Device for prevention and neutralisation of poisoning substances
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to means of efficient detection of poisoning substances and toxins and their instant neutralisation. Device contains microprocessor sets of first 16 and second 22 order, unit of template memory 17, units for detection of poisoning substances and toxins, audio-video system, and units of detection of poisoning substances and toxins are made in form of absorbing devices 3-7, which have sensors at outlet, which determine level of air environment contamination, outlets of sensors are connected to amplifiers-converters 11-15, connected with outlets-inlets with microprocessor set of first order 16, which is connected by outlets-inlets to unit of template memory 17, unit of question introduction 18 and microprocessor set of second order 22, unit of template memory 17 is connected by inlets-outlets to matrix field 21 in form of based on liquid crystals diode crystal lattice, unit of question introduction 18 is connected by inlets-outlets with unit of response analysis 19 and unit of analysis of unknown chemical compounds and combinations of poisoning substances 20, which is connected by inlets-outlets to unit of response analysis and to matrix field 21, connected with inlets-outlets of unit of question introduction 18 and to microprocessor set of second order 22, connected by inlets-outlets with hazard warning unit 23, unit of analysis of unknown chemical compounds and combinations of poisoning substances 20, matrix field 21 and unit of executive device 24 for neutralisation of poisoning substances and toxins, which is connected by outlets with executive mechanisms 25-27.
EFFECT: possibility of determining concentration of toxic materials and their neutralisation in the shortest terms and instant warning of people about hazard, ie maximally possible protection of people against impact of different toxins.
Designed for rapid detection of toxic substances and toxins; alert people of impending danger and immediate neutralization of the concentration of chemical and biological components.
The device can be used in all spheres of the national economy, as well as in the armed forces of the Russian Federation, as a reliable tool for early warning the people about the attack using chemical substances, causing irreparable harm to humans.
Modern knowledge has a wide range of substances that can deprive a man of his productive activity and prejudicial to his health.
This includes first of all toxic substances. While scientific knowledge has a certain amount of money for neutralization of toxic agents, and first of all the search options and ways to overcome them. Now the authors of the task, and how to detect toxic and toxic substances and to find the most rational way to deal with them the impact on the human body.
In the world practice known device A62D 3/00 (2007.01) and G01N 27/00 (2007.01) and the closest technical solution stated EN 106397 U1, 10.07.2011 year. It has a number similar to the claimed subject matter of the parties and certain of the identity of names of elements of e is Hemi.
However, despite its appeal, this device differs significantly in its qualitative and technological characteristics and therefore does not solve the full problem notification and neutralization of toxic substances modern model constructions and concentrations of toxins.
The purpose of the present invention is to overcome the shortcomings by creating more novation-mobile device that is able to solve tasks on modern scientific-technical level.
It is known that the properties of chemical substances depend on uniting their chemical and spectral indices, and a wide corridor features of physiological effects on humans. To this end, the authors propose a device in which the electronic level will be the determination of physical and toxic properties of toxic substances and a number of practical actions for the timely prevention and neutralize them. A detailed search and analysis of information related to this field of knowledge, allows authors to combine well-known techniques and methods for detection of toxic substances and represent this matrix in electronic form. The material studied is shown for clarification on the figures 1, 2, 3.
Device for prevention and neutralization from alausa substances given in the form of a flowchart in figure 1 and contains the block 1, includes the camera 2, is equipped with suction devices 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, with the output of the sensors, and is included in block 1, the sensors 8, 9, 10 analysis of the external air environment, amplifiers, converters 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, microprocessor kit 16, block 17 memory benchmarks, unit 18 input issues, block 19 analysis of the responses, block 20 analysis of unknown chemical compounds and combinations of agents, matrix field 21 in the form of a diode lattice-based liquid crystals, the microprocessor 22 of the second order, block 23 warning, block 24, the actuator mechanisms 25, 26, 27 Executive devices.
When the suction sensors 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 device outputs connected to the outputs of the amplifiers converters 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, and the sensors 8, 9, 10 outputs connected to the amplifier-Converter, and the outputs of the amplifiers converters 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 are connected the outputs to microprocessor kit 16 of the first order, which outputs inputs connected to the block 17 memory benchmarks, block 18, enter questions and to microprocessor kit 22 of the second order, and the block 17 memory benchmarks inputs-outputs connected to microprocessor kit 16 of the first order and to the matrix field 21, block 18, enter the questions connected inputs-outputs with a high performance embedded czarnym set 16 of the first order, unit 19 analysis of the responses and inputs-outputs connected to the unit 20 analysis of unknown chemical compounds and combinations of agents, which inputs-outputs connected to the block 19 analysis of responses to the matrix field 21 that is connected to the input-output unit 17 memory benchmarks, block 18, enter questions and microprocessor kit 22 of the second order, the United inputs-outputs of microprocessor kit 16 of the first order, block 23 warning, block 20 analysis of unknown chemical compounds and combinations of toxic substances, with a matrix field 21 and the block 24 actuators connected to the inputs outputs from the microprocessor kit 22 of the second order, and outputs to the mechanisms 25, 26, 27 actuators 24.
The authors do not aim to consider and address all of the diverse variety of toxic substances and their effect on people. All this is described in detail in numerous information sources that can meet everyone, and let's pay attention to specifics. In some area in the air environment, where there are living beings first and foremost, people were thrown out toxic substances in the form of a cloud of toxins. Directly or indirectly, a pair of toxins reach the region of validity of the device from a standby state dir the mA is included in the active part of the operation. Suction devices 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 is placed in the chamber 2 and provided with sensors, which are equipped with multi-layer plates, the surface of which is deposited the active chemical. When exposed to vapors of toxins they enter into a chemical reaction, in which the plates are deformed (Figure 3) and come into direct contact with the electric circuit of the device. As a result of this action at the input currents are created large or small value. Educated thus the currents are fed to the inputs of analog-to-digital Converter, where deploying analog-to-digital Converter (Figure 2) in a certain way translates the received input signal into a digital sequence, when this occurs, starting from the lowest value to the necessary, trim analog output voltage.
To facilitate understanding, the authors introduce a simple scheme of one of the analog digital converters (Figure 2) for bit trim.
It is known that the analog-to-digital Converter has a high-resolution, functional accuracy and performance. While in this technical solution requires high resolution, which is determined by the bit width and a wide range of input analog voltage, and the accuracy of the her on the horizon absolute error maximum possible scale. Performance in this case is characterized by the conversion time tCRthat is determined by the time interval from the time interval of receipt of the input signal until the output of the established code. Drill this point the operation of the device necessary for understanding the process of converting a signal produced as a result of deformation of the plate (Figure 3), converted to digital graphics.
Diagram of the analog-to-digital Converter is shown in Figure 2 and contains the trigger 28, the control circuit 29, a storage register 30, the clock 31, the start pulse 32, 33 reset digital, serial output 34, the analog output 35, the digital parallel output 36, DAC 37 schema and the logical device. Figure 3 shows the plate which is deformed under the action of the toxin.
This drill will allow you to reach deeper into the process of operation of the device.
The device shown in figure 2, operates in three modes: 1 mode passive comprehensive monitoring of the status of air environment; 2 mode active search and detection of toxic substances in the form of toxins, and upon detection of toxic substances and toxins signal about the discovery in the form of sound and light alerts; 3 mode activation neutralizing means with pairs of toxic substances in the form of toxins.
Special is adok. If in the first part of the description we were talking about registering devices, which confirmed the presence of various toxic substances, the Department called a “Special order” it will neutralize them with the help of modern technology. Before we move on to the issue of neutralization of toxic substances, consider the topic in which, let's consider some specific aspects of this problem. The special properties of toxic substances, the toxicity levels, it is important to understand the degree of concentration and dose levels, density and durability in their field infected space, and the amount distributed infected air in the functioning of all living things and first of all, human.
Combat the concentration of toxic substances in the air is determined by achieving a certain effect on the loss of human contingent and may need time.
Under the density of contamination should be understood toxic substances, presented in the form of a coarse spray or in the form of drops that infect certain kind of space and water sources. Toxicity toxic substances consider in the course of the disclosure of the claimed technical solution.
The main and decisive means of protection from exposure to toxic substances is a timely warning is the establishment of the impending attack and rapid warning of the perfect action with the use of toxic substances and real steps to protect people from their physical, chemical and toxic properties.
A defining moment in the overall structure of the requested object is a suction device that contains the micro, to the shaft of which is attached node, equipped with blades enclosed in a chamber which has free access to the air on one side of the node.
Device for prevention and neutralization of toxic substances (Figure 1) operates in three modes: mode 1 - tracking mode 2 - toxin detection and warning, and in mode 3 - neutralization of toxic substances.
Mode 1 - tracking.
Air masses through the suction device 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, or through the sensors 8, 9, 10, made in the form of suction devices, enter into the structure of this part of the device outputs at which signals a specific configuration, proceed to the inputs of amplifiers converters 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, with outputs which information is collected in the form of digital graphics. These signals are fed to the input of microprocessor kit 16 first level, from which these digital components are received in block 17 memory standards and in block 18, enter issues. In block 17 memory benchmarks compares the received digital graphics with samples of all known species of toxins stored in the memory unit 17 in the form of digital informationhotel. At the same time to work connected to the block 18 input issues, this occurs when the digital chart of the incoming signal, for example in the form of 1110011011, not comparable with digital charts stored in the memory unit 17 memory benchmarks, i.e. in a certain way different from the information that is electronically stored in the memory unit 17. Connected to the block 18 input issues. This unit starts the signal that connects to the analysis of the received graphics 1110011011 block 19 analysis of the responses and the block 20 analysis of unknown chemical compounds and combinations of agents, he, in turn, includes an action matrix box 21, with which the control signals arrive at the inputs of the block 17 analysis of standards and unit 18 input questions, the output of which is control signal to the input of microprocessor kit 16 of the first order. However, this occurs only when the digital graphics is slightly different from the information received from the outputs of the amplifiers converters 11, 12, 13, 14, 15. For example, the received information is of the form 1110011011 and after comparisons of her with the matrix field 21 varies within acceptable limits. If differences digital graphics are significant, matrix, field 21 runs in the operating mode, the microprocessor 22 of the second order, which runs the system above is placed in the block 23 and the command is given to the block 24, which actuates the actuating device 25, 26, 27, which throws out a certain part of the neutralizing solution. If furnished with state of the air environment is stabilized, automatically disabling the microprocessor kit 22 of the second order, which leads to systematize the mode of operation of the entire device for the prevention and neutralization of toxic substances. Thus, even the slightest change in the composition of air actuates all the sets of devices for the prevention and neutralization of toxic substances.
Mode 2 - detection of toxins and alert.
Once the digital configuration, having a form 1110011011 will correspond to the reference numerical digital value, which is stored in the memory unit 17 memory standards, instantly starts all systematics devices for prevention and neutralization of toxic substances.
Mode 3 - neutralization of toxic substances.
In this case, the shortest with microprocessor kit 16 first-order command is issued prohibiting unit 23 warnings about the danger, the output of which is a loud signal and turns on the light system warning of the coming danger. At the same time, microprocesso the tion set 16 first-order direct link connects to the work of microprocessor kit 22 of the second order, which actuates the block 24 actuators, the output of which is taken the team to the inputs of the actuators 25, 26, 27, and the air is starting to get a mixture that can neutralize the action of one or another toxin.
Draw your attention to the following: in any district into the air, where there are living beings and, first of all, people in a certain way, in the form of clouds, thrown a certain kind of toxins. Directly or indirectly couples the toxin reaches scope of suction devices. With the active part of the suction device toxin is released on a distribution node, the output of which the laminas of the finest films coated with an appropriate solution, its content is actively reacting to a particular toxin, causing the reaction of interaction of the toxin on the cover plates.
This action leads to a certain kind of deformation of the plates, the surface of which is affected by the toxin of a particular group. When deformation of the plates is their touch with the other plates in the public service, the output of which is generated currents large or small value, that is, the effect of the toxin on the plate, which closes the network, which takes the group stresses a small value. Voltage small quantities fall n the inputs of amplifiers, converters, with outputs which are removed digital values, which are in the form of digital graphics are the inputs distribution blocks whose outputs are connected to the analyzing nodes microprocessor sets the first level. This microprocessor kit first level contains the memory block patterns and issues where there is a comparison of the received information with the standards contained in the memory of microprocessor kit of the first order.
Pay special attention when considering technical devices to the questions, where is the solution when digital graphics, taken from the outputs of the amplifiers converters, does not fit into the main group of those standards or other indicators of toxins that are well known in the world practice.
So, you set a certain group of questions about the content of toxins, not suitable characteristics to any of the known sets. This question should be answered by the block of non-standard responses. In other words, if the applied group standard toxins, which can not be compared with the standards of these well-known groups, the unit of analysis of unknown chemical compounds and combinations of toxic substances is the search for the closest prototype of the toxins that are included in the newly created combinatorics this sushestvujusih substances. Simultaneously, the unit of analysis of unknown chemical compounds and combinations of toxic substances built according to this principle, which allows to determine whether they are running in the air, toxins can harm the health of people, or it is a substance that is not harmful to humans, but can psychologically affect people with the aim of creating panic.
Microprocessor kit first level is intended to determine the chemical composition of the toxin, its density, time and force of human exposure and make recommendations to the microprocessor to set the second level on its neutralizing toxic substances. Microprocessor a set of first level is supplied by a certain group of synthesizers, which are light and sound alarm.
Device for prevention and neutralization of toxic substances and toxins that contains the microprocessor sets of first and second order memory block of the standards the units for the detection of chemical toxins, audio-video system, characterized in that blocks detection of toxic substances and toxins made in the form of suction devices having output sensors that determine the level of airborne contamination, the outputs of which are connected to the amplifiers conversion on the indicators, outputs-inputs connected to microprocessor kit of the first order, which outputs inputs connected to the memory block standards block of the input questions and microprocessor to set the second order, and the memory unit standards inputs-outputs connected to the matrix field in the form of a diode of the crystal lattice on the basis of liquid crystals, the input block of questions connected with the inputs-outputs with unit of analysis and unit of analysis of unknown chemical compounds and combinations of agents, which inputs-outputs connected to the unit of analysis of responses to the matrix field that is connected to the inputs-outputs of the input block questions and microprocessor to set the second order connected to the inputs-outputs with unit warning, the unit of analysis of unknown chemical compounds and combinations of agents, matrix field and the power of the Executive device for neutralization of toxic substances and toxins, United outputs to actuators.
SUBSTANCE: method for determination of pipeline technical condition consists in technical condition integral characteristic quantitative evaluation from which pipeline state is evaluated and corresponding corrective measures are planned. To determine mentioned integral characteristic in-line inspection (ILI) and integrated corrosive survey of pipeline is performed. From results of ILI, proportion factor between technical condition characteristic and relative quantity of defective pipes is established depending on pipeline diameter. Pipeline integrated corrosive survey is performed by measuring electric current from external source along pipeline route with interval not exceeding 10 m. According to obtained data, proportion factor between relative quantity of defective pipes and relative length of damaged protective coating. From determined parameters, technical condition integral characteristic is determined which describes pipeline damage.
EFFECT: higher quality of pipeline reconstruction, repair and technical diagnosis planning.
1 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: bombardment of a surface with an ion beam and recording of intensity of reflected ions is performed; besides, analysed surface is bombarded with inert gas ions with energy of less than 100 eV, and energy spectrum of reflected ions is recorded in the energy range, which is higher than energy of primary ions; then, as per energies of peaks of pair collision in the obtained spectrum there determined are types of atoms in one upper monolayer of atoms, as per the available peak with energy equal to energy of bombarding ions there evaluated is availability of a crystalline phase on amorphous or amorphised surface, including in a film of nanodimensional thickness, and as per the ratio of values of the above peak without any energy losses to a peak or peaks of pair collision there determined is surface concentration of crystalline phase on amorphous or amorphised surface.
EFFECT: reduction of depth of an analysed layer till sub-nanodimensional values; improvement of reliability of analysis results and enhancement of compatibility of equipment for implementation of the method with other analysis methods and process equipment.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: use: to measure change in the local concentration of impurities in the liquid flow at the entrance to the measuring cell. The substance is that the first change of impurity concentration is determined in time within the measurement cell to the fluid containing an impurity, wherein the concentration changes with time at the entrance of the measuring cell is known, and they find the impulse response of the measuring cell using the deconvolution method. Then they determine the change in the impurity concentration within the measuring cell for the sample liquid with an unknown impurity concentration at the entrance. They calculate the unknown concentration of impurities upon entering the measuring cell using the found impulse response of the measuring cell and a definite change in the impurity concentration inside the cell.
EFFECT: improving the accuracy of determining concentration of impurities without changing configuration of a measuring cell.
8 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: radio engineering, communication.
SUBSTANCE: offshore hydrophysical system has a rigid support structure which joins self-contained geophysical units, each performing a specific measuring or synchronising function, enclosed in separate pressure-resistant housings, wherein each pressure-resistant housing is equipped with a radio-frequency receive/transmit modem, mounted inside the housing on an insert which is transparent for electromagnetic radiation.
EFFECT: high reliability of offshore measuring devices, easier operation thereof and unification of offshore measuring equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device includes a loading device, comprising a metal body connected with a grounded base, a recording system comprising amplifiers, an analogue-to-digital transducer, a computer and screened cables. At the same time the loading device comprises a rock-breaking tool installed on a drilling machine, and a system of axial load supply comprising the following serially connected component: a pulley of axial load feed, a system of blocks and a system for suspension of weights installed on the frame. Also the device comprises a closed circulation system for bottomhole cleaning and cooling of the rock-breaking tool, a recording system comprising a pressure gauge, a phototach, a vibration sensor, a channel for registration of a permanent component of current and a channel for recording of an alternating component of current. The method includes installation of a sample in a clamp, deformation of a sample with the help of a loading device, registration of an arising electromagnet signal with a registration system. At the same time, setting experiment parameters, the initial and final positions of the axial load feed system are marked, accordingly at the start and end of the experiment, a boring pump motor is switched on, power is supplied to a three-phase transformer, from which power is then sent to a motor of a drilling machine, the rock-breaking tool is put in contact with the sample, and the required axial load is set, frequency of rock-breaking tool rotation is fixed by the phototach, pressure of the flushing liquid is recorded with the pressure gauge, plant oscillations are fixed by a vibration sensor, and along the channels for DC and AC the generated electromagnetic radiation is detected.
EFFECT: possibility to imitate loading of a sample with drilling, with variation of the experiment mode, under permanent registration of electromagnetic radiation parameters in process of sample damage, in the form of permanent and alternating components of current, and also the value applied to the load sample.
2 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: electrostatic charged particle energy analyser has coaxially arranged inner and outer cylindrical electrodes; a screening electrode that is electrically connected to the inner cylindrical electrode; inner and outer correcting rings that are electrically insulated from each other and from the cylindrical electrodes, made on the lateral surface of the cylindrical electrode and entrance and exit annular recesses (windows) for flight of secondary electrons that are tightened by a small-structure metal grid; an analysed sample; a built-in electron gun for generating a focused stream of primary electrons; an exit hole diaphragm; an electron receiver; a potential sweep unit of the outer cylindrical electrode; a sweep voltage divider connected to correcting rings, wherein correcting rings located nearer to the entrance window have are cone-shaped, and correcting rings located near to the exit window are discs with openings, wherein the system for compensating for edge effects consists of two pairs of correcting rings which form an electrostatic field in the operating space of the analyser, which provides fourth-order angular focusing of near the angle of 40°.
EFFECT: high energy resolution.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to flaw inspection and nondestructive checks. Invention consists in using pulses of surface electromagnetic waves radiated forward and/or backward relative to train direction, registering reflection of said pulses from irregularities of the track and defining type of track and/or rolling stock defects from character of said irregularities.
EFFECT: detection of dangerous macroscopic defects at distance exceed stopping distance and registration of derailment.
SUBSTANCE: between electrodes with fixed distance between them voltage is supplied, the arising current melts and evaporates a thin wire, which is located between electrodes, the distance from the cathode to the anode is selected such that the discharge without the wire will not occur spontaneously, and between electrodes conditions are created for avalanche breakdown of a discharge gap arising in case there are vapours of the evaporating wire in air. At the same time the section around the wire and cathode surface is surrounded with a dielectric, and as voltage is supplied to a discharge gap in the section of the cathode surface limited with the dielectric, the energy is concentrated, which locally heats this section of the cathode surface.
EFFECT: local heating of a cathode section in scientific research.
SUBSTANCE: alkali vapour signalling device (analyser), which uses a pH metric, having a housing, a reaction vessel filled with the analysed solution, an electrode platform-holder; a measuring and a temperature electrode placed in the analysed solution; devices for controlling, processing and displaying measurement result information; an electrical connection of the output of the measuring electrode, thermoelectrode with the device for controlling, processing information and displaying the measurement result; there is a special device for controlling, processing and displaying information on concentration of alkali vapour; there is a device for sampling alkali vapour sucked from the space over the production bath through a hose, a second normally open valve, a compressor, an ejector; there is a pump, a T-branch, a first normally closed valve, an additional vessel with clean deionised water, pipes; the analysed alkali vapour is periodically passed through the solution of deionised water in the reaction vessel; a combined measuring electrode measures pH of the solution; the deionised water is replaced with clean deionised water for each next cycle of measuring concentration of alkali vapour.
EFFECT: invention enables signallisation of content and amount of alkali vapour in the atmosphere of etching assemblies of a processing line for processing metal in hot baths.
9 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to monitoring of water areas and cleaning it of various contaminations. Proposed marine complex comprises platform, windmill, photocell station, gas holder unit, electrolysis unit, surface water cleaning unit, water composition control lab and weather station, complex components control unit, gantry, set of propeller shafts, navigation bridge, stem with structural connection angles, brushes for collecting surface water, anchor unit, power unit composed of motor-generator set, battery room, and super capacitor station. Platform perimetre is equipped with external hollow bars to carry paddle wheels for ice breaking. Said hollows bars house fluid washing system assembly units and parts fluid inlet of said system is communicated with helical duct. Turbine coupled via reduction gearbox with generator rotor is mounted at duct outlet. Generator output is connected to power unit battery station. Helical duct inlet is communicated with surface water cleaning unit fluid outlet. Additionally, added are hydrological parameter measurement unit and geophysical parameters unit connected via interface with weather station processor unit. Besides, proposed complex incorporates ice fathometer.
EFFECT: expended operating performances, pollution-free power generation.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to equipment for population protection against spillage of liquid hazardous chemical substances transferred by railway (r/w) transport and can be used for degasation of spillage sections on railway train braking path if container (tank) has lost pressurisation. Device includes container 1 with neutralising lotion installed on railway car chassis and connected by pipelines with car auxiliary reservoir with compressed air used in railway train braking system and with pipeline 12 for neutralising lotion discharge. Herewith, the device is located in front of the first along train motion of special tank cars containing hazardous chemical substances. Inside the container 1 with neutralising lotion, siphon 2 is fixed to the nozzle 4 of manifold 5 of which air pipeline 6 is connected, on which pipeline electropneumatic valve 7 automatically actuated during train emergency braking under condition of spillage of liquid hazardous chemical substances is installed, which valve in its turn is connected to compressed air auxiliary reservoir via reducing valve 10. The pipeline 12 for neutralising lotion discharge is provided with two slit valves 15 with expansion angle of at least 120° which valves are located under lower part of r/w car where outlets of valves 15 are located symmetrically at the distance of 80 cm from car centreline and facing opposite direction relative to train motion.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and operativeness of population protection against spillage of liquid hazardous chemical substances on emergency braking sections which spillage is caused by depressurisation or partial destruction without running off the rails owing to acts of terrorism of special tank cars with liquid hazardous chemical substances transferred by railway transport.
SUBSTANCE: device for determining the length of the operating layer of a microporous carbon sorbent during absorption of vapour of organic substances comprises a circular housing equipped with a detachable base with an outlet pipe which is fitted with a nut for mounting the device to a support; the top of the housing is closed by a detachable cover with a diffuser which is equipped with an inlet pipe for feeding vapour of an organic substance into the housing. The inside of the housing is vertically fitted with numbered cups with holes into which the analysed sorbent is poured with a layer thickness of 2 mm, as well as a sealing ring.
EFFECT: shorter time for determining the length of the operating layer of a microporous carbon sorbent during absorption of vapour of organic substances.
SUBSTANCE: in the method the cleaning of containers of liquid-propellant rockets after start from fuel components is performed, in which fuel is unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine and the oxidiser is nitric tetroxide, by washing the container manifolds with neutralising solution. At that preliminary washing of filling manifold is carried out with water under pressure from a volume equal to the volume of the manifold, after which the fuel manifold is washed with an aqueous solution of potassium permanganate with a concentration of not less than 0.1%, and the oxidiser manifold - an aqueous solution of caustic soda with the concentration of not less than 0.025%, at that the safety of drainage and the container manifolds is controlled for subsequent disposal.
EFFECT: invention provides a high degree of cleaning of the enclosed volume of the piping from components of rocket fuel.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to treatment of industrial waste water or recycling water with weakly alkaline reaction of heavy metal ions through conversion thereof into partially water-soluble compounds whose mobility in natural media is strongly limited, and specifically to production of reagents for treating said water based on peat. The method involves crushing and grinding peat, diluting the ground peat with water, mechanically activating the obtained mixture by adding an alkali solution, subjecting to intense mechanical action and neutralising the obtained reagent with an acid. The reagent is produced using peat with natural moisture content, crushing and grinding of which is carried out while mixing said peat with water. Alkaline extraction and activation are carried out simultaneously by directly adding alkali to the activator, and the obtained product is treated with oxalic acid until full neutralisation of the obtained reagent. The water used to dilute the mixture, acid and alkali is not heated. The disclosed technique of producing the reagent is easy to implement, does not require large capital investments and is completely wasteless.
EFFECT: reagent is effective in removing heavy metals from industrial water.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of destruction of toxic substances, namely to utilisation of toxic chlorine-containing substance 2-(2-chlorobenzylidene)malonodinitrile(CS) with obtaining 2-chlorobenzoic acid, which is a marketable product for synthesis of various organic compounds: pesticides, dyes, medications. Method consists in boiling 2-(2-chlorobenylidene)malononitrile in water solution of potassium permanganate for 3-3.5 hours. After that, mixture is kept at room temperature for 14-16 hours, obtained sediment is washed with hot water. Filtrate is evaporated, acidified with 10-15% hydrochloric acid, sediment from filtrate is washed with water and re-crystallised to obtain 2-chlorobenzoic acid.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to eliminate toxic reagents from technological process and harmful emissions into atmosphere.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to utilisation of irritating toxic substances (irritants) to nontoxic products, able to find practical application in fine organic synthesis, chemistry of physiologically active substances and medical products. Method of 1-dicyanogen-2-(2-chlorphenyl)ethylene utilisation consists in the following: 1-dicyanogen-2-(2-chlorphenyl)ethylene interacts in solvent with 2-chlorine-1-phenylethanol in presence of ammonium acetate with molar ratio equal to 1:1:2, in acetic acid medium at temperature 60°C, formed crude product 2-phenyl-3-chlorine-4(2-chlorphenyl)-5-cyanogen-6-amine-1-pyridine is filtered, washed with cold ethyl alcohol to pH-6…7 and recrystallised from ethyl alcohol with obtaining pure product.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to apply in utilisation available and cheap reagents, carry out reaction under soft conditions with simultaneous application in reaction of two substances, which require utilisation.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to destruction of poison-gases, i.e. mustard agents. Proposed method comprises processing of mustard agent by composite mix of aqueous solution of alkaline metal hydroxide, quaternary tri-alkyl ammonium chloride compounds as interphase transfer catalyst and dichloramine as cocatalyst. Mustard agent decontamination is carried out under conditions of interphase catalyst in interaction of liquid-phase mix with heterophase mustard agents. Proposed method is suitable for in-field destruction of different-structure mustard agents and in emergency without application of special purposed and equipment.
EFFECT: destruction of mustard agents to residual concentration of 0,01 mg-ml-1 without application of organic solvents.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the technology of neutralising a wide range of toxic industrial chemicals and materials, which include irritant substances, heavy and radioactive materials, acids and acidic irritant substances, pesticides, and various agricultural chemicals, as well as decontamination of surfaces in contact with said agents. In one embodiment, the composition, which contains an active ingredient, is deposited on a toxic industrial chemical or material for neutralisation thereof. The active ingredient contains one or more compounds from 2,3-butanedione monoxime (also known as diacetyl monoxime (DAM)), an alkali or alkaline salt thereof, e.g. potassium 2,3-butanedione monoxime (PBDO) or derivative thereof, and said toxic industrial chemical or material is selected form a group consisting of 1,1'-bi(ethylene oxide), acrylonitriles, allyl alcohols, allyl chlorides, methyl mercaptan, hydrazine and acids.
EFFECT: invention provides efficient neutralisation of toxic substances from any surface, including human skin, at factories and in household conditions.
25 cl, 5 tbl
FIELD: fire-fighting facilities.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of destruction of toxic substances, in particular, O-isobutyl-S-2-(N,N-diethylamino)-ethylmethylthiophosphonate (substance of type Vx). Destruction is carried out by photochemical oxidation of the substance of type Vx upon irradiation in visible spectrum with a wavelength of 380-460 nm in the presence of 2,4,6-triphenylselenium-pyrylium perchlorate and chloroform in a ratio of 1:0.1. The complete destruction of the substance of type Vx (within detection) occurs within 5-7 days.
EFFECT: method enables to degas completely the surfaces without causing significant damage to them, and is safe for the personnel.
3 dwg, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: radioactive hydrogen chloride is trapped by bubbling gas or vapour containing hydrogen chloride through a solution of a reagent which forms a partially soluble compound with chloride ions.
EFFECT: invention enables to reduce the amount of radioactive wastes containing hydrochloric acid.
FIELD: means for protecting against harmful chemical agents.
SUBSTANCE: method for degassing army outfit materials polluted with organophosphorus physiologically active substance, namely O-(3,3-dimethylfluorobutyl)- methylfluorophosphonate involves treating outfit within 30 min. in electrochemically activated water-salt solution of sodium chloride - soda catholyte with pH value of 12.0 - 12.5 under temperature of 50oC, with liquid value of 8.0 l/kg under the action of ultrasonic field with frequency of 18.6 kHz and intensity of 0.76 W/sm2; drying thereof in hot air under temperature of 80oC within 15 min.
EFFECT: reduced treatment time, increased output, simplified system of army provision with degassing solutions and components for preparation thereof.