Method of determining internal quantum efficiency of semiconductor photodiode based on current-voltage characteristics thereof
SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for metrological determination of the internal quantum efficiency of a semiconductor photodiode based on the current-voltage characteristic thereof. The oxide biasing method is the known method of calibrating photodiodes. The efficiency of collecting charges for photocurrent generated in a p+ region needs to be determined in order to describe silicon p+nn+photodiodes. The primary reason for losses in the frontal region is the high rate of electron-hole recombination. This effect is intensified by the presence of positively charged ions which result in a surface electric field. The oxide biasing method is widely used to determine the extent of this effect on the internal quantum efficiency of a diode. The advantage of this method is direct measurement of saturation photocurrent and calculating internal quantum efficiency therefrom. However, this method has a shortcoming which lies in the degradation of the working surface of the semiconductor under the effect of a high negative voltage applied to the surface. The aim of this invention is to provide a method of determining quantum efficiency of a photodiode, which is based on comparing experimentally measured current-voltage characteristics thereof with theoretically calculated characteristics. This aim is achieved by recording to current-voltage characteristics of a photodiode at two different power values of incident laser radiation for which only the ratio is known. Said characteristics are then compared using a developed calculation procedure.
EFFECT: simple calibration procedure while maintaining accuracy characteristics of the photodiode.
The invention relates to techniques for photometry, and is intended for the metrological determination of internal quantum efficiency of the semiconductor photodiode with its volt-ampere characteristics to simplify the calibration procedure while maintaining the accuracy characteristics of the photodiode.
The known method the calibration method of electrical bias on the oxide . To characterize silicon p+nn+photodiodes, it is necessary to solve the problem of determining the efficiency of collecting charges for the photocurrent generated in R+area. Losses in this frontal region occur mainly due to the presence of internal boundaries of the Si-SiO2. The primary reason is the high rate of electron-hole recombination activated surface States, which have energy levels within the forbidden zone. This effect is mainly enhanced by the presence of positively charged ions (Na+), who captured the inner surface during the manufacturing process. These charges induce surface electric field from silicon, which pulls minority carriers (electrons) on the inner surface where they recombine.
To determine the impact of this effect on the internal quantum efficiency of the diode is widely used is a method of electrical bias on the oxide. A drop of electrolyte (water, glycerol and impurities or ethylene glycol) is applied to the surface of the diode, and with it creates a negative bias voltage relative to the back contact. Thus, a negative charge accumulates on the outer surface of the layer of oxide, which counteracts the effect of the embedded charges. The resulting increase in the photocurrent shows saturation with increasing electrical bias on the oxide. The ratio of the photocurrent without offset to the current saturation is a measure of the loss due to recombination on the inner surface of the boundary of Si-SiO2. Assuming that the saturation level corresponds to negligible losses, this relation can be used to determine the internal quantum efficiency of the diode. This calibration procedure with great success was used in a number of radiometric certifications .
The advantage of this method is a direct measurement of the photocurrent saturation and calculating it internal quantum efficiency.
The disadvantage of this method is degradation of the working surface of the semiconductor under high negative voltage is applied to the surface. Thus, the results of measurements of the photocurrent and the subsequent calculations of the quantum efficiency become dependent on the period of the operation of the semiconductor.
The known method of calibration is the determination of internal quantum efficiency of the photodiode by means of its volt-ampere characteristics , which is the closest to the described method. In the basis of the method developed by the same authors, as described, laid down the same principle, but with a few additional parameters, and the measured characteristics, which are important components when determining the internal quantum efficiency. These include unknown: ohmic contact resistance in a semiconductor and the rate of recombination of carriers at the rear of the photodiode and measuring the characteristic concentration and depth of the doping profile near the front wall. They were identified during the acquisition and processing of experimental data.
The disadvantage of this method  is the presence of numerous solutions on the output, which does not allow to achieve the unambiguous determination of the quantum efficiency for real photodiode. One-dimensional model (1D PC) is not an ideal way describes the real experimental volt-ampere characteristics. Deviations of theoretical characteristics from "experimental" are already of the order of percent, which requires a separate study of the proposed method of determining the internal quantum efficiency and, in particular, it is acrostich characteristics.
The aim of the invention is independent of other known methods, the method of determining the quantum efficiency of the photodiode based on the comparison of experimentally measured current-voltage characteristics with theoretically calculated dependencies.
This objective is achieved in that at 2 different facilities of the incident laser radiation, for which we only know their attitude, take two volt-ampere characteristics of the photodiode. The third current-voltage characteristic is removed in the absence of exposure to laser radiation. Then select the settings for the virtual photodiode, taking into account the measured geometric characteristics and concentration of the alloying elements of the real photodiode, so that its volt-ampere characteristics (model) coincided with the pilot; however, the quantum efficiency of a real photodiode is equal to the quantum efficiency of the virtual photodiode with an accuracy not worse than 0.1%.
In the calculation procedure is compared by the least squares method experimental volt-ampere characteristics of the fitting curves, calculated using PC1D  with the unknown parameters. The parameters corresponding to the closest theoretical curves are solutions of the problem.
In the patent: "Measurement f current-voltage characteristic curves of solar cells and solar modules", patent number 7309850 use the PC ID of the various options which are available to a wide range of users. The choice of the current-voltage dependency as a source of information about the physical characteristics of the photodiode due primarily to the possibility of very accurate measurements of electrical quantities and wide accessibility of the method.
PC 1D uses the equations of drift and diffusion, which describe the generation, recombination and carrier transport inside the flat solar cell or photodiode. All required payments, including quantum efficiency, can be produced with the help of this program by setting a few parameters of the photodiode. However, the manufacturers of these photodiodes are necessary for calculations of the parameters are not reported, and their measurement is a very time consuming task that requires special measuring equipment. Therefore, the required unknown parameters were determined in the result of solving the problem.
For optically thick R+nn+photodiode such the unknown parameters are: bulk density doping is n, the concentration of dopant on the front surface is N, characterized by depth and surface diffusion of an impurity - L, the rate of surface recombination of carriers - S and the power absorbed laser flow - q. The value of atomoxet together with the value of current saturation Las respective current-voltage characteristics allow to calculate the internal quantum efficiency of the photodiode.
For practical application of the proposed method should be used in the current-voltage characteristics measured experimentally. However, these characteristics contain a random error, which can significantly affect the accuracy of determining the internal quantum efficiency of the photodiode. To understand the effect of these errors was carried out numerical simulation of a real experiment. The numerical model of the experiment is obtained on the basis of its electrical circuits.
To simulate the measurements of the experimental current-voltage characteristics of the first discrete points in
Here σvthe amplitude of the measurement voltage; ξi-i is the standard normally distributed random variable ξ. Then the program PC1D again calculated the ideal current-voltage characteristics of
where σJthe amplitude of the error of measurement of the residual current,
This feature can lead to a large error in the determination of internal quantum efficiency of the photodiode, as the volt-ampere characteristic with the highest derivative contains the maximum amount of information about the internal structure of the photodiode.
In order to achieve uniformity errors along the experimental curves, it is necessary to vary the number of measurements in different points of the volt-ampere characteristics. Respectively, is selected such exponential function, which allows you to make the distribution of measurement errors is uniform along the current-voltage characteristics.
The process of measuring the current-voltage characteristics using exponential averaging allows to obtain relatively uniform noise measurements the experimental curves. When the x processing proposed method of error in determining the power absorbed by the photodiode radiation q significantly reduced. Moreover, when the characteristic scale of the doping profile L0>0.055 μm obtaining satisfactory results for the error to determine the value of q is only possible when using exponential averaging.
The problem was solved using a special algorithm, which represents a modified method Levenberg for solving systems of equations by minimizing a functional of the nonlinear least-squares. Used the local search algorithm based on the modified method Levenberg allows to obtain a satisfactory accuracy for a very reasonable time that allows you to calculate statistical characteristics of the desired q.
The results of this research showed that with the increase of the characteristic scale L0increase of both systematic and random errors in the determination of q values. When L0=0.2 µm they already are 0.02% and 0.06%, respectively. The figures give an idea about the restrictions on the use of the proposed method of determining the value of q on experimental volt-ampere characteristics of the photodiode for large values of L0.
The magnitude of the absorbed laser radiation q together with the value of the saturation current Justhe corresponding current-voltage characteristics the specifications specifications allow to calculate the internal quantum efficiency of the photodiode γ
where e is the electron charge, C is the speed of light in vacuum, h is Planck's constant, D is the active area of the photodiode, λ is the wavelength of the laser radiation.
Thus, the described method allows to calculate the internal quantum efficiency of a semiconductor photodiode through the use of the comparison by the method of least squares "experimental" current-voltage characteristics calculated for the fixed parameters of the photodiode using PClD, with fitting curves are also calculated using the program PClD 5 the unknown parameters.
The method will be widely used in laser radiometry to measure the output of laser radiation with semiconductor photodiodes in a wide dynamic and spectral ranges, up to levels of photon counting.
1. .F.Zalewski and J.Geist. Silicon photodiode absolute spectral response self - calibration.//Appl. Opt, 1980, V. 19, Pp.1214-1216.
2. Kovalev A.A., Lieberman A.A., Mikryukov A.C., moskaluk S.A. Determination of internal kV is Neveu efficiency of the photodiode by means of its volt-ampere characteristics, "Measuring technique №2", 2011, pp.33-36.
3. Clugston, D.A. and Basore, P.A., "PCID Version 5: 32-bit Solar Cell Simulation on Personal Computers," proc. 6th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf., Anaheim, With A (IEEE, New York, 1997), p.207.
The method of determining the quantum efficiency of the photodiode, characterized in that
my volt-ampere characteristics of a real photodiode in the absence of exposure to laser radiation;
my volt-ampere characteristics of a real photodiode at two different power levels of laser radiation with a known relationship between them;
- select the settings for the virtual photodiode, taking into account the measured geometric characteristics and concentration of the alloying elements of the real photodiode, so that its volt-ampere characteristics (model) coincide with experimental;
while the quantum efficiency of a real photodiode is equal to the quantum efficiency of the virtual photodiode with an accuracy not worse than 0.1%.
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to optoelectronic devices. The semiconductor photoelectric generator has a transparent protective coating on a working surface on which radiation is incident and photoconverter sections optically connected by a transparent sealant with the protective coating. The photoconverter sections are inclined towards the working surface at an angle φ=5-50°. Flat mirror reflectors are mounted between the photoconverter sections with an angle of inclination towards the working surface of the generator of ψ=5-50°. The mirror reflectors and the photoconverter sections are in form of a periodic saw-tooth corner structure. The photoconverter sections have a double-sided working surface and the mirror reflectors have a double-sided reflecting surface.
EFFECT: high illumination and electric power per unit surface area of the photoconverters.
6 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: hybrid photosensitive circuit includes a diamond matrix photodetector, indium columns and a silicon multiplexer with sensitive sites arranged thereon in a staggered manner in form of a rectangular matrix and the number of which is equal to the number of indium columns. The matrix photodetector includes a diamond plate and an upper flat electrode lying thereon, as well as lower electrodes of sensitive elements of the matrix photodetector, the number of which is equal to the number of indium columns lying under the diamond plate. On the lower side of the diamond plate there are boron-doped sites arranged in a staggered manner; upper contact surfaces of odd or even lower electrodes are galvanically connected to the lower surface of the diamond plate, and the upper contact surfaces of the odd or even lower electrodes are galvanically connected the boron-doped sites. Lower contact surfaces of lower electrodes are galvanically connected through indium columns to sensitive elements of the silicon multiplexer.
EFFECT: expanding the detected radiation range 75-fold owing to simultaneous recording of the image in the ultraviolet and infrared spectrum.
SUBSTANCE: method for analogue-to-digital conversion of optical radiation involves converting the radiation into photocurrent; integrating the photocurrent over the exposure time into an electric charge which changes the initial charge input before exposure; converting the resultant charge into signal voltage; comparing the signal voltage with a reference voltage and switching the comparator as the comparison result; generating binary signals, modulated on the time of switching relative the initial time; generating digital codes based thereon; storing the digital codes and successively sending said codes to outputs, wherein the initial charge is input into the switched conductivity diode by applying a voltage corresponding to the initial charge in the forward direction at the rate of change which causes injection of minority carriers, which does not exceed the level of triggering the switching diode into the conducting state, and the reference voltage applied is the corresponding sampling voltage at a variation rate sufficiently high to cause injection of minority carriers, needed for triggering thereof upon reaching voltage corresponding to the resultant charge, with given accuracy. The device which realises this method has one or more photosensitive cells connected to address and signal lines, each cell having series-connected photodetector, initial charge input circuit, charge converter for converting the charge generated by the photodetector signal, in addition to the initial charge, into output voltage of the photodetector, a comparator which converts the difference between the output voltage of the photodetector and a reference voltage into a digital cell signal, a circuit for reading the digital cell signal through address and signal lines, a circuit for generating cell signal codes, random access memory for storing digital codes, a circuit for reading cell signal digital codes on one or more outputs of the photodetector. In a cell, the photodetector, the initial charge input circuit, the charge converter and comparator are in form of a tunnel switching electrode in a MIS (metal, insulator, semiconductor) structure, one of the leads of which is connected to the address line and the other to the signal line.
EFFECT: high spatial resolution with high equivalent quantum efficiency.
9 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: light-emitting module has a semiconductor light-emitting device and a thermal switch which is designed to protect the light-emitting device from overheating. At high temperature the junction of the device may reach a critical level causing catastrophic breakdown of the device. According to the invention, the thermal switch is designed to shunt the semiconductor light-emitting device. This is especially advantageous since the thermal protection offered by the switch correlates directly to the temperature of the device in operating conditions.
EFFECT: light-emitting module provides thermal protection which is controlled and adapted to junction temperature of the semiconductor light-emitting device.
8 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of measuring parameters of infrared matrix photodetectors operating in accumulation mode. The method of measuring quantum efficiency and dark current of photosensitive cells of matrix infrared photodetectors involves installing placing a photodetector at a given distance from the radiating surface of an extended black body, setting a first given radiant temperature of the black body and recording the value of signals of all photosensitive cells at zero accumulation time and a given accumulation time. A second radiant temperature of the black body is then set, said second radiant temperature being different from the first by a given value δT, and values of signals of all photosensitive cells are recorded at given accumulation time; values of quantum efficiency and dark currents of photosensitive cells are automatically calculated based on three measured arrays of signals.
EFFECT: enabling automation of the method of measuring quantum efficiency and dark current of a photodetector, enabling reduction of the time for measuring quantum efficiency and dark current of a photodetector, and enabling increase in reliability of measuring quantum efficiency and dark current of a photodetector.
2 cl, 3 tbl
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: two parallel closed circuits of power supply systems of a load and Sun tracking drives are connected together. A system of power supply to an autonomous load comprises a closed circuit from the following serially connected components: a solar photoelectric plant (1), a charge-discharge controller (2), a block of accumulator batteries (3), an inverter (4), a block for collection and processing of data (5), a power load (6). A system of power supply to Sun tracking drives represents a closed circuit from the following components connected in series: a solar photoelectric plant (1), a charge-discharge controller (7), a block of accumulator batteries (8), a block of control of a power supply system for engines (9), blocks of power supply and control of motor drives (10) and (11), motors tracking the Sun position in azimuthal and zenithal planes (12) and (13).
EFFECT: higher efficiency of an autonomous system of power supply based on a solar photoelectric plant.
4 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: solar photo energy apparatus has rectangular concentrator photoelectric modules (1) mounted on a system (2) for directing concentrator photoelectric modules (1) towards the sun. The system (2) for directing concentrator photoelectric modules (1) towards the sun is a horizontal arm (4) with parallel rotating cantilevers (5) directed in the South-North direction, which is mounted on two supports (6) and is rotated by a first electric drive (7) mounted on one of the supports (6). The parallel concentrator photoelectric modules (1) are mounted at a distance H from each other to cantilever (5) ends which are distal with respect to the horizontal arm (4). Proximal cantilever (5) ends are synchronously rotated by a second electric drive (9) mounted on a horizontal arm (2). Distance H between cantilevers (5) is selected depending on the width M of the concentrator photoelectric module (1) and the geographic latitude φ of the place the photo energy apparatus us used.
EFFECT: invention enables to reduce sensitivity to wind loads, while simplifying the design.
2 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: solar concentrator photoelectric apparatus has concentrator photoelectric modules (2) mounted on a mechanical system, azimuthal and zenithal drives located in an electromechanical box and a system for alignment of the concentrator photoelectric modules (2) towards the sun with a solar sensor. The mechanical system is formed by a base frame (3) and at least two suspended frames (4). The base frame (3) is adapted to turn about the vertical axis on a base ring (1) through wheels (5). Two wheels (5) are provided with sections of a roller chain which are engaged with toothed gears mounted on faces of two horizontal oppositely rotating output shafts (8) of the bevel gear speed reducer of the azimuthal electric drive mounted on the base frame (3). Each suspended frame (4) with concentrator photoelectric modules (2) is mounted to a horizontal pipe which is adapted to rotate on supports mounted to the base frame (3) and is pivotally connected by levers and bars to neighbouring suspended frames (4). One of the suspended frames (4) is provided with two vertical circular sectors separated on sides, circular surfaces of said sectors being attached to sections of the roller chain which are engaged with the toothed gears mounted on the horizontal shaft of the reducer of the zenithal electric drive mounted on the base frame (3). The distance L between the horizontal pipes of neighbouring suspended frames (4) satisfies a certain relationship.
EFFECT: high unit power of the photoelectric apparatus while keeping a sufficiently simple design.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: system of concentrator photovoltatic plants comprises Sun-tracking concentrator photovoltaic plants arranged in the form of a rectangular lattice with a distance Xns between neighbouring concentrator photovoltaic plants in direction from the north to the south and the distance Xwe between neighbouring concentrator photovoltaic plants in direction from the west to the east, at the same time distances Xns and Xwe satisfy the following ratios simultaneously: Xns ≥ (a2 +b2)1/2, m; Xns ≥ 0.0105 · φ + 1.42, m; Xwe = B · Slp / Xns, m; where a - length of a light-perceiving surface of a concentrator photovoltaic plant, m; b - width of a light-perceiving surface of a concentrator photovoltaic plant, m; φ - geographic latitude of the place, °; B=0.0026·φ2-0.0584·φ+4.047 - non-dimensional coefficient for detection of the earth area required for placement of 1 m2 of the light-perceiving surface of the concentrator photovoltaic plant; Sne - area of the light-perceiving surface of the concentrator photovoltaic plant, m2; and the earth area Sse for placement of the system of concentrator photovoltaic plants meets the following ratio: Sse=N·B·Slp, m2; where: N - number of concentrator photovoltaic plants, pcs.
EFFECT: system makes it possible to provide for maximum efficiency of conversion of arriving radiation into power with permissible losses of energy as a result of shading, and minimum area of earth surface required for placement of a system of concentrator photoelectric plants.
6 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: photoelectric structure for measuring quantum output of internal photoelectric effect has a working surface on which radiation is incident, a semiconductor base region with one type of conductivity, metal contacts, barriers which separate charge carriers and regions with type of conductivity which is opposite to that of the base, lying in part on the working surface on which radiation is incident; there are metal contacts on said regions and barriers; barriers and said regions with contacts have shape of a comb consisting of strips of equal width and equidistant from each other; and the structure is characterised by a theoretical calculation model. A method of making the photoelectric structure for measuring quantum output of internal photoelectric effect is also disclosed.
EFFECT: simple measurement process, high accuracy and reliability of measurements, wider spectral range and broader functional significance.
18 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: electronic engineering; semiconductor lasers for data recording, reading, and processing.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method designed to generate coherent electromagnetic radiation and width of its spectral line for mentioned lasers includes introduction of metal or superconductor nanoparticles in its system of hyperfine semiconductor layers and excitation of electrical dipole vibrations using electrons of mentioned nanoparticles.
EFFECT: greatly reduced dimensions of lasers.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: computer vision engineering; photodetectors, thermal imagers, infrared radiometers, and various sensors of computerized control devices.
SUBSTANCE: novelty in proposed device is that resistive photosensors are made of heteroepitaxial layers of different forbidden gap. Circuit set up of compensating charge capacitor connected to its potential recovery switch is connected to each integrating capacitor and through series-connected compensation addressing switch and feedback switch, to circuit transferring charge portion from charge compensating capacitor to integrating capacitor. Connected to each amplifier integrating capacitor is comparator whose output is connected to gate electrode of feedback switch and to complementing input of counter-register each of whose bits is connected to array of memory locations controlled by circuit affording exchange of addresses between counters and memory, data write and read buses of data on their transfer from counter to memory and vice versa. Memory locations are connected to counter-register bits. Device has memory readout addressing circuit and multiplexed readout buses for transferring digital data to digital outputs.
EFFECT: enhanced sensitivity and dynamic range.
17 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed invention is concerned with devices and apparatuses incorporating functional components forming planar set wherein functional components are addressing through first electrode grid with flat strip electrodes contacting one end of functional components and through second electrode grid they are contacting similar electrodes positioned perpendicular to electrodes of first electrode grid and brought in contact with opposite end of functional component. In this way, so-called matrix-addressed device is formed. Proposed optoelectronic device has functional medium in the form of active material possessing optoelectronic properties and inserted in the form of solid layer between first and second electrode grids EG1 and EG2, each incorporating parallel strip electrodes 1 and 2. Electrodes 2 of second electrode grid EG2 are positioned at certain angle to electrodes 1 of first electrode grid EG1; functional components 5 are formed in three-dimensional areas of active material 3 corresponding to relative superposition of electrodes 1 of first electrode grid EG1 and electrodes 2 of second electrode grid EG2 contacting active material 3 to organize set of matrix-addressed functional components. These functional components correspond to optically active pixels 5 of display or pixels 5 of photodetector. Electrodes 1 and 2 are disposed in each of electrode grids EG1 and EG2 in the form of dense parallel configuration and are insulated from each other by means of thin film 6 whose thickness amounts only to a fraction of electrode width. As a result, either display characterized in high surface brightness and high resolving power or photodetector of high-sensitivity and high-resolving power can be produced.
EFFECT: enhanced volumetric efficiency of pixels in active material amounting to that close to unity and, hence, enhanced resolving power.
9 cl, 11 dwg
SUBSTANCE: said utility invention relates to thermal photoreceivers for the detection of monochromatic radiation in the far infrared (IR) range and determining the angle of arrival of that radiation. The development may be used in spectrometric and astronomical instruments, special purpose equipment, and communication equipment. The metallic bolometer contains a non-transparent metallic film on an optical heat-insulating substrate placed in a vacuum container with a transparent window. A dielectric layer of a certain thickness is applied on the film surface. The film surface facing the window has a corrugated section illuminated with the radiation being detected; the section length is equal to the propagation length of the surface electromagnetic wave excited in the film. The corrugation period is calculated using a certain formula.
EFFECT: invention provides increase of device selectivity and increase of long-wavelength limit of operating range.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to optoelectronics and interferometry and intended for measurement of spatial distribution of light intensity in interference field formed by counter luminous fluxes. Quadrature photo-receiving device contains photodetector including four interferentially sensitive photoelectric element, two of which are reference ones. Difference of optical distances from the first photoelectric element to the plane that is perpendicular to measured luminous flux and that limits optically distant surface of photodetector for the first photoelectric element and from i-photoelectric element to this plane is calculated from the proposed formula, signals from odd photoelectric elements of photodetector being supplied to appropriate inlets of the first differential amplifier, and signals from even photoelectric elements of photodetector to appropriate inlets of the second differential amplifier.
EFFECT: increase in ratio signal/noise of quadrature photodetector, reduction of interference caused by permanent component of luminous flux (rather than by interferential component), reduction of interference caused by interferential component of luminous flux on lengths of waves that are different from length of registered radiation wave.
FIELD: electrical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to remote transfer and conversion of super-high-frequency energy into DC electrical power. The proposed method consists in fitting an aluminium foil enclosure on over the entire surface of the vehicle airframe skin. The super-high-frequency converter is made in a material representing a mix of two chemical solid-state components with grain size not over 30 to 50 microns, taken in equal proportion but different atomic numbers, and forming, when combined, a dipole solid-state matrix. Note that the said bi-component mix is applied uniformly onto the said skin enclosure, the like poles of the dipole matrix being combined and connected to appropriate terminals of the vehicle flight control components.
EFFECT: higher efficiency power supply.
FIELD: electrical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to remote transfer and conversion of super-high-frequency energy into DC electrical power. The device incorporates an aluminium foil enclosure on over the entire surface of the vehicle airframe dielectric skin. The super-high-frequency converter is made in a material representing a mix of two chemical solid-state components with grain size not over 30 to 50 microns, taken in equal proportion but different atomic numbers, and forming, when combined, a dipole solid-state matrix. Note that the said bi-component mix is applied uniformly onto the said skin enclosure, the like poles of the dipole matrix being combined and connected to appropriate terminals of the vehicle flight control components.
EFFECT: higher efficiency power supply.
FIELD: physics, semiconductors.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of semiconductor equipment and electronics. Method for measurement of photoferromagnetic effect in magnetic semiconductors consists in measurement of electromotive force that occurs in the secondary winding of transformer, which is wound on adjacent section of core from magnetic semiconductor in the form of doubled ring. The primary winding of transformer represents two coils wound on nonadjacent sides of doubled ring symmetrically relative to plane of symmetry that separates core in two rings. As a result of unbalance, in sinusoidal signals of magnetic flows directed and same in value that penetrate the secondary winding that are serially and antiphase-connected to outlet of generator, due to illumination of strictly half of core on one side from mentioned plane of symmetry, in this winding electromotive force occurs that is proportional to variation of magnetic permeability under light effect.
EFFECT: provision of possibility to perform measurements of photoferromagnetic effect amplitude in more sensitive scales of metering instruments.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to energy converters of electromagnetic waves and can be used to obtain electrical energy. Converter of electromagnetic emissions contains N>1, where N - is an integer, regions with similar conductivity and one region with opposite conductivity with the formation of N of separate p-n junctions. The first electrode fits closely to each of the N regions with similar conductivity, and the second electrode - to the specified region with opposite conductivity. Converter according to the invention is capable to convert not only the usual frequency bands of electromagnetic waves (optical range), but also the wider operational frequencies bands of electromagnetic waves with operational provisions of the converter any time of the day. Converter on the invention is also characterised by high power and efficiency with simultaneous guarantee of high accuracy and stability of the output characteristic, capable of working even in conditions of significant temperature falls.
EFFECT: obtaining a converter with high power and efficiency with simultaneous guarantee of high accuracy and stability of the output characteristic, capable of working even in conditions of significant temperature falls.
17 cl, 21 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: receiver generates the electric signal proportional to energy of an electromagnetic wave, and is intended for registration of electromagnetic emission, and also can be used for electric power generation. The receiver consists of a working environment with free charged particles and where the standing electromagnetic wave actuates, and also the electrodes located definitely in the working environment or on its surface. Such construction of the receiver allows to reduce noise and to eliminate restrictions on length of a wave of registered emanation, to expand a high bound of a temperature range of operation, and also to expand an arsenal of the means intended for registration of electromagnetic emission.
EFFECT: possibility to reduce noise and to eliminate restrictions on length of a wave of registered emission, to expand high bound of a temperature range of operation, and also to expand an arsenal of the means intended for registration of electromagnetic emission.