Method of fertilising plants grown in greenhouses

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of plant breeding, particularly growing plants in greenhouses. In the method fertilising plants is carried out with accelerated formation of plant tissues, grown in greenhouses, by irrigation with water saturated with carbon dioxide to the concentration of 50 ml of gaseous CO2 per 1 litre of water, at the water temperature in the range of 12-20°C. At that the watering of plants is carried out three times a day.

EFFECT: method enables to reduce the time of growing, to increase yields and to use environmentally safe fertiliser.

 

The invention relates to crop production, plant nutrition in greenhouses and can be used for growing vegetables, seedlings, flower, ornamental and other plants in greenhouses.

Known methods of feeding plants with carbon dioxide and solutions of mineral fertilizers (Nasirov, Handbook for vegetable growers. - M.: Rosselchozizdat, 1977, - p.62, 99-102). As sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) is used liquefied carbon dioxide (in cylinders), solid carbon dioxide (dry ice), products of combustion (flue gases) directly in greenhouses liquid (kerosene) or gaseous (propane, methane) fuel consumption and gas emissions livestock complexes.

The known method, in which the flue gases of boiler is passed through the catalyst and is served in a piping system in a greenhouse. When this catalyst is placed in a high temperature zone between convective beams of the boiler.

The application of this method requires the availability of the boiler. It is technically difficult to operate, and are unable to eliminate harmful constituents of flue gases (nitrogen oxides, etc.), which negatively affects plants and derived from them the food.

The known method consisting in the use of fertiliser for greenhouse crops flue gas burners (EN the Sims O.A. and other Industrial installations for the cultivation of microalgae. The overview. M, 1973, p.32)Sposob includes passing exhaust gases through a water absorber, followed by spraying the product of absorption in the greenhouse.

The disadvantage of this technical solution are large losses of carbon dioxide and the presence in the exhaust gas of a high concentration of impurities that adversely affect plant growth and the quality of these food.

Also the known method, when the plants in the greenhouses fed carbon dioxide emitted by animals and supplied with air from livestock buildings (Khazanov E.E. Dairy farm greenhouse. /Mechanization and electrification of agriculture, 1, 1999, p.15-17).

The disadvantages of this method is the low concentration of CO2and that, along with carbon dioxide from livestock buildings in greenhouses enters the hydrogen sulfide and ammonia. In this regard, the direct flow of exhaust air in livestock buildings in the amount of greenhouses require installation of additional equipment for cleaning from the above pollutants that are economically costly and complicates maintenance of such facilities.

Also there is a method of fertilizing plants with carbon dioxide through the air with a mixture of gases from animal is Odeska areas in the greenhouse (patent No. 2192120 A01G 7/01, 01G 9/18,epubl). Thus the air with the mixture gas is fed into the greenhouse through pipes and aeration system of drainage, which is a soil layer greenhouses.

The disadvantages of this method are expensive complex installation and operation of the drainage pipe, and it does not solve the problem of harmful components of the gas mixture of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. Owing to the high solubility of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in the water drainage pipe are subjected to severe corrosion and are easily damaged, and in the soil of the greenhouse is the formation of harmful chemical compounds that adversely affect plant growth and obtained from them food.

The closest to the technical nature of the claimed method is a method of fertilization of greenhouse crops carbon dioxide, as described in the copyright certificate №967397 01G 9/18, publ. 23.10.1982, in which the physical absorption of CO2from flue gas burners, by passing through a water absorber with a working pressure of 20-25 bar. Under these conditions, water is absorbed a large part of the carbon dioxide. Next, water with dissolved CO2spray under the gutters at atmospheric pressure. During the initial desorption of water in the atmosphere the greenhouse is allocated up to 80% absorbed UPEK the slots, which serves as a fertilizer for plants. The final desorption of CO2and harmful impurities from the water held in the tower with atmospheric air, where the water flows through the gutters. After this water is returned to the absorber.

The disadvantages of this method is its high cost and technical complexity, pollution, greenhouse harmful to human health and plant nitrogen oxides and benzpyrene, as well as education in primary desorption of carbon dioxide life-threatening working greenhouses concentrations of CO2that makes this method impractical.

New technical problem - increasing productivity and reducing time of growing, improving efficiency through the use of environmentally safe products for plant nutrition.

To solve the problem in the way the plants indoors by watering plants with water saturated with carbon dioxide saturation spend up to concentrations of carbon dioxide 3-5 kg/cm2when the water temperature is in the range of 12-20°C. Watering is produced three times a day.

The method is as follows.

Plants watered with water saturated with carbon dioxide to a carbon dioxide concentration of 3-5 kg/cm2when the water temperature is in the range of 12-20°C. Watering is produced three times a day.

To get on sennoga solution of carbon dioxide used for example, the device consisting of a pressure pump with an output pressure of at least 50 m of the water column, through a pipeline connected to the airtight container, covered with gravel of pyrolusite (Mno2), through which an aqueous solution of N2CO3stabilized, and then enters the irrigation system greenhouses. To the input pressure of the pump through pipes to ordinary tap water with a temperature of 12-20°C. Before entering the pressure pump in the supply line of the water embedded ejector through which current from the battery of cylinders with CO2in the incoming source water supplied with carbon dioxide. The consumption of carbon dioxide is regulated gas gearbox, which is mounted at the output of the battery with CO2. In the pressure pump the pressure of the source water saturated with carbon dioxide, increases to a specified value, resulting in an aqueous solution of liquid hydrocarbons under the generic name carbonic acid, H2CO3that pressure is pumped by the pump unit stabilization synthesis, where the stabilization solution. From sealed containers stabilizer synthesis solution by pipeline is directed to the irrigation system greenhouses. On the pipeline for a sealed container of stabilizer synthesis is mounted a pressure gauge that monitors the system pressure pump stabilizer, and vent the eh for the regulation of the working pressure in the pump-stabilizer synthesis in the given technology.

Obtained in such conditions (concentration of carbon dioxide 3-5 kg/cm2and the water temperature is in the range of 12-20°C) aqueous solution of carbon dioxide is actively absorbed by the plant root system and in the structure of plant tissue decomposes into CO2N2O and O2that allows the plant to experience a shortage of carbon dioxide required for the rapid formation of plant tissues. It is also important that the aqueous solution obtained by passing carbon dioxide and water through a pressure pump and the block stabilizer synthesis, is stable at normal pressure and carbon dioxide is not diffused from the solution into the atmosphere of the greenhouse in the temperature range of 10-30°C, which, accordingly, does not create a threat to the life of the maintenance personnel when working with the proposed carbon dioxide fertilization. It should also be noted that the use of technical carbon dioxide will allow you to grow food crops, not contaminated with harmful components contained in exhaust gases, such as flue gases.

The basis for the creation of a knowledge of the prior art and experimental research.

It is known that in the course of natural photosynthetic reactions the energy of the photons of light excites the molecules of chlorophyll of plants atoms of magnesium (Mg) and in plant cells occurs is it the interaction of carbon dioxide with water, in the resulting synthesized simplest monosaccharides CH2Oh, which are used for energy metabolism in plants, and also for forming vegetable fiber plants (Zhuravleva N.A. Mechanism of stomatal movement, production process and evolution. IN "Science". Novosibirsk. 1992). This process in General is described by the reaction:

a photon of light

SO2+N2O→M6H12O6+6N2O+6O2(Delta G=+686 kcal/mol),

which shows that in the case of resonant interaction and resonance in the molecule of chlorophyll sets derived from the equilibrium state by a photon of light atom of magnesium (Mg), 6 molecules of carbon dioxide begin to interact with 12 water molecules and the result is a molecule of hexose6H12About6that structural presents six simple sugars CH2O. byproducts of this reaction are 6 molecules of water is H2O and 6 molecules of oxygen O2. Further molecules hexose C6H12O6partially involved in energy metabolism and are used by plants as a building material for forming vegetable fiber, whereas water molecules and oxygen as the reaction by-products of photosynthesis are released into the atmosphere greenhouse. Which implies that the energy Svetova what about the photon desired plant cell only for excitation of chlorophyll molecules. Then in the excited molecule of chlorophyll is the oxidation reaction of water with carbon dioxide (Com. Pushchino University. Carbonic acid as substrate and cofactor photosynthesis), which ends with the formation of molecules hexose C6H12O6, which consists of six primary sugars CH2O.

In this invention it is proposed to oxidize water with carbon dioxide to produce a solution of the primary sugars CH2O outside plants, using energy, transient increases and pressure caused by passing a solution of carbon dioxide in the water through pressure pump cavitation effects as equivalent energy of exposure light of a photon by reaction of photosynthesis occurring in the molecules of chlorophyll in plants.

A new understanding of the reactions of photosynthesis shows that the oxidation of water in enzymatic Central plant is not in the form of H2About or HE-and in the form of molecules resulting from the dissociation of H2CO3that is oxidized enzyme center videocollege complex plants (Vmenu. Molecular biology. Moscow. HS 1996). This leads to the separation of the molecules About2(the oxidation product of water) and the release of a molecule of CO2that involves a new water molecules in the oxidation process. So happens the process of formation of plant tissue, the intensity of which depends on the concentration in the physiological cycle plant products of the interaction of water and carbon dioxide called carbonic acid, H2CO3(OOG). Now firmly established plurality of derivatives of carbonic acid, H2CO3in aqueous solution WITH2one of which is the primary sugar, denoted by the formula CH2Oh and vpisivaushiesya reaction:

CO2+4E+4H=CH2O+H2O.

In reality, the process of photosynthesis of plant tissues is provided by a complex cycle of enzymatic reactions, which has the scientific name - pentosephosphate cycle or Calvin cycle (in the name of its discoverer, the Nobel prize for 1961 Melville Calvin). The fixation of CO2his recovery in the Calvin cycle is a process involving four stages:

1. Stage carboxylation, in which are formed three carbon molecules phosphoglyceric acid (PGA). This reaction is catalyzed by water-soluble enzyme called ribulosebisphosphate-carboxylase-oxygenase (RUBISCO). The importance of this stage of photosynthesis for the biosphere confirmed by the fact that RUBISCO is the most abundant enzyme on the planet. With the participation of this enzyme due to the energy of sunlight photosin tiraumea organisms of the Earth annually assimilate about 200 million tons of CO 2transforming it into organic compounds used by all living organisms on the planet.

2. The recovery phase in this phase, obtained during the first stage of phosphoglycerides acid (FPS) assimilates in the three carbon sugar triosephosphate (phosphoglyceraldehyde). Restoring PGA to triosephosphate sugars is the main stage of the Calvin cycle, during which converts light energy, water and carbon dioxide in the original molecule primary sugars are synthesized plant tissue.

The third and fourth stages of the Calvin cycle is necessary in order to regenerate, to bring to its original state acceptor CO2- ribulosebisphosphate, which could again be involved in the fixation of CO2and the three carbon sugar could evolve into a more complex sugar (stage synthesis products).

Accordingly, the proposed invention is a method of obtaining an aqueous solution of liquid hydrocarbons, the principal constituent of which is based on the pressure of the reaction between carbon dioxide with water (Glinka D., General chemistry. - M. 1965):

pressure

H2O+CO2→N2CO3,

is in full compliance with the processes occurring in plant cells during the second stage of the Calvin cycle. In achiev is Tate transient pressure effects on saturated in water, the carbon dioxide forms a complex liquid hydrocarbon compounds with the generic name carbonic acid, H2CO3(OOG), much of which presents the primary sugars CH2O. Whence the conclusion that the energy of a photon of light in a complex process of photosynthesis of plant tissues is equivalent to the energy received by the pressure effect on the solution of carbon dioxide in the water. And in fact, in both cases, the output processes are formed is required to develop and plant life primary sugar CH2O.

In the course of experiments upon receipt of an aqueous solution, the main component of which is carbonic acid, H2CO3were determined the optimum values for the operating pressure, the temperature of the source water and carbon dioxide concentration in the source water before entering the pump. The optimum values of the operating pressure at which the dissolution occurs introduced in the reaction of carbon dioxide in water is 3-5 kg/cm2. The temperature of the source water corresponds to the temperature of tap water and is within 12-20°C.

The required concentration of carbon dioxide, which at a given pressure should be completely dissolved in water, 50 ml of gaseous CO2to 1 liter of water, which also allows you to use a standard 40-gallon tank CO2with a capacity of carbon dioxide 6000 liters at normal pressure the AI to enrich 120 m of the source water.

Experimental studies with seeds and plants were conducted in the laboratory of dendrology, SB RAS (Tomsk, other Academic, 5). The results were as follows:

In gray forest soils in the greenhouse were planted in ten experienced and ten control seeds of cereal crops - wheat, oats and sunflower. During the experiment the following parameters were set at temperature of 23°C and illumination 60 watts per square meter (Technical conditions for growing greenhouse plants. Moscow. Selhozizdat. 1957). The duration of the experiment (20 days. Experimental seeds were watered 3 times a day produced in accordance with the proposed method, an aqueous solution saturated with carbon dioxide to a carbon dioxide concentration of 3-5 kg/cm2when the water temperature is in the range of 12-20°C. the Control seeds in the same mode were irrigated with tap water. In the experiment the speed of a blockage of pilot plants exceeded the same indicator for control plants in 2-5 times. The root system of the pilot plant was much more highly developed than in the control. This technique was used for greenhouse crops (cucumbers, tomatoes, flowers Petunia). The results were comparable with expertise in cereal crops. Vegetation of the experimental plants in twice the mass of the test specimen. In the experts is the COP with the willow, which sank: test in normal water, and experienced - in obtained in accordance with the inventive method the solution, it was found that experienced willow during experiment managed to produce leaflets, whereas the control was still in the dream state. Was also conducted an experiment on the cultivation of these plants in the absence of light. When watering pilot plants obtained by the solution they, compared with the control, two times faster growing and gaining weight in the complete absence of light.

The experiments clearly say on the equivalence of an aqueous solution, the resulting pressure effects on the solution of carbon dioxide in water, the processes of photosynthesis occurring in plants during the second stage pentosephosphate cycle Calvin.

Thus, the proposed method allows to increase the yield of plants grown in greenhouses, as well as to grow organic plants.

The method of feeding plants with accelerated formation of plant tissues grown in greenhouses by irrigation water saturated with carbon dioxide to a concentration of 50 ml of gaseous CO2on 1 l of water, when the water temperature is in the range of 12-20°C, while watering plants perform three times a day.



 

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