Method of land reclamation, disturbed by dredging works
SUBSTANCE: in the river valley the dams of embankment are constructed for creation of fields of filtration and prevention of spreading of sewage water from the reclamated plot. At that the sewage water from the dredging water reservoir with a high content of suspended clay particles is fed through the hoses on the planned surface of the reclamated plot, and the place of pulp supply is periodically changed on the area of the reclamated plot.
EFFECT: return of the clay material in the pore space of coarse-grained sediment dredging that leads to saturation of deposits with fine soil and to improvement of the hydrothermal regime and increase in soil fertility.
The invention relates to methods of land reclamation in the river valleys, broken dredging developments.
In the dredging development in river valleys natural landscape structure is completely deformed and formed a man-made landscape, the main components of which significantly changed (broken) economic activity (ditomasso, water mass)or completely destroyed (soil, vegetation). The main landscape features - phyto - and kislorodopronitsaemaya, as well as erosion and vodookhranno protection such landscaped area not implemented.
Dredge in the development of alluvial deposits disperses clay rocks, leaving coarse-grained and sandy fractions on the ground of dredging works in the dumps. Silt and clay particles from the wastewater form a solid flow and migrate from the landfill works downstream of the river. Formed dredging sediments acquire new properties: they are characterized by low density addition, high porosity and permeability, low content of siltstone-pelitic fractions, especially on the surface of the site works. According to research [Karavaeva TI geological substantiation of alluvial and technogenic deposits for treatment of surface water from suspended solids (n is the sample pool p. Vishera): Dis... kg-M.N. Perm, 2010] in the particle size distribution dredging of sediments dominated by sand, gravel and pebble fraction. The content of fine fractions (<0.05 mm) does not exceed 1.5 to 2.0%. Dredging sediments represent the original substrate for the development of the processes of soil formation, the specificity of which is due to a low content of fine-grained deposits of the carrier elements fertility, high moisture permeability and low water holding capacity due to graduatesthe and savecontent. Listed adverse features constrain the development of biogenic components and inhibit the process of soil formation in General, therefore, the vegetative cover on disturbed areas is recovering very slowly. Physico-chemical properties of dredging sediments differ from natural soil indicators for all monitored parameters: the content and the stock of humus (less than 1 t/ha), elements of fertility, phosphorus, potassium, and pH of the medium [Revision of alluvial diamond deposits of the middle reaches R. B. Calcim existing dredge No. 141: a working draft. Volume 4. Assessment of the impact on the environment / YENI at PSU. Perm, 2004 35 c.]. Such deposits for reclamation of the site require additional measures to improve their physico-chemical characteristics.
ACC is accordance with the basic regulations on land reclamation, the removal, preservation and rational use of topsoil reclamation is performed sequentially in two stages: technical and biological. Technical stage provides land planning and application of topsoil. Biological phase includes a complex of technical and phyto-reclamation activities.
On dredging the polygons major works on mining rehabilitation are Rasulova and gaining the overburden dumps, because they cause the greatest disturbance, especially its height, angles of slope, area, and bulldozer leveling the terrain. Fertile topsoil due to low power (up to 10 cm), a large number of boulder-pebble material in accordance with GOST 17.5.3.06-85 [the nature conservancy. Of the earth. Requirements definition standards removal of topsoil during earthwork: GOST 17.5.3.06-85. Approved and put into effect by the decree of the USSR State Committee for standards dated July 17, 1985, No. 2256.] removed and stored together with others in the overburden, which does not allow to use it in the future when reclaiming.
Remediation activities at sites dredging developments time-consuming and costly in terms of material, since savecontent sediments fur is sirovaniya phase bioremediation impossible. As a rule, after the alignment of the relief transfer of land under natural overgrowing. Practice work proves unsatisfactory results of such remediation. The results of the survey fields in the North of the Perm region five years after remediation and transfer of land under the broadening her condition did not change - vegetation has not recovered [Voronchikhin E.A. Reclamation of disturbed landscapes: theory, technology, and regional aspects: monograph / EA Voronchikhin. Perm, 2010 163 C.].
Similar to the proposed method of reclamation due to the saturation of the clay material of the pore space of the sediment is used for biological reclamation hydroseeding mixtures. On rekultiviruemye plot running water using hydroseal is applied to the working mixture (slurry)containing, in addition to water seeds of perennial grasses, fertilizers, mulch and stabilizing substances. The applied slurry creates the conditions necessary for seed germination, initial growth and development of grasses without applying a layer of organic matter on mineral soil. Method of hydroseeding is widely used when attaching the slopes of roads and Railways (Lobovikov NN. Technology Biol the strategic revegetation in the European North / N. Lobovikov, N.P. " news subscription". Syktyvkar, Syktyvkar state University, 1990, 12 S.).
A prototype of the proposed method is used in practice technical reclamation, where the pre-planned surface is applied a layer of fertile land for the next planting vegetation [Basic provisions on land reclamation, removal, preservation and rational use of the fertile soil layer. Decl. Ministry of Russia and Reskomzema of 22 December 1995 No. 525/67 [Electronic resource]. Electron, Dan. Legal information portal "Garant". URL: http://base.garant.ru/2107557/. Date of access 07.11.2012,].
Fertile or potentially fertile layer may be a natural or specially prepared and brought to the site remediation.
General methods of remediation is to artificially create fertile or potentially fertile layer of earth.
The principal difference is that in the proposed method of reclamation to create a potentially fertile layer used waste dredging production - clay substances in suspension in the wastewater dredging of the reservoir. These substances are not submitted in the river and not become pollutants of the natural environment, and remain mostly on the place of their education - is oligonu dredging works, collateral pore space dredging of sediments and provide a fertile basis for the soil. The difference is the delivery method potentially fertile basis for the plot - is watering filtration fields of waste water from the dredging of the reservoir and sedimentation in the disposition space of the sediments due to clogging.
The main objective of the proposed method of reclamation of disturbed areas is the return of clay material in the pore space of the coarse-grained dredging of sediments, leading to saturation of the sediments fine-grained deposits and to improve water thermal regime and soil fertility.
The problem is solved by the characteristics specified in the claims, such as the method of reclamation of lands disturbed by dredging developments, characterized by the fact that in the valley of constructing floodwalls to create fields of filtration and prevent flow of wastewater from land reclamation, while the waste water from the dredging of the reservoir with a high content of suspended clay particles serves on the hoses at the planned surface reclamation, and the feed slurry periodically change in area recultivating plot.
The above set of essential features allows to obtain the following technical is the result - when filtering water depth array of sediments and the spreading section is clogging the pore space of the clay particles and creates a potentially fertile layer, suitable for natural regeneration of vegetation or for biological reclamation.
The invention is illustrated in the following examples, and layout dredging of the reservoir and recultivating plot on figure 1 and figure 2 profile of the river with rekultiviruemye plot (A-B).
Reclamation are in the vicinity of dredging (technological) of the reservoir 2, do not plan to re-develop. Water with a high content of suspended clay particles (slurry) 7 is fed by the pump 6 to line 5 of the dredging of the reservoir 2 to rekultiviruemye areas 1. Position 8 shows the dam dredging of the reservoir 2. (1) From the riverbed 3 and downstream areas of remediation must be surrounded by dams-shaft 4 by 0.5-1.0 m, which prevent rapid swelling of supplied water and erosion surface erosion. As a result, the infiltration and accumulation of fine-grained deposits in the pore space, which allows you to quickly create a potentially fertile substrate 10 (figure 2). For a more uniform filling of the fine-grained deposits of the pore space in the square recultivating section 1 place of water "In" is changed periodically. P is acesse descending filtration of the pulp to the level of groundwater and filtering in the direction of the river flow groundwater 9 is the deposition of suspended clay substances in the pore space of dredging sediment.
In the valley of the R. B. Calcim in Krasnovishersk district of Perm Krai spent on dredging landfill studies on the deposition of suspended solids from waste (dredging) water during filtration through sand dredging sediments. Dredging deposits are quartz Sands of large and medium size. In the granulometric composition of the sand fraction of 0.05-2.0 mm constitute 90% of the total mass, the content of clay particles is on average about 0.5%. The porosity of the sediments varies from 49 to 59%, the filter coefficients are in the range of 7.5-22,1 m/day. Pressure filtration was carried out with a higher hypsometric marks in the side of the riverbed. The concentration of suspended solids in the wastewater was achieved 1975 mg/DM3. When the pressure gradient 0,040-0,047 and the path length of the filter 26,5-39,6 m (in different parts of the range) concentration of suspended solids in the treated waters was 7-54 mg/DM3. In the pore space of the sand dredging sediments was delayed to 89.9 99.3 percent of suspended solids. From each liter prefiltermessage pulp in the pore space left to 1.9 g of suspended clay particles, enriching dredging deposits of fine-grained deposits - the main carrier of the elements of fertility.
The advantage of the proposed method of reclamation is the possibility of simultaneous mining and the river is tivation works that significantly reduces the time of recovery of disturbed areas. In addition, the filtering and settling of suspended particles in the pore space solves the problem of treatment of a volume of dredging waste water.
The result of the proposed method of reclamation is to enhance macro-grained rock material fine fractions and the creation of favorable conditions (water-heat mode) for natural regeneration of vegetation on dredging the polygons.
The result is a flow of wastewater contaminated with suspended solids of clay fraction from dredging of the reservoir on rekultiviruemye surface (figure 1). This site, located below the working reservoir Draghi, the waste water is pumped through hoses with a large diameter. Land reclamation of previously protected by dams-shaft height of 0.5-1.0 m to prevent flow of wastewater off-site and into the river (figure 2). Freely flowing on the surface of the landfill of waste water hose partially infiltrate in an array of sediments and partly flows down recultivation section of the dam embankment. Gradually the clogging of the pore space suspended solids clay fraction within the sector area. After sedimentation of deposits of clay particles is at a depth of not less than 10 cm, the hose is moved over the surface of the land for irrigation and sedimentation of adjacent sector. Similarly, is the reclamation of the entire area of the polygon works Draghi. In the process of sedimentation of clay particles in the pore space of sediments on the surface of the ground work creates a potentially fertile layer of soil suitable for planting perennial grasses or woody vegetation, as well as for natural regeneration of vegetation at the initial stage of succession.
Practical use of the proposed method of reclamation is possible in any valleys lowland and foothill rivers where sediment composition in sufficient quantities are present clay fraction. In the process of clogging deposits of clay particles and create a potentially fertile layer there is a significant reduction of anthropogenic load on water ecosystems of the territory. Water partially lightened by settling on the fields of filtration and the degree of negative influence of suspended particles on the surface of the water decreases. The use of remediation solutions can significantly reduce the payments of the company for pollution of surface water suspended solids. Capital costs for reclamation of the site are missing. Preparatory work includes preliminary site levelling and create what their dams embankment to limit the spreading of sewage. Operating costs in the development of landfill dredge swing top-down associated with the operation of the pump wastewater from the dredging of the reservoir on rekultiviruemye plot and periodic involvement working to transfer the hose adjacent the irrigation sector. When a failover polygon dredge from the bottom up water from the dredging of the pond is fed by gravity through the hose from the retaining dam dredging of the reservoir, and the pump is not required.
The description and examples are considered to illustrate the invention, the essence of which and the scope of patent claims is defined in the following claims, a set of essential features and their equivalents.
Method of reclamation of lands disturbed by dredging developments, characterized by the fact that in the valley of constructing floodwalls to create fields of filtration and prevent flow of wastewater from land reclamation, while the waste water from the dredging of the reservoir with a high content of suspended clay particles serves on the hoses at the planned surface reclamation, and the feed slurry periodically change in area recultivating plot.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises the steps that follow. Top soil layer is removed to be preserves or to be transferred to territories to be reclaimed, loosening, loading and conveying stripped rock to make the waste dumps, dislodging, loading and coal transfer to storage and reclamation of dumps. Note here that seam weathered coal approaching the day surface is extracted and stored separately. Waste dumps are levelled to apply soil and weathered coal layers thereon. Produced layer is loosened with stripped rock and rolled.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: method includes separate mining, movement and piling of soil layer and stripping rocks into separate belt dumps, mining of a open-pit field, filling of the mined space to the border of the upper level of ground waters with construction wastes. Afterwards they perform design and planning works to construct roads, passages, hydraulic engineering and land reclamation structures. Then they start filling the mined space in two stages. At first they do the primary filling of the mined space of the pit with a mix made of stripping rocks and ground construction debris with fraction size of the latter of not more than 100 mm mixed in equal proportions. Filling is done until complete filling of the mined space of the pit, then along the surface planned by a bulldozer they apply on top a layer of a soil mixture with seeds of perennial herbs of meadow-weed group, and final planning is carried out not sooner than in one year. Then the planned surface is ploughed, with subsequent levelling and filling of the entire surface of the mined space with a layer of sand with thickness of at least 100 mm with subsequent light levelling. Afterwards roads are connected, hydraulic engineering and land reclamation structures are arranged, and the entire surface of the planned surface of the mined space is divided into sections, in each one they perform burials of certain years and for the standard depth of burial.
EFFECT: reduced labour inputs for restoration works, protection of soil against wind and water erosion.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining and may be used for recultivation of anthropogenic structures and strengthening of dust-producing surfaces. The method includes treatment of stored tailings with a binding compound, sowing of perennial herbs and compaction of the surface layer. At the same time previously, for formation of a pedogenic layer, they treat the surface of the tailing dump with a zeolite hydraulic mix at the ratio of zeolite-water equal to 1:2 and perform tillage of the surface layer. And treatment of soil with a binding compound, sowing of perennial herbs and compaction of the surface layer is carried out simultaneously, at the same time binding compounds are water-soluble polymers.
EFFECT: creation of a pedogenic layer due to application of zeolite tuffs onto the surface of the tailing dump, making it possible to exclude application of fertilisers, to strengthen development of herbal root systems, thus to increase efficiency of biological recultivation of a tailing dump.
2 cl, 2 ex, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: sowing of herbs and hard-shrub species is carried out in indents of uneven surface of mine dumps. Simultaneously with that Nitraria sibirika is sown into grooves cut on the tops of process crests of dumps.
EFFECT: reduced time for complete design coverage of anthropogenically damaged lands with plants.
SUBSTANCE: method includes filling of the mined space to the border of the upper level of ground water with construction wastes, arrangement of the drainage layer with construction wastes, formation of a hill in the centre of the pit by dumping of stripping rocks with subsequent terracing of hill slopes and arrangement of places for burial of remains, at the same time underground tomb structures are arranged on terraces, being designed for several graves, besides, each tomb structure is made with hydraulic insulation, drainage system, drainage and ventilation systems, at the same time the ventilation system is additionally equipped with a separate air duct installed with an angle of inclination of not more than 35 degrees and made in the form of a hollow vertical channel filled with stems of cane located in the ground in close proximity from the tomb structure with the possibility to connect each subsequent grace to it in the tomb structure.
EFFECT: reduced labour costs and costs of recovery works, rational usage of land.
SUBSTANCE: method includes filling of a mined-out space of a quarry to the border of the upper level of ground water with construction wastes, arrangement of a drainage layer with construction wastes, formation of a hill in the centre of the mined-out quarry from stripping rocks with terracing of its slopes, installation of a drainage system, retaining walls, and arrangement of places on terraces for burial of remains, at the same time retaining walls for terraces are made of reinforced concrete cylindrical piles by means of their submersion in soil, pile caps are rigidly connected to each other with the help of concrete mortar, and on terraces they arrange underground vault structures with hydraulic insulation, water disposal system, drainage and ventilation systems, at the same time the first burial is made for depth of more than three meters, and the distance from the cover of the last burial to the level of terrace surface ground shall make at least one meter.
EFFECT: rational use of restored land areas.
SUBSTANCE: method includes separate extraction, movement and piling of soil layer and stripping rocks, mining of a quarry field, filling of the mined space of the pit with construction wastes and further compaction. Then terracing is carried out at one of pit slopes with the help of a bulldozer. Places for burial of remains are arranged on terraces. On the other slope of the pit a vertical wall is arranged for burial of urns with ashes of deceased, where horizontal rows of niches are arranged, being made by means of horizontal pushing of pipe sections of rectangular cross section.
EFFECT: reduced labour inputs and cost of recovery works, rational use of land areas.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: separate excavation of soil layer and overburden rocks, their movement and stocking into individual strip dumps is performed; open-pit field development, laying and levelling of overburden rocks and their compaction is performed to form an impervious screen. Then, backfill material is added, which consists of a mixture of overburden rocks and non-organic wastes - dust of electrostatic precipitators from cement production and citrogypsum from production of citric acid in the following ratio (wt %): overburden rocks : dust of electrostatic precipitators from cement production : citrogypsum = 2 : (1 - 1.5): (0.2 - 0.3).
EFFECT: reduction of adverse effect on the environment owing to avoiding open-area storage of wastes, and production of citric acid, and their use as part of backfill material during recultivation of open pits.
1 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: root layer is formed due to removal, loading, transportation and application to the dump surface of overburden rocks from top overburden bench, which consist of fertile soil layer and basement rocks. Then, vegetation cover is formed using the planting material treated with complex biological preparation.
EFFECT: reduction of reclamation periods; increase in durability of cultivated forest and grassy ranges on reclamated lands.
SUBSTANCE: separation of tailings into fractions is performed at tailing drain points on inclined surface, on which system of settling trenches with reinforced-concrete trays laid in them is created. Width of the tray bottom is equal to width of bucket of extraction-loading equipment. Then, mechanical cleaning of settling trenches from conditioning tailings is performed.
EFFECT: reduction of impoverishment of tailings and costs for development of useful components.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises sowing of perennial grasses and embedding of the grown mass into the soil. At that sowing with simultaneous fertiliser application is carried out in every third aisle preserving the growing mass during 3 years. Sowing in neighbouring aisles is carried out respectively on the second and third years. Plowing with embedding of the grown mass in the aisle is carried out on the third year after sowing.
EFFECT: method enables to provide effective protection of soil from erosion by reduction of effluent and reduction of washout.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. The method comprises sowing with minimum tillage. At that the band sowing seeds is carried out in stubble simultaneously with performing for one pass of technological operations of paring and preparing the soil, cutting weeds, harrowing, post-sowing compacting and levelling in extreme weather conditions. For optimisation of the ratio of high-protein crops as part of the grain-haylage the plants are grown at the same sowing rate, but at different stages of development and ratio of species within this rate, namely for the early-maturing grain-haylage, legumes - lupins, sorghum and base silage crops - sunflower or corn, they correspond to ratio of 40:40:20, for middle-maturing grain-haylage - lupine- sorghum-corn, they correspond to the ratio of 60:20:20, and for late-maturing grain-haylage - lupine-sorghum-corn, they correspond to the ratio of 50:40:10.
EFFECT: method enables to increase the yield of drought-resistant high-protein feed.
1 tbl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises preplant tillage, layout and fixing flexible irrigation pipes with droppers built in their cavities, planting of sprouts of vegetable crops, weed suppression, application of herbicides and mineral fertilisers, harvesting and fall plowing. Before processing of the array the base station of the satellite navigation system is permanently mounted at a distance of not more than 50 km from the processed array. The boundaries of processed array are determined using the satellite navigation system. Size of the array is divided into parallel bands with the width of 1.40±0.02 m and their conventional boundaries are determined. At that the alternating bands are annually assigned for intensive use and fallow. On the bands for intensive use two irrigation pipelines are placed at a distance for each of 0.35±0.02 m from the conventional boundaries of the bands. The following year, before processing the array the conventional boundaries of the array and bands are restored using the satellite navigation system; the last year assignment of bands is changed, and the alternation of bands in years is carried out with biennial cycles.
EFFECT: method enables to restore annually the conventional boundaries of the processed array and bands with an error less than 0,02-0,05 m and to obtain the guaranteed annual yield of vegetable crops under drip irrigation.
2 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of mixtures of annual cereal and leguminous crops to be used as green mass. The method is as follows: one uses multicomponent mixtures of peas + oats + barley + wheat, at optimal ratio of feed crops being (10:30:30:30) respectively, or vetch + oats + barley + wheat (10:30:30:30) or peas + oats + barley (20:50:30).
EFFECT: method allows to enhance yielding capacity and the mixtures production quality thus to enhance efficiency of green mass production due to optimisation of mixtures composition and components ratio in them.
2 dwg, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method of growing linen flax comprises the main autumn and spring presowing treatment of soil, seed treatment, planting and treatment of crops. The crops are treated in phase "herringbone" at the plant height of 3-12 cm with the aqueous solution of the biologically active substance "Floravit ®" in an amount of 1·10-4 g/l with a flow rate of working fluid of 200-400 l/ha.
EFFECT: invention enables to improve crop yield of the culture and quality of the obtained flax product.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the field of agriculture. The method comprises pasturing by animals, destroying of not eaten, harmful and poisonous plants, levelling animal excrement, and removal of uneaten residues by harrows and rakes, fertiliser application, as well as creation of tree and shrub shelterbelts. At that on the area intended for hayfields and pastures area after pasturing by animals the fertilisers are initially applied, and then the uneaten plants are destroyed, tilting them and applying herbicide by method of smearing it on their biomass, including stems and lower surface of leaves. Harrowing and treatment the grass with rake is carried out after the start of regrowth of plants eaten by animals. The device comprises a reservoir for the herbicide, as well as a pump for feeding it to the tubular perforated rods with means for application of the herbicide to the plants. The perforated rods are mounted behind each other in parallel with the ability of horizontal and vertical displacement, and the device for application of the herbicide to the plants is made in the form of capillary cloth located between the pressure plates and attached on the perforated parts of the said rods which are connected and framed with the cloth and placed in the tubular casings with longitudinal slots through which the cloth is passed, compressed by the pressure plates fixed on the edges of the slots. And the perforated tubular rods are communicated with each other by the hose, at that the inlet end of the front tubular rod is connected to the pump and the outlet end of the rear rod through the drainage tube with the valve - with a reservoir for the herbicide to form a flow regulated system. Furthermore, the perforated tubular rods and their casings are attached to the frame, mounted on the propellers, with freedom of vertical and horizontal displacement.
EFFECT: inventions enable to simplify the technology of creation of forage land on fallow lands with simultaneous formation of tree-shrub belts.
6 cl, 3 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method comprises creation of deep vertical cavities, which enable to connect thawed zone of soil with the atmosphere during the period of its thawing, soil treatment, sowing Raphanus sativus subsp. acanthiformis. At that the grown harvest of the culture is left in the soil under the snowpack.
EFFECT: method enables to optimise soil conditions for growth and development of crops of agricultural cultures with the biological method of control of soil fertility.
1 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. The method comprises application in autumn of organic and phosphorus-potassium fertilisers, deep autumn ploughing, application of nitrogen fertiliser in spring and carrying out cultivation. In that artichoke is cultivated on the southern lit slope. In autumn organic fertilisers are applied at the rate of 30-60 t/ha, also phosphorus-potassium fertilisers are applied at a dose of P40-90K60-120 on soils with high acidity - lime. After 1-2 days deep autumn ploughing of the site is carried out. In spring to accelerate the melting of snow the darkening agents are thrown on it - ash, phosphorus-potassium fertilisers, peat or loose soil. After snow melting, the nitrogen fertiliser at a dose of rate of application of 60-90 kg/ha are applied, and harrowing soil is carried out twice cross-diagonally to a depth of 5-7 cm with the help of tooth harrows on the hitches. After 2-5 days cultivation is carried out at a depth of 10-15 cm. The presowing treatment of seeding material of early varieties of artichoke of tuber purpose is carried out in advance, the healthy not affected by disease tubers are selected, they are decontaminated against infection in an aqueous solution of potassium permanganate in a concentration of 1:10000, germinated in the nutrient medium of humus half with sawdust or peat. The seed tubers are laid in one layer inside the nutrient substrate placed a layer of 6-10 cm, and kept moistened constantly at 15-20°C for 1-2 weeks until emergence of buds and start of emergence of sprouts, then the temperature is lowered to 8-10°C for formation of 1-2 cm sprouts and roots. The identified diseased tubers are removed, then the germinated tubers with the nutrient medium are transplanted into the soil warmed up to 3-5°C in wells and covered with the opaque film. Small tubers weighing 20-30 g are placed on the scheme 40×40 cm, the middle - weighing 40-60 g - on the scheme 50×50 cm, and the tubers are located in chequered order. Over the tubers location the cross-shaped cuts are made with the size of 5×5 cm.
EFFECT: method enables to simplify weed control in the cultivation of culture and to obtain the early harvest of tubers of artichoke.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises soil treatment, pre-sowing treatment of seeds and sowing in spring. The pre-sowing treatment of seeds is carried out by their moisture, bringing the moisture content of the seeds to 45-50% of their mass. The seeds are kept at a temperature of +5°÷+10°C for 20 days, then the seeds are packed and stored till sowing at a temperature below 0°C, and sowing is carried out at the seeding rate of 100-150 kg/ha. The pre-sowing treatment of seeds is started with selection of germinable seeds.
EFFECT: method enables to provide full use of seed resources due to increasing the yield of spring spiked cereals.
2 cl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of sowing seeds of winter spiked cereals comprises pre-sowing treatment of seeds, for which the viable seeds are selected first. Then the seeds are moisturised, bringing the moisture content of seeds to 45-50% of their weight. Then the seeds are kept at a temperature of +4°…+6°C for 2.5-3 days. Then the seeds are kept at a temperature in the range of -3°…-5°C for 35-50 days, allowing short-term periods to 12 hours of temperature fluctuation in the range of +5° … to -30°C. Then the seeds are kept before sowing at a temperature below 0°C. Sowing is carried out in spring in time of sowing spring spiked cereals on the area of the fields, allotted for the winter and spring spiked cereals with a seeding rate of 100-200 kg/ha.
EFFECT: invention enables to provide the use of full seed resource due to elimination of crop losses from freezing in the field.
FIELD: environment protection.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mechanical removal of excessive contaminants from surface and reducing toxicity of contaminated soil; sowing green manure crops and perennial grasses; preliminarily removing taking soil samples from contaminated surface and separating native contaminant destructors therefrom; after mechanical removal of contaminant from soil surface, providing sequential treatment of plot soil with water-soluble humates and at least double treatment with native contaminant destructors; mellowing soil; applying lime with mineral fertilizers such as saltpeter, double superphosphate and calcium chloride. Green manure crops are sown after application of fertilizers. Method further involves grinding green manure crops, plowing into soil and covering with soil by means of covering roll.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, reliable ecologically clean restoration of soil after contamination thereof.