Method of preparing rock material for recess using laser exposure and automated system for its implementation

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method is performed using the automated system which comprises a laser device with the possibility of longitudinal displacement and is provided with a damper platform placed on the surface miner frame and pivotally connected to the frame of the laser device. The laser device is placed on the frame guides with the ability to move longitudinally along the guides on the rolling bearings using the drive connected with the automatic control unit, and is made in the form of a cassette with fibre-optic emitters placed along the moving direction of the surface miner.

EFFECT: improved technological efficiency due to forming in the surface layer of the processed areas of zones with overlapping of laser slots, providing high concentration of stresses, alternating loads and deformation during laser processing of significant surface; performance improvement of process of destruction, disintegration and decrease in the volume of fraction requiring additional subsequent crushing due to combining the process of cutting slits and layers-strip cutting of rock materials by surface miners, and providing environmental safety.

2 cl, 5 dwg

 

The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used for the preparation of rocks with medium strength to nonexplosive a loss of strength for the subsequent layer-by-layer band-pass milling and extraction career harvesters.

Known methods of preparing rocks for extraction by pre-detonation of the array, including the way with cyclical-and-continuous testing of rock materials, including drilling on drilling unit vertical or inclined wells, recharge wells and blasting them under the shelter on the preparation unit to rock excavation, the subsequent seizure blasted rock and loading it on the AFC through the mobile crushing unit excavation unit [1, 2].

These methods require significant organizational and preparatory work according to common safety regulations for blasting, not exclude the influence of seismic waves, hitting the pieces of the shattered rock mass elements excavation equipment, vehicles and staff, as well as cause significant harm to the environment.

Known methods of preparation of the array to the notch at the expense of weakening its under the action of surface-active substances (surfactants). Method [3] provides for the loss of strength of a rock mass with the use of surfactant solution, poured into wells formed in a mountain array. Well do different depths and placed in a checkerboard pattern, and the surfactant solution is poured into the volume and concentration according to the given formulas. Method of mining ledges of rocks [4] provides performance grid blastholes with increased distance between them and the cementing of wells. Filling the wells are filled with solutions of surfactants and after curing of the newly topped up with solutions or water. Then produce a blasting explosive charge, excavation and loading and transport.

Methods using surfactants considerable amount of work and environmental pollution.

Known methods using laser energy for drilling in loose rocks or creation of punching holes in the casing, the cement stone and rock [5, 6]. The method of drilling wells using laser energy and device for its implementation [5] includes thermal softening and melting of the rock mass with the subsequent formation and strengthening of the walls of the wells when the axial flow of the drilling Assembly. Thermal softening of the breed and the melting of rock mass in the walls of the borehole is carried out by exposure to high temperature penetrator, warmed by the rays of the laser focus on the inner wall and the end face of the penetrator, to a temperature exceeding the temperature of the tour melting rocks at 200-250°. The device includes a thermal energy source, winch, load-carrying cable, high temperature penetrator, a mold-formulating, the centralizer. As a source of thermal energy used in the laser, which is connected through a current collector, the centralizer and weighting via fiber optic cable to the laser head, is placed in the cavity of the tube. The upper end portion of the body temperature of the penetrator are rigidly connected to the pipe through the mold-shaper with extender wells, freely mounted on the outer surface of the mold-shaper, and the outer surface of the penetrator is formed by rotating a catenary around the vertical axis. Provides simultaneous and high-quality fastening and forming the well walls in loose and slabosvyazannykh rocks [5].

In this invention a laser is used as a source of thermal energy for high-temperature heating of the penetrator, the impact on the rock is mediated. There are losses of energy, reducing the efficiency of thermodynamic effects of laser radiation on the breed.

The closest in technical essence is the laser perforator of the hydraulic slit, designed to create a perforation slits in the casing colon is Oh, cement stone and rock. The perforator includes a laser device with the possibility of longitudinal movement along the column during the implementation of the perforation, with the constant power supply, equipped with a laser Windows in the lower part, on which are located the hydro with the guide centralizers [6]. The invention provides a drilling-sequential execution of the cutting gaps with a laser and hydrodynamic erosion of rocks.

The disadvantage of this device that provides cutting slits, is the impossibility of combining the processes of cutting gaps and immediate destruction of the breed that technologically reduces the productivity of the production process.

The technical result consists in improving manufacturing efficiency by forming in the surface layer of the processed array of zones of overlap of the laser slit, providing a high stress concentration, alternating loads and deformation in the laser processing significant surface; the productivity of the process of destruction, disintegration and reduction of the volume fraction, requiring additional subsequent crushing by combining cutting slits and layer-by-layer band-pass milling rock career combines both the biscuits environmental security.

The technical result is achieved due to the fact that in the method of preparation for rock excavation using laser exposure, including high-temperature thermodynamic slit laser effect on rock, in the surface layer of the processed array are forming the multiple zones of overlap of the laser slit, providing a high stress concentration, alternating loads and deformation in processing the large surface of the array, while the high-temperature thermodynamic slit laser effect on rock combined with layer-by-layer band-pass milling rock career harvester, which is carried out in the area, previously weakened by the high temperature thermodynamic slot laser action.

Automated complex, which includes a laser device with the possibility of longitudinal movement, provided with damping platform, placed on a frame quarry machine and pivotally connected with the frame of the laser device, while the laser is placed on the guides of the frame with the possibility of longitudinal movement along the guides on the bearings of the roller with a drive associated with the automatic control unit, and is designed as a cassette with optical emitters placed VD is l the direction of movement of the career of the harvester, and drives rotation of the frame in a vertical plane and pivoted to two sides of the damping on the platform and connected with the automatic control unit, and the control module and generating process, including the generation and supply of optical laser radiation, a compressor system for supplying compressed air for dust removal from the zone of laser processing, the cooling system and the automatic control unit all systems placed on the damping platform.

The possibility of the formation of the desired sequence of executable actions proposed tools can solve the task, determines the novelty, industrial applicability and inventive step of the development.

Automated system for implementing the method of preparation for rock excavation using laser exposure shown on the drawings.

Figure 1 - General view of the automated complex with career harvester; figure 2 is a view As in figure 1; figure 3 is a cross-section B-B in figure 2; figure 4 - section b-b In figure 2, Fig 5 is a view of G in figure 1.

Automated complex 1 contains a laser device 2 mounted with the possibility of longitudinal movement 3 on the guides 4, 5 of the frame 6 on rolling bearings 7, 8 through the drive 9. The actuator 9 is connected with the automatic control unit 10. Damping platform 1 is placed on the frame 12 career harvester 13. The frame 6 of the laser device 2 hinge 14 is connected with a damping platform 11. Drives rotation 15 of the frame 6 in a vertical plane 16 of the hinge 17 is secured at two sides of the damping on the platform 11 and are connected with the automatic control unit 10. The laser device 2 is made in the form of a cassette 18 with optical emitters 19 placed along the direction 20 career move harvester 13. The control module and generating process 21 includes a system for generation and supply of optical laser radiation 22, a compressor system 23 compressed air for dust removal from the zone of laser processing, the cooling system 24, the automatic control unit 10 all systems and posted on the damping of the platform 11. Fiber optic emitters 19 are directed perpendicular to 25 surface 26 of the processed array and carry out the formation of multilayer zones overlap 27 laser slits 28, providing a high stress concentration, alternating loads and deformation when processing large surface 26 of the array. In the 29 points of intersection of the laser slits 28 there is a high stress concentration. The operation of the laser device 2 through the loop 30 that contains hoses compressed air and coolant, fiber optic and electrical cables. Train 30 is passed through the cable is anal 31 and the string 32, stretched between the arms 33, 34 of the frame 6.

Method of preparation for the rock excavation using laser irradiation is implemented as follows.

Pre laser preparation of the rocks. Automated complex 1 with the laser device 2 mounted with the possibility of longitudinal movement 3 on the guides 4, 5 of the frame 6, a guide to the development process of the array. From the automatic control unit 10 is fed to a hinge 17 is secured at two sides of the damping on the platform 11, is associated with the frame 12, the motor drives rotation 15 of the frame 6. The frame 6 is rotated on the hinge 14 in a vertical plane 16 and is oriented relative to the surface 26 so that the beam of laser radiation was directed perpendicular to 25 surface 26 of the processed array for a more effective impact on the surface. The laser device 2 is located in one of the extreme positions on the guides 4, 5 of the frame 6. From the automatic control unit 10 of the control module and generating process 21 a signal to the actuator 9, the system of generation and supply of optical laser radiation 22, a compressor system 23 compressed air for dust removal from the zone of laser processing and the cooling system 24. The laser device 2, made in the form of cassette 18 with optical emitters 19 posted the Dole direction 20 career move harvester 13, starts with a drive 9 moving on rolling bearings 7, 8 along the guide rails 4, 5 of the frame 6. Oriented perpendicular to 25 surface 26 of the processed fiber array emitters 19 carry out thermodynamic effects on surface 26 with the formation of the slits 28. When carrying out reverse laser device 2 is the formation of multilayer zones overlap 27 laser slits 28. In the 29 points of intersection of the laser slits occurs particularly high stress concentration, alternating loads. In the lower layers of the multiple zones of overlapping slits 27 28 there are numerous deformation. High-temperature thermodynamic slit laser effect on rock combined with layer-by-layer band-pass milling rock quarry machine 13, which is carried out in the area, previously weakened by the high temperature thermodynamic slot laser action. The operation of the laser device 2 through the loop 30 that contains hoses compressed air and coolant, fiber optic and electrical cables. Train 30 is passed through a conduit 31 and the string 32 is tensioned between the arms 33, 34 of the frame 6.

Method of preparation for the rock excavation using laser irradiation through an automated complex is and increases the efficiency of the training of rocks of medium strength to nonexplosive a loss of strength for the subsequent layer-by-layer band-pass milling and extraction career harvesters and ensures environmental safety.

Sources of information

1. RF patent №2362877 from 01.02.2008. How cyclical-and-continuous mining rocks.

2. RF patent №2456538 from 25.02.2011. The way of the explosive loosening rock charges with air cushion.

3. RF patent №2009322 from 15.03.1994. Method of mining ledges of rocks.

4. RF patent №2079657 from 20.05.1997. Method of mining ledges of rocks.

5. RF patent №2449106 from 13.10.2010. The method of drilling wells using laser energy and device for its implementation.

6. RF patent №2422624 from 28.04.2010. The laser perforator of the hydraulic slit.

1. Method of preparation for the rock excavation using laser exposure, including high-temperature thermodynamic slit laser effect on rock, characterized in that the surface layer of the processed array are forming the multiple zones of overlap of the laser slit, providing a high stress concentration, alternating loads and deformation in processing the large surface of the array, while the high-temperature thermodynamic slit laser effect on rock combined with layer-by-layer band-pass milling rock career harvester, which is carried out in the area, previously weakened by the high temperature thermodynamic selev the m laser action.

2. Automated complex, which includes a laser device with a possibility of longitudinal displacement, characterized in that provided with damping platform, placed on a frame quarry machine and pivotally connected with the frame of the laser device, while the laser is placed on the guides of the frame with the possibility of longitudinal movement along the guides on the bearings of the roller with a drive associated with the automatic control unit, and is designed as a cassette with optical emitters placed along the direction of movement of the career of the harvester, and drives rotation of the frame in a vertical plane and pivoted to two sides of the damping on the platform and connected with the automatic control unit, and the control module and generation process, including the generation and supply of optical laser radiation, a compressor system for supplying compressed air for dust removal from the zone of laser processing, the cooling system and the automatic control unit all systems placed on the damping platform.



 

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