Experimental determination of plastic strain parameters at machining of metals
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: coordinate marks are applied on specimen surface by pressing the tool there against, tool hardness exceeding that of the part material. Said tool represents an etching with sharp protruding elements shaped to tetrahedral pyramid that make a preset system of coordinate (reference) points. The latter are the points of intersection of analysed specimen with faces on indenter. Produced recesses are filled with non-solidifying luminescent dye not losing its properties at plastic strain. Now, said specimen is subjected to machining. Then, parameters of grating changed pattern are measured to calculate the plastic strain parameters.
EFFECT: higher pattern quality and accuracy of metal plastic strain parameter measurement.
The technical field
The invention relates to mechanical engineering and can be used to study the strain state of the processed material in the zone of plastic deformation during mechanical processing using a separating grid.
The level of technology
Known methods study strain state of a material with a separating grids, which allow to obtain the most complete information about the deformation process (Goldschmidt MG Strain and tension when cutting metals. - Tomsk: STT, 2001, - 180 C.). At the first stage of the sample of the material made the cut, then on the polished surface of the sample is applied with a certain step dividing the net. Then the prepared sample is subjected to energy impact pressure treatment or by cutting and measure geometrical parameters of the modified figure grid, which determine the parameters of plastic deformation of the sample. The net cause scratching and indentation in the surface of the conical indenter. The drawback of such methods is insufficient (poor) accuracy determination parameters of the strain state of the sample at large plastic strains, especially at high degrees of plastic deformation, such as cutting with before aeternum plastic deformation (SPD), etc.
The closest technical solution is a method of experimental determination of parameters of plastic deformation during the cutting of metals with the use of the method of obtaining the coordinate grid, including the application of the system of coordinate labels on the sample surface by pressing to the surface of the tool, the hardness of which is greater than the hardness of the sample material, as tool use metal plates with sharp protruding elements having the form of four-sided pyramids that make up a given system of coordinate points (Patent RF №2466813, IPC B21D 22/02, G01N 1/28 publ. 27.05.2011 year). The main disadvantage of this method is that enough reliable results define the parameters of plastic deformation are achieved with relatively small degrees of plastic deformation, when distinguishable coordinate (reference) mark grid, i.e. the boundaries of the recesses, after the process of plastic deformation. With increasing plastic deformation border labels, their location is increasingly uncertain due to deformation of the material (the formation of texture) on the surface of the sample, in which the deepening of the applied grid become almost indistinguishable, merging with the texture pattern. In this case, udaetsya quality clear picture of the field of deformation and, consequently, the ability to hold on to her exact measurements.
Disclosure of inventions
The objective of the invention is to improve the quality of the picture field deformation and increase the accuracy of measurement of parameters of plastic deformation of the sample material at the expense of a more precise definition of the labels of the grid.
The problem is solved due to the fact that in the method of experimental determination of parameters of plastic deformation in the machining of metals, including the application of the coordinate system (reference) marks on the sample surface by the clamping device to the surface of the tool, the hardness that exceeds the hardness of the material of the workpiece as the tool is used clichés with sharp protruding elements having the form of four-sided pyramids that make up a given coordinate system (reference) points formed deepening of fill returned device with a fluorescent dye that retains its properties during plastic deformation, and then mechanically treated sample, and then measure the parameters of the modified figure grid on which compute the parameters of plastic deformation.
List of figures
Figure 1 shows a micrograph of a deformed state of a rectangular dividing grid in the roots chip (increase K) when p is the timeframe steel SS (cutting with TTD).
Figure 2 shows a micrograph of a deformed state of a rectangular dividing grid in the roots chip (h) when cutting steel HT (cutting).
Figure 3 shows a micrograph of a deformed state of a rectangular dividing grid in the roots chip (h) when cutting steel HT (cutting with TTD).
The implementation of the invention
The implementation of the invention is carried out in several stages:
1. Thin sections of the samples of the investigated materials with a thickness of 3 mm.
2. Layout by way of scratching coordinate dividing grid on the polished surface of the samples, the grid spacing of 0.05 mm
3. The center punching holes in the corners of the grid cells using an indenter of microhardness tester PMT-3, the side of the square deepening of about 12 microns and education thus coordinate system (reference) points, which are points of intersection of the plane of the sample faces of the indenter.
4. Filling the recesses with a fluorescent dye FLC-01 by brush application and removing excess paint flexible spatula directly before the examination, not allowing the paint to dry (drying process about 2 hours).
5. The process of mechanical processing, in particular cutting. When cutting with TTD in the area before cutter set rolling deforming roller. The elements of the regime re the project, the material and geometrical parameters of cutting tools are selected in accordance with applicable standards.
6. Getting a picture of the modified grid using tool to instantly fix the cutting process (device instant stop), or by using high-speed microphoto and micrometeorite (using a microscope).
7. Measurement of geometric elements of the modified figure grid and determine based on this calculation, the parameters of plastic deformation of the material under investigation. Changing the position coordinate (reference) points plotted grid (for reference points take the point of intersection of the plane of the sample faces of the indenter) when deformation allows geometric ratios of the distances between them to determine the value of the relative shift of ε in the zone of chip formation. In terms of, for example, the cutting, the relative shift is associated with the intensity of deformation εiratio
Intensity of deformation in the assumption of the single curved flow is the magnitude of the deformation δi. In accordance with this changing picture of the grid allows the predelete stress-strain state δ i-εiat any point in the zone of chip formation.
The presence of a fluorescent dye under ultraviolet irradiation allows you to pinpoint the location coordinate (reference) points on a modified picture of the grid in the case when visually the position of these points becomes undetectable even at high magnification. Glowing the same paint particles show the location of reference points.
Using the proposed method allowed us to reproduce the real picture of deformations occurring in the cutting zone, and for the first time to give a mathematical dependences for calculation of the stress-strain state of the material in the cutting zone in time. Applying a coordinate grid in the study of stress-strain state of the cutting zone gave the possibility to determine the size of the zone of chip formation and to calculate the time course of deformation processes and the transition time of the original material in the material of the chip (10-4...10-7C).
The method is applicable for the analysis of plastic deformation when performing other operations associated with plastic deformation, such as sediment, forging, bending, cold extrusion, landing, stretching.
The method of experimental determination of parameters of plastic deformation under mechanical clicks the development of metals, including the application of the system of coordinate labels on the sample surface by the clamping device to the surface of the tool, the hardness that exceeds the hardness of the material of the workpiece as the tool is used clichés with sharp protruding elements having the form of four-sided pyramids that make up a given coordinate system (reference) points, which are points of intersection of the plane of the sample faces of the indenter, characterized in that the formed cavities fill returned device with a fluorescent dye that retains its properties during plastic deformation, and then mechanically treated sample, and then measure the parameters of the modified figure grid, which calculates the parameters of plastic deformation.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a boring drill, a carriage, installed on guides and driven by a screw gear, limiters of movement of the boring drill in the transverse direction, measurement current sensors, a device of data processing and transmission for energy-power parameters of an electric motor to an electronic computer. Rotation and feed of the boring drill are carried out by one DC motor, installed as fixed on the device frame. The torque from the electric motor is sent via a gear to a feed shaft of square shape in the cross section, then via a gear installed on the carriage of the device, the boring drill. Motion of the carriage along the guides and the feed shaft, and also feed of the boring drill are carried out via its automatic variator, for instance, a wedge-belt or its equivalent, the input shaft of which is connected to the electric motor, and the output one via a reducer with a screw gear. Limiters of displacement of the boring drill in the transverse direction are connected in series with each other, the frame and the carriage by flexible ropes.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of measurement of value of resistance to drilling of investigated materials, reduced wear of a cutting part of a boring drill and higher reliability of a drive, units and device design in general.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device to measure resistance to drilling, comprising an electric motor for a rotation drive of a boring bit; a carriage installed on guides and driven by an electric motor of a feed drive, for instance, DC via a screw gear; limiters of displacement of the boring bit in the transverse direction. At the same time adjustment of speed of boring bit feed is carried out automatically by measurement of the current value and/or power supply voltage, and/or frequency of rotation of an electric motor shaft in a rotation drive of the boring bit, analysis and conversion of measured data, for instance, with the help of an electronic computer, development of a control signal and variation of rotation frequency of the electric motor shaft in the feed drive, for instance, with the help of a thyristor switch during impulse adjustment of supply voltage of the electric motor of the feed drive.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of measurements of resistance to drilling of investigated materials with drilling, reduced wear of a cutting part of a boring bit and higher reliability of a drive, units and device design in general.
4 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in machining, machine tool mechanical oscillations are defined as vibroacoustic signals by appropriate instruments mounted thereat to convert said signals into electric signals and to isolate therefrom HF and LF components including intrinsic frequencies of machine tool assemblies. Relationship between amplitudes of said signals define cutting tool wear. Additionally, extra electric signal is generated proportional to machine tool primary drive active power. Effective amplitudes of signals are defined in said isolated frequency ranges. Current wear of cutting tool is defined by appropriate formula.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of wear determination.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: wheel is dressed by turning to cut off a fixed-thickness layer to produce run-in wear step on dressing tool working part. Then step profile is recorded along the path extending through dressing zone center and represented in coordinate system as dependence of surface density of grain tops upon depth of grinding wheel surface layer being cut off.
EFFECT: easier process, expanded determination range.
7 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: test bench comprises frame with flexible support element, holder with cutting member and strain gages. It has bed to support holder with cutting member rigidly secured thereon and articulated with frame supporting strain gages to register cutting force components. Tie rod to register horizontal component is made up of rod arranged along test bench lengthwise axis and pivoted by its end to frame supports and, by opposite end, to said bed. Tie rod to register lateral component is made up of rod arranged perpendicular to test bench lengthwise axis and pivoted by its end to frame supports and, by opposite end, to said bed. Tie rod to register vertical component is made up of shaft with central bore arranged parallel about test bench lengthwises axis in frame supports to articulate said frame with "П"-like flexible support articulated to bed.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of measurement.
SUBSTANCE: parameters of sheared layer and ship parameters are determined and compression degree of sheared layer is calculated. The following parameters are measured: height of deformed area of sheared layer, which is used for formation of ship element, and height of the formed chip element; after that, compression degree of sheared layer is calculation by the formula. Parameters are measured in shear speed vector direction after separation of chip element from sheared layer.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of determination of sheared layer compression degree.
2 tbl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: standard wear resistance tests are performed during cutting of materials at optimum cutting speed or the speed which is close to it. Tests for the change in value of initial parameter from properties of surface structure formed during manufacture of hard-alloy cutting tool are performed. Reference-correlation "initial parameter - wear resistance" relationship is built. The value of initial parameter of current batch of hard-alloy cutting tools is controlled and wear resistance for current batch of tools is predicted on the basis of the relationship. As initial parameter there used is surface area of hysteresis loop obtained during monitoring of surface thermo-emf with activated and deactivated heating of hot probe with reduction of the surface area of which the wear resistance rises.
EFFECT: accuracy is improved and labour intensity is reduced during prediction of wear resistance of hard-alloy cutting tools.
SUBSTANCE: standard wear resistance tests are performed during cutting of materials at optimum cutting speed. Tests for the change in value of initial parameter from properties of surface structure formed during manufacture of hard-alloy cutting tool are performed. Reference-correlation "initial parameter - wear resistance" relationship is built. The value of initial parameter of current batch of hard-alloy cutting tools is controlled and wear resistance for current batch of tools is predicted on the basis of the relationship. As initial parameter there used is surface area of hysteresis loop (S) obtained during monitoring of surface thermo-emf with activated and deactivated heating of hot probe with enlargement of the surface area (S) of which the wear resistance rises.
EFFECT: accuracy is improved and labour intensity is reduced during prediction of wear resistance of hard-alloy cutting tools.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: resource of trouble-free operation of given cutting tools depends on intensity of adhesion processes in zone of contact with machined material. Acid-base properties of surface structure of hard alloys greatly influence a screening process of the said destructive phenomenon. Prognosis and control of wear resistance of cutting tools are carried out with consideration of value of complex force coefficient and concentration of base active centres - pH at surface crumbled structure of hard alloy cutting tools. The procedure is based on a correlation between properties of surface crumbled structure of hard alloy - value of force coefficient and concentration of acid-base active centres - pH and wear resistance of hard alloy cutting tools. Wear resistance of hard alloy cutting tools grows at increase of pH at surface crumbled structure.
EFFECT: upgraded accuracy and reduction of labour input at prognosis of wear resistance of tungsten-cobalt, of group of applicability K of cutting tools.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: resource of trouble-free operation of given cutting tools depends on intensity of diffusion processes in zone of contact with machined material. Surface structure of hard alloys greatly influences a value and direction of the said destructive phenomenon. Prognosis and control of wear resistance of cutting tools are carried out with consideration of value of complex force coefficient and concentration of base active centres - pH obtained at crumbled hard alloy mass. The procedure is based on close correlation between surface properties of crumbled hard alloy mass: value of force coefficient and concentration of acid-base active centres -pH and wear resistance of hard alloy cutting tools. Wear resistance of hard alloy cutting tools of the said group increases, when pH of crumbled hard alloy mass decreases.
EFFECT: upgraded accuracy and reduction of labour input at prognosis of wear resistance of tungsten-titan-cobalt, of group of applicability P, of cutting tools.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed invention can be used for absorption and desorption of gas sample. This preconcentrator comprises nanocomplexes of metals with carbon nanotubes. Note here that metal in said nanocomplexes with carbon nanotubes represents one or more metals selected from the group consisting of cobalt, copper, nickel, titanium, silver, iron, tungsten and their aqueous salts or hydrates. This preconcentrator can comprises unit of specimens with said nanocomplexes and gas sample feed hole, dried gas feed source and gas analyser system connected with said preconcentrator. Besides, it can comprise channel switchover valve for selective gas sample feed, dried gas feed source and gas analyser system with sample concentration unit and gas absorption and desorption from sample control unit.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of concentration of gases.
13 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of determining gold mineralisation of rock formation comprises multistage crushing of raw material to fractions of the size not greater than 0.5 mm, the subsequent classification of the resulting material and its processing with bromoform. Classification is carried out by sedimentation with the separation of the material class of -0.05+0.02 mm of water discharges, followed by drying and sieving the remaining material with the separation of the fraction -0.5 +0.1 mm and -0.1+0.05 mm, treating each of the resulting classes with 10-30% alcohol solution of bromoform. Sedimentation is carried out once with the accumulation of sediment for 15-20 min and repeatedly for 3-5 minutes, followed by the integration of the water discharges obtained during it.
EFFECT: increase in reliability of determining of gold areas and determining areas of gold mineralisation.
2 cl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of preparing standard aerosol samples based on a mixture of fine powder containing defined elements is characterised by that a dispersed mixture of mineral, synthetic and biological materials is used, wherein grain size analysis is used to detect presence of said types of simulating materials and content thereof in a real atmospheric suspension in said region as applied to a specific season is determined.
EFFECT: providing maximum similarity of simulated atmospheric suspensions for different regions and conditions.
SUBSTANCE: reference sample comprises a metal base with a central zone of reference complex stressed condition through the base thickness. At the edges of the base at one or different sides there is one or several zones of pad welds from another metal, coefficient of linear expansion and yield point of which is lower than the coefficient of linear expansion and yield point of the base metal. The base is first exposed to high-temperature tempering, afterwards control marks or a grid of measurement bases are applied onto surfaces of the central zone of the base at two sides, for two test measurements after high-temperature tempering of the base before applying pad welds and in the end of thermal treatment of the base already with pad welds. The form of the base, locations of pad welds and the mode of thermal treatment are defined in advance as a result of computer simulation modelling by the method of finite elements with account of grades of the base metal and pad welds metals and the required reference complex stressed condition of the central zone of the base through its thickness.
EFFECT: increased validity of results of measurements of mechanical stresses in cross sections of various thick-walled metal structures.
2 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device consists of a housing, the electric motor with a shaft, and the storage cylinder-borer. At that the electric motor with the shaft is mounted inside and along the vertical axis of the housing, made in the form of a triangular truss consisting of the upper and lower belts which are interconnected by racks having vertical grooves for guides mounted inside the truss perpendicular to the racks with the ability of vertical movement along them and connected to the housing of the electric motor, equipped with handles extending outside the housing. At that, the electric motor shaft is provided with a magnetostrictive oscillator and has at the end a telescopic rod for removable storage cylinder-borers selected depending on the type of soil.
EFFECT: increased productivity of soil sampling and enhanced functional capabilities.
SUBSTANCE: method includes collecting gases in a sampler and subsequent analysis of the sample material. The sampler is insulated from the ambient environment and a portion of distilled water is added, wherein a suspension of solid particles of the exhaust gas is formed by releasing said particles into said portion of water. Formation of the suspension begins after removing foreign dust and soot particles from the exhaust pipe that have settled there when the internal combustion engine is idle. During sample collection, the suspension is mixed and a sterile syringe is used to collect about 40 ml of liquid, which is then analysed on a laser particle analyser to determine particle size and shape distribution therein. Substance analysis of the suspension is then carried out on a light microscope and electron microscope with an energy-dispersion spectrometer for determining material composition of the solid particles and size and shape distribution of said particles.
EFFECT: determining content of nanodispersed and microdispersed solid particles in exhaust gas.
SUBSTANCE: first, selected are directions for elastic wave propagation directions uniformly distributed over the entire volume of specimen to measure propagation speed and to define the length of every direction. Ultrasound pulses excited in specimen are radiated therein at the start of every direction. Elastic wave travel time is defined for every direction to define the means propagation speed in every direction using obtained elastic wave length and travel time. Then, said specimen is deformed to preset magnitude in stepwise manner, via preset time intervals. At every deformation step, said mean propagation speeds are defined for every directed as described above to define mean propagation speeds for separated part of specimen volume by the method of nuclear Gaussian functions with averaging radius of at least 5 mm. Calculations at every deformation step are displayed as the projection of the specimen vertical section with at least 5 mm deep layer with dyeing of projection sections by different colours proportional with calculated speed difference for said sections between current and previous deformation steps to make conclusion of specimen density variation.
EFFECT: higher-quality and more detailed picture of compaction and destruction zones.
4 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: wings of ilium are punctured in an anterior and posterior one-third of the wings with two trocars being inserted into each wing. The bone marrow (BM) is collected by simple aspiration, aspiration irrigation or a combination thereof at an underpressure of 0.6 Atm with using a device. The bone marrow preparation device comprises a disposable multi-channel closed system, an aspiration collection unit and a perfusion unit. The group of inventions also refers to a method for assessing the prepared bone marrow. The effect is ensured by automatic control of myeloaspiration by preparing a biological material with using a special designed device for the bone marrow collection.
EFFECT: using the given method for preparing the bone marrow provides preparing the sterile bone marrow rich in viable multipotent mesenchymal stromal and hemopoietic progenitor cells.
7 cl, 1 ex, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method of zinc extraction from bottom sediments with an ionic liquid includes preparation of an analytic sample. Extraction of zinc from the solid sample is performed with application of the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexaphosphate with additives of ammonium thiocyanate and potassium iodide with further quantitative determination of zinc (II) ions in a concentrate of an organic phase of the ionic liquid.
EFFECT: providing degree of element extraction close to one hundred percent.
1 dwg, 2 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a cartridge for a bioanalytical reaction device. The cartridge contains at least one chamber for a sample, which has a wall, through which the said sample can be processed or analysed by the bioanalytical reaction device. The cartridge also contains a case and a platform, and the platform contains the said at least one chamber for the sample and is connected with a possibility of travel with the case in such a way that the platform is able to move between the removed position, in which the wall is protected by the case, and the protruded position, in which the wall is outside the case, by putting operating means in action. The bioanalytical reaction device has a slot for reception of the cartridge, and contains an operating device for moving out and removal of the platform.
EFFECT: technical result which is achieved lies in provision of protection of the sample from contamination and damage without excessive complication of the cartridge construction.
15 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: automatical aids for sampling liquids.
SUBSTANCE: system for sampling and delivering filtrate has filter submerged into tested medium and connected with collecting tank and vacuum pressure source which is connected with top hole of collecting tank by means of pneumatic pipe. System has sample receiving tank connected with collecting tank and control unit which has first output to be connected with vacuum pressure source. Collecting tank has two separated chambers - washing chamber and dispatching chamber. Lower hole of washing chamber has to be lower hole of collecting tank and side hole of dispatching chamber has to be side hole of collecting tank. Floating valve is installed inside washing chamber to shut off lower and top holes. Filter is connected with lower hole of collecting tank through sampling pipe. Side hole of collecting tank is connected with lower hole of tank for receiving samples through sampling pipe. Flow-type sensor and check valve are installed inside transportation pipe. Output of flow-type sensor is connected with input of control unit; second output of control unit is connected with control input of analyzer.
EFFECT: improved precision of measurement of sample ion composition; prolonged service life of filter.
1 cl, 1 dwg