rock block, hanging on the cliff ledge.

During drilling parallel to the surface slope of the ledge and the distance between the wells and the surface slope of the ledge is equal to r eliminates the additional (induced) the destruction of the ledge (on the right side of the line AD, 1) drilling and blasting operations, which increases the stability of the rocks composing the ledge to weathering, and hence to the formation of dangerous hangs rock blocks.

Using the proposed method open pit mining of mineral deposits can significantly improve the safety of miners by eliminating the possibility of collapse of the rock blocks, hanging on the slopes of the scarp, in the area of mining operations.

Additional positive effects when using this method associated with increasing the concentration of mining operations in the pit (coal mine) and minimizing the duration of works on the forced collapse hangs on the slopes of the ledges of the rock blocks.

The inventive method is designed for use in ore development and formation of deposits in an open way.

The greatest effect from the use of the proposed method achieved in the development field, represented by rocks and ores significantly different strength and deformation characteristics is the IKI, using drilling and blasting method.

The method of open pit mining of mineral deposits, including the development and mining of mineral ledges forming inclined surfaces of ledges and slopes of the pit, drilling, loading wells explosives, blasting rock during blasting explosives blocks, dispersed over ledges quarry, loading and haulage to its storage or further processing, characterized in that to determine the location and size of rock blocks, hanging on the slopes of the scarp, with the earth or sites upstream of ledges attached to safety ropes lowered working and drilling equipment to the upper surface of the hanging rock block hanging rock block drilled wells with the distance between the wells does not exceed a distance equal to twice the depth distribution in the rock mass in the vicinity of the well zone of rock fracture that occurs when blasting in the well of explosives, wells drilled parallel to the surface slope of the ledge, the distance between the wells and the surface slope of the ledge is equal to the depth distribution in the rock mass in the vicinity of wells in the AOR is s destruction of rocks, occurs when blasting in the well of explosives.



 

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1 tbl

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